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J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 15(1): 67-70, Abril/2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1437957


Patients with rare diseases frequently face unmet medical needs due to the high costs, lengthy development times, and slow approval processes for new treatments. This case study discusses innovative access alternatives for rare diseases in Brazil, focusing on early access to pabinafusp-alfa for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II), a rare genetic lysosomal storage disease characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. From September 2018 to March 2023, 20 Brazilian MPS-II patients received pabinafusp-alfa through a clinical research protocol. This enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) crosses the blood-brain barrier to address central nervous system manifestations unmet by existing treatments. Patients' participation in the clinical study resulted in an estimated BRL 65 million in cost savings for the public healthcare system compared to conventional ERT with idursulfase-alfa and potentially better clinical outcomes. The case study underscores the importance of innovative mechanisms in addressing patients' medical needs. Early access alternatives include: a) clinical study access, with execution/development aligned with healthcare managers and linked to future access strategies; b) regulatory-level risk-sharing, considering effectiveness uncertainties and the possibility of market withdrawal and/or reimbursement in case of negative results; and c) drug pre-delivery, with payment contingent on positive phase III clinical study outcomes. Although public-private partnerships in clinical research are underused, they could benefit all stakeholders by accelerating drug development, facilitating early patient access to innovative medicines, and generating healthcare system savings, particularly for rare diseases.

Pacientes com doenças raras frequentemente enfrentam necessidades médicas não atendidas devido aos altos custos, longos tempos de desenvolvimento e processos de aprovação lentos para novos tratamentos. Este estudo de caso discute alternativas inovadoras de acesso para doenças raras no Brasil, com foco no acesso precoce ao alfapabinafuspe para mucopolissacaridose tipo II (MPS-II), uma doença lisossômica de armazenamento genético rara, caracterizada por uma deficiência da enzima iduronato-2-sulfatase. De setembro de 2018 a março de 2023, 20 pacientes brasileiros com MPS-II receberam alfapabinafuspe por meio de pesquisa clínica. Essa terapia de reposição enzimática (TRE) atravessa a barreira hematoencefálica para tratar manifestações do sistema nervoso central não atendidas pelos tratamentos existentes. A participação dos pacientes no estudo clínico resultou em uma economia estimada de 65 milhões de reais para o sistema público de saúde, em comparação com a TRE convencional com idursulfase alfa, além de potencialmente melhores resultados clínicos. O estudo de caso destaca a importância de mecanismos inovadores no atendimento das necessidades médicas dos pacientes. As alternativas de acesso precoce incluem: a) acesso por meio de estudos clínicos, com execução/desenvolvimento alinhada aos gestores de saúde e vinculada a estratégias futuras de acesso; b) compartilhamento de risco em nível regulatório, considerando as incertezas de eficácia e a possibilidade de retirada do mercado e reembolso em caso de resultados negativos; e c) pré-entrega do medicamento, com pagamento condicionado aos resultados positivos do estudo clínico de fase III. Embora as parcerias público-privadas em pesquisa clínica sejam subutilizadas, elas poderiam beneficiar todas as partes interessadas ao acelerar o desenvolvimento de medicamentos, facilitar o acesso precoce dos pacientes a medicamentos inovadores e gerar economias para o sistema de saúde, especialmente para doenças raras.

Mucopolysaccharidosis II , Rare Diseases , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism ; (12): 345-352, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994332


Objective:To identify the genetic variation in a mucopolysaccharidosis type Ⅱ(MPS Ⅱ)family, and conduct a functional study of iduronate-2-sulfatase(IDS): c.323A>C.Methods:A five-generation MPS Ⅱ family of 83 individuals including 4 patients from northern China was collected. Urine mucopolysaccharide and Alder-Reilly body were tested to assist the clinical diagnosis of MPS Ⅱ. IDS enzyme activity was detected on core family members. By the whole exome sequencing of a MPS Ⅱ patient in this family and bioinformatics analysis, the variant was screened and further identified by PCR-Sanger sequencing. Finally, to validate the function of the variant in vitro, the wild-type IDS overexpression plasmid(pCMV-hIDS-WT)and the IDS overexpression plasmid carrying the mutation site(pCMV-hIDS-c.323A>C)were transfected into COS-7 cells and the IDS activity was detected. Results:The proband(Ⅳ3)and Ⅳ4 were diagnosed as MPS Ⅱ by urine mucopolysaccharide, Alder-Reilly body, and IDS enzyme activity tests. Ⅳ3, Ⅳ4, Ⅲ19, and Ⅲ32 were determined to carry IDS: c.323A>C missense variant through the whole-exome sequencing, and diagnosed as MPS Ⅱ. Meanwhile, Ⅱ2, Ⅱ4, Ⅱ8, Ⅱ12, Ⅱ14, Ⅲ5, Ⅲ7, Ⅳ14 in the MPS Ⅱ family carried IDS: c.323A>C missense variant, and were excluded as MPS Ⅱ. The in vitro experiment in COS-7 cells showed that the missense mutation led to a significant decrease in IDS enzyme activity. Conclusion:The variant IDS: c.323A>C: p.Y108S significantly decreases the activity of IDS enzyme in vivo and in vitro, and it is identified as a pathogenic variant for MPS Ⅱ.

Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 300-304, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990030


Objective:To explore the treatment of the patients with severe phenotype of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type ⅣA by analysing the clinical feature and diagnosis.Methods:Two pediatric patients diagnosed as MPS ⅣA in severe form were enrolled in Children′s Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from August 2021 to April 2022.Two children from 2 pedigrees with the main manifestations of short stature and bone deformities were retrospectively included.The clinical manifestations, biochemical indexes, and bone imaging findings were retrospectively analyzed.Peripheral blood leukocytes were collected and subjected to the N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) assay and genetic sequencing.Gene analysis of amniotic fluid cells at the 18 th week of the second pregnancy of the mother of case 2 was performed for prenatal diagnosis.Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was performed in both patients and to explore the treatment of patients with MPS ⅣA. Results:Both cases presented clinical manifestations of short stature, joint laxity, pectus carinatum, and genu valgus.X-ray examination revealed the decreased bone mineral density, ulnar deviation of the radial epiphysis, kyphosis and scoliosis.The respiratory and skeletal systems were affected in both patients, and the optic nerve was suspiciously affected. GALNS gene analysis showed that there were 2 missense mutations of c. 1019G>A (p.G340D) and c. 706C>G (p.H236D) in case 1, and 2 missense mutations of c. 425A>G (p.H142R) and c. 463G>A (p.G155R) were detected in case 2.Mutations in both cases were inherited from their fathers and mothers, which were all newly discovered that have not been reported.Only the c. 463G>A mutation was detected in the amniotic fluid cells of the mother of case 2.It is confirmed that case 2 was the carrier of MPS ⅣA, whose gene mutation was from the mother, and case 2 did not suffer the same disease as the proband.Both cases were treated with allo-HSCT with full donor chimerism and no severe transplant complications were reported.Their GALNS activity was within the normal range, and the scores of activities of daily living were higher than those before transplantation. Conclusions:The MPS ⅣA patients with severe phenotype is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by GALNS mutations that is difficult to diagnose and poor prognosis.Early detection, diagnosis, and effective treatment contribute to improve the long-term quality of life.The allo-HSCT is an effective therapeutic strategy for MPS ⅣA.

Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 60-63, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989991


Objective:To analyze the disease spectrum of lysosomal storage disorders(LSDs) and explore the prevalent distributions of different LSD types in one center in Shanghai.Methods:A retrospective analysis was made.A total of 5 476 suspected LSD patients, including 3 415 males and 2 061 females, with a median age of 4 years(1 day to 72 years), were collected from Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from August 2008 to May 2022.The activity of different lysosomal enzymes was detected by fluorescent and biochemical methods.Results:A total of 1 520 patients were diagnosed with LSDs, including 972 males and 548 females, with a median age of 4 years(1 day to 59 years), involving 19 different subtypes.Mucopolysaccharidosis(MPS) was the most common type among LSDs, with a frequency of 45.46%(691/1 520), followed by sphingolipidoses [33.88%(515/1 520)] and glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ [16.05%(244/1 520)] successively.MPS Ⅱ was the most common type in MPS, with a frequency of 45.73%(316/691), followed by MPS ⅣA [22.87%(158/691)]. Niemann-Pick A/B, Gaucher, and Krabbe diseases were common in Sphingolipidoses patients, with frequencies of 37.09%(191/515), 34.37%(177/515), and 10.29%(53/515), respectively.Conclusions:LSDs are common genetic metabolic diseases, especially MPS and sphingolipidoses.Newborn screening for LSDs should be carried out timely so that the patients can be treated early and their prognosis can be improved.

JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES ; (4): 450-454, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004974


Mucopolysaccharidosis is a series of rare diseases where a lack of an enzyme affecting mucopolysaccharides metabolism in the patients′ lysosome induces the intracellular deposition of the mucopolysaccharides, and causes ocular and organ-related complications. Ocular complications included corneal opacity, glaucoma, ametropia, strabismus, and chorioretinopathy. This review summarizes the mechanisms, clinical manifestations, specific ophthalmological examinations, and treatments for offering the ophthalmological knowledge to diagnose and begin treatment earlier.

J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 11: e20220008, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430697


Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a group of metabolic disorders caused by the deficiency or complete absence of certain lysosomal enzymes responsible for the breakdown of mucopolysaccharides, causing an accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) throughout the body. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), also called Hurler syndrome, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase. This report aims to present the clinical findings and diagnosis of a 21-month-old female with no history of similar cases in their previous generations. The diagnosis was considered based on the clinical and radiological characteristics of Hurler syndrome (HS) and confirmed biochemically, becoming the first confirmed case in the Dominican Republic.

Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 510-513, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447631


Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are a group of rare genetic inherited diseases with a progressive course due to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans resulting in anatomic abnormalities and organ dysfunction, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, and neurological systems that can increase the risk of anesthesia complications. Clinical manifestations are variable, multisystemic, and include severe morphological changes. The anesthetic management of these patients is complex, particularly airway management, which can be planned to include a fiberoptic airway investigation prior to surgery. We present two cases of patients with MPS type VI and VII who underwent fiberoptic airway mapping under conscious sedation, with no complications. Since MPS is a rare but challenging disease concerning the airway management, we propose a safe and effective anesthetic technique that could be used for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and allow fiberoptic-assisted tracheal intubation at the time of surgery.

Humans , Wakefulness , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Bronchoscopy/methods , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 11: e2022022, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421994


Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by deficiency of lysosomal N-sulphoglucosamine sulphohydrolase, which is one of four enzymes involved in heparan sulfate degradation. Traditional methods used for MPS IIIA diagnostics usually constitute of selective screening, based on the analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans, further enzymatic assays in leukocytes, and mutation analysis. Nowadays, some LSDs, including mucopolysaccharidoses, can be precisely diagnosed by mass spectrometry-based techniques. Up to this date, there are no comprehensive studies of MPS IIIA diagnostics by MALDI-TOF analysis of free oligosaccharides in urine published. In the presented work, MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis of permethylated oligosaccharides was performed to obtain the set of glyco-biomarkers that together form the specific fingerprint of this disease. Early and accurate diagnostics of MPS IIIA is crucial to stabilize the progressive cellular damage and improve the overall well-being of patients.

J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 11: e20230003, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514440


Abstract Data on Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) in Latin America are scarce. This retrospective database study, using data from the Informatics Department of the Brazilian Health System (DATASUS), aimed to estimate the prevalence of MPSII in Brazil from 2008 to 2020 and to describe demographic and clinical profiles from patients under treatment. The study population was derived from DATASUS records of MPS II (ICD-10 E76.1) diagnosed in Brazil. Initially 455 patients were found, but only 181 patients who were receiving idursulfase treatment were included in this study. Among these cases, as expected in a X-linked disease, all were males and 40% of the cases were recorded in the Southeast region, and another 34% in the Northeast region. The biggest proportion of patients (39%) were diagnosed when they were 10-19 years old. There are 212 clinical conditions associated with MPS II, although the main comorbidities related to MPSII include: abdominal/inguinal hernia, respiratory complications, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Respiratory disorders were the fifth most frequent comorbidity recorded in these patients. The healthcare professionals in Brazil more involved in the diagnosis of MPS II were radiologists, followed by geneticists and cardiologists. Despite some limitations, DATASUS is a relevant database to provide information on rare diseases such as MPS II. Most cases were reported in southeast and northeast regions, respectively. This information is crucial to help design targeted public policies.

Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 680-682, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520366


Abstract Airway management can be difficult in surgeries of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis. We performed a retrospective review of 31 surgeries performed between 2015 and 2019. The mean age of the patients was 127.6 months. MPS-IV and MPS-VI were the most frequent subtypes. Orthopedic surgeries were the most common surgery type. Difficult intubation was seen in 10 procedures. All patients with difficult intubation were aged over 36 months. Video laryngoscopy was the most common intubation method. Seventeen patients were followed up in the intensive care unit. Although video laryngoscopy seems to be a safe method in these patients, one should always be prepared for alternative methods.

Airway Management
Coluna/Columna ; 22(1): e263704, 2023. il. color
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421318


ABSTRACT We describe two cases of surgical treatment of craniovertebral stenosis in preschool-aged brothers with Maroteaux-Lamy (MPS type VI) syndrome. The older brother was diagnosed with MPS during her second pregnancy. Literature describing familial cases of the disease and the treatment strategy in young children with MPS type VI and spinal canal stenosis is scarce. Based on the presented observations, indications, surgical treatment approaches, and perioperative management of patients with mucopolysac-charidosis are suggested. MPS type VI may have familial forms of the disease and the course of craniovertebral stenosis is similar in siblings. Surgical treatment of craniovertebral stenosis in these patients should be performed timely. We adhere to the point of view of early treatment of craniovertebral stenosis in patients with MPS before irreversible spinal cord dysfunction develops. Level of Evidence IV; Prognostic Studies - Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on the Outcome of Disease and Case series.

Resumo: Descreve-se dois casos de tratamento cirúrgico de estenose craniovertebral entre irmãos em idade pré-escolar com síndrome de Maroteaux-Lamy (MPS tipo VI). O irmão mais velho foi diagnosticado com MPS durante a segunda gravidez. A literatura que descreve casos familiares da doença e a estratégia de tratamento em crianças pequenas com MPS tipo VI e estenose do canal raquidiano é escassa. Com base nas observações apresentadas, foram sugeridas indicações, abordagens de tratamento cirúrgico e manejo perioperatório de pacientes com mucopolissacaridose. A MPS tipo VI pode apresentar formas familiares da doença e o curso da estenose craniovertebral é semelhante entre irmãos. O tratamento cirúrgico da estenose craniovertebral nesses pacientes deve ser realizado em tempo hábil. Adere-se ao conceito de tratamento precoce da estenose craniovertebral em pacientes com MPS antes que se desenvolva uma disfunção irreversível da medula espinhal. Nível de Evidência IV; Estudos Prognósticos - Investigando o Efeito de uma Característica de Paciente sobre o Resultado de uma Doença e de uma Série de Casos.

Resumen: Se describen dos casos de tratamiento quirúrgico de estenosis craneovertebral en hermanos de edad preescolar con síndrome de Maroteaux-Lamy (MPS tipo VI). Al hermano mayor se le diagnosticó MPS durante el segundo embarazo. La bibliografía que expone casos familiares de la enfermedad y la estrategia de tratamiento en niños pequeños con MPS tipo VI y estenosis del tubo vertebral es escasa. Sobre el fundamento de las observaciones presentadas, se sugieren indicaciones, enfoques de tratamiento quirúrgico y manejo perioperatorio de pacientes con mucopolisacaridosis. La MPS tipo VI puede presentar formas familiares de la enfermedad y el curso de la estenosis craneovertebral es semejante en los hermanos. El tratamiento quirúrgico de la estenosis craneovertebral en estos pacientes debe realizarse tempranamente. Se adhiere al planteamiento del tratamiento precoz de la estenosis craneovertebral en pacientes con MPS anticipándose al desarrollo de una disfunción irreversible de la médula espinal. Nivel de Evidencia IV; Estudios Pronósticos - Investigando el Efecto de una Característica del Paciente en el Resultado de la Enfermedad y Series de Casos.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Spinal Stenosis , Mucopolysaccharidosis VI , Surgical Procedures, Operative
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 11: e2023002, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506621


Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a rare genetic, multiorgan disease. Little information about the Brazilian context is available to date; thus, this descriptive subgroup analysis was conducted on Brazilian data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS), including clinical characteristics among MPS II patients from Brazil. HOS is a global, multi-center, long-term, observational registry of patients with MPS II (NCT03292887). Variables related to organ system involvement, signs and symptoms, surgical procedures and survival among Brazilian patients were extracted from HOS database. Data from 153 Brazilian patients with MPS II were analyzed. Musculoskeletal (96.6%), abdomen/gastrointestinal (95.2%), neurological (88.7%), pulmonary (86.2%), and ear (81.3%) were the most frequently observed organ/systems involved. Regarding signs and symptoms, the most prevalent symptom was coarse facial features consistent with the disease (94.6%), followed by joint stiffness and limited function (89.3%), hernia (84.2%) and hepatomegaly (82.2%). Median survival time was 22.0 years, and the major cause of death was respiratory failure (31.8%). These data may be helpful to understand disease characteristics and to help improve the quality of MPS II patient care in Brazil.

Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Dec; 70(12): 4180-4185
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224765


Purpose: Our study aimed to evaluate the utility of the anterior segment morphometry for objectively assessing anterior segment architectural changes of corneal clouding in the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) cohort and to investigate whether these measurements correlate with the slit?lamp findings on the cornea and early diagnosis of glaucoma. Methods: This retrospective study involved 70 eyes of 35 children with cloudy cornea due to MPS variants. Anterior segment architectural alterations were measured using anterior segment imaging and biometry in MPS children and compared with controls. Results: Mean age of the cohort at the time of assessment was 7.9 ± 4.5 years. Males constituted two?thirds of the cohort. Variants of MPS with cloudy cornea were as follows: Type I (62%), Type IV (11%), and Type VI (22%). Morphometric measurements were available in 22 eyes of 11 MPS children and an age?matched healthy control group. There were significant differences between MPS cohort and controls in refraction in Diopters (5.03 ± 0.39 and 0.01 ± 0.04; P < 0.0001), axial length (AXL) in mm (21.39 ± 0.28 and 23.04 ± 0.28; P = 0.0002), average keratometry in Diopters (40.67 ± 0.44 and 42.83 ± 0.44; P < 0.0001), anterior chamber depth (ACD) in mm (2.92 ± 0.07 and 3.65 ± 0.07; P < 0.0001), and intraocular pressure (IOP) in mmHg (25.2 ± 2.0 and 14.1 ± 2.3; P = 0.0003). Secondary glaucoma was observed in 28% of the MPS cohort. Conclusion: The anterior segment morphometry in the cloudy cornea due to MPS provides an objective measurement of anterior segment architectural changes, thus diagnosing early?onset secondary glaucoma. These findings highlight that cloudy cornea due to MPS variants merits close monitoring throughout life

Med. UIS ; 35(3)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534818


La mucopolisacaridosis tipo IV-A es un trastorno de almacenamiento lisosómico poco frecuente, cuya manifestación clínica más evidente es la disostosis múltiple. Alteraciones multiorgánicas se han descrito en este tipo de pacientes, sin embargo, las manifestaciones cardiovasculares no han sido descritas con gran énfasis. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo principal describir los hallazgos ecocardiográficos en pacientes pediátricos con mucopolisacaridosis tipo IV-A con mutación c.90iG>T en el gen GALNS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de serie de casos que incluyó pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado (clínico, bioquímico y molecular) de mucopolisacaridosis tipo IV-A; los pacientes asistieron a una institución hospitalaria en Pereira, Colombia, entre 2012 y 2019, donde se valoraron parámetros ecocardiográficos. Se incluyeron diez pacientes con edades comprendidas entre 3 y 18 años, media de 10. Las anomalías cardiacas identificadas fueron regurgitación mitral trivial RM en 4 de 10 pacientes, dilatación del anillo aórtico en 9 de 10, dilatación de la aorta ascendente, dilatación del arco transverso y del istmo aórtico en 1 de 10, área subaórtica levemente engrosada sin estenosis e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda concéntrica leve en 1 de 10 pacientes. La función ventricular fue normal en todos los pacientes. Los hallazgos ecocardiográficos más frecuentes fueron dilatación del anillo aórtico y regurgitación trivial de la válvula mitral, adicionalmente, pueden encontrarse válvulas mitral y aórtica engrosadas e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda, por lo que es importante una valoración periódica por cardiología pediátrica.

Mucopolysaccharidosis IV-A is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, whose most evident clinical manifestation is multiple dysostosis. Multiorgan disorders have been described in this type of patients, however, the Cardiovascular manifestations have not been described with greater emphasis. The main objective of this research was to describe the echocardiographic findings in pediatric patients with type IV-A mucopolysaccharidosis with c.901G>T mutation in the GALNS gene. A descriptive case series study was carried out, which included patients with a confirmed diagnosis (clinical, biochemical and molecular) of mucopolysaccharidosis type IV-A; the patients were attended a hospital institution in Pereira, Colombia, between 2012 and 2019, where echocardiography parameters were evaluated. Ten patients with ages ranging from 3 to 18 years, average 10, were included. The cardiac abnormalities identified were trivial mitral regurgitation in 4 of 10 patients, aortic annulus dilation in 9 of 10, dilatation of the ascending aorta, dilatation of the transverse arch and aortic isthmus in 1 of 10, slightly thickened subaortic area without stenosis and mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in 1 of 10 patients. Ventricular function was normal in all patients. The most frequent echocardiography findings were dilatation of the aortic annulus and trivial regurgitation of the mitral valve, additionally, thickened mitral and aortic valves and left ventricular hypertrophy may be found, so periodic evaluation by pediatric cardiology is important.

Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Sept; 59(9): 699-702
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225368


Objective: We present outcome data on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data on children up to 18 years of age, diagnosed with IEM, who underwent HSCT between January, 2002 and December, 2020. Results: 24 children, (mucopolysaccharidosis – 13, Gaucher disease – 4, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy – 4, metachromatic leukodystrophy – 2, Krabbe disease – 1) were included. Donors were matched family donors in 24%, matched unrelated donors in 34%, and haploidentical fathers in 42% of the transplants, with engraftment in 91% of children. Overall survival was 72% (55-100%) with a median followup of 76.5 (10-120 ) months, and progression-free survival of 68% (MPS-76%, X-ALD - 60%, Gaucher disease – 50%, and 100% in MLD and Krabbe disease). Conclusion: HSCT is an available curative option, and early age at HSCT prevents end-organ damage.

Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 25(1): 42-48, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399908


Mucopolisacaridosis de tipo III es una enfermedad rara, con una incidencia de 1 en 70 000 nacidos vivos, es la más frecuente dentro del grupo de Mucopolisacaridosis y se produce por un defecto en la vía del metabolismo del heparan sulfato. Se caracteriza por afectar a mayor profundidad el sistema nervioso central, el paciente tiene un desarrollo normal hasta aproximadamente los 1 a 3 años de edad y posteriormente empieza con deterioro progresivo, cursa con retraso del desarrollo, alteración del comportamiento y trastorno del sueño agregándose déficit motor y cuadros infecciosos, culminando en un estado de postración. La esperanza de vida oscila entre los 20 a 30 años, aunque depende del fenotipo y la principal causa de muerte fue la neumonía. El diagnóstico definitivo se consigue mediante pruebas genómicas y ensayo enzimático. No cuenta con tratamiento curativo, únicamente con paliación y soporte ante las complicaciones que va desarrollando

Mucopolysaccharidosis III is a rare disease, with an incidence of 1 in 70 000 live births, it is the most frequent within the group of Mucopolysaccharidosis and is caused by a defect in the heparan sulfate metabolism pathway. It is characterized by affecting the central nervous system in greater depth, the patient has a normal development until approximately 1 to 3 years of age and later begins with progressive deterioration, courses with developmental delay, behavioral alteration and sleep disorder, adding motor deficits and infectious pictures, culminating in a state of prostration. Life expectancy ranges from 20 to 30 years, although it depends on the phenotype, and the main cause of death is pneumonia. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by genomic tests and enzymatic assay. It does not have curative treatment, only palliation and support in the face of the complications that it develops.

Rare Diseases , Metabolism
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408166


Introducción: El síndrome de Morquio es una enfermedad hereditaria autosómica recesiva con distintos grados de afectación al metabolismo de los glúcidos, lo que genera incapacidad para romper los enlaces de las cadenas largas de glucosamiglicanos, esto provoca acumulación de mucopolisacáridos en distintos tejidos del cuerpo humano. Objetivo: Describir el manejo anestésico de una gestante con síndrome de Morquio. Presentación del caso: Gestante primigesta de 30 años de edad, de raza negra, de 103 cm de estatura y 33 Kg de peso. Acude a consulta preoperatoria por presentar embarazo a término, baja talla y se realizó interrupción del embarazo por vía alta. Se procede a la valoración preanestésica donde se recoge antecedentes de enfermedad genética e ingreso previo por presentar cifras elevadas de tensión arterial. La paciente padecía de alergia a la dipirona. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con mucopolisacaridosis tienen una alta incidencia de dificultad para la ventilación y la intubación endotraqueal asociada con insuficiencia cardiopulmonar. La afectación de la columna presenta dificultades adicionales para los anestesiólogos. Cualquier cirugía electiva requiere una evaluación preoperatoria de los factores de riesgo anestesiológicos y la disponibilidad de un espectro de equipos para el manejo de las vías respiratorias. La anestesia debe ser realizada por un equipo con experiencia en el manejo de la vía aérea(AU)

Introduction: Morquio syndrome is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that affects, to different extents, carbohydrate metabolism, which obstructs the ability to break bonds of long chains of glycosaminoglycans, causing mucopolysaccharides accumulation in different tissues of the human body. Objective: To describe the anesthetic management of a pregnant woman with Morquio syndrome. Case presentation: This is the case of a 30-year-old primigravid pregnant woman, of black skin, 103 cm of height and 33 kg of weight. She came for preoperative consultation because she was pregnant at term and had low body size; the pregnancy was terminated through the abdominal route. A preanesthetic assessment was performed, which permitted to observe a history of genetic disease and previous admission for high blood pressure. The patient was allergic to dipyrone. Conclusions: Among patients with mucopolysaccharidosis, there is a high incidence of difficulty for ventilation and endotracheal intubation associated with cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Spinal involvement represents additional difficulties for anesthesiologists. Any elective surgery requires preoperative assessment of anesthesiologic risk factors and the availability of a spectrum of airway management equipment. Anesthetic managment should be performed by a team experienced in airway management(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Mucopolysaccharidosis IV/surgery , Mucopolysaccharidosis IV/complications , Anesthesia, General/methods
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220538


Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, also known as Hunter syndrome, is a rare, progressive, multisystemic lysosomal storage disease caused by de?ciency of iduronate 2 sulfatase, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of the mucopolysaccharides dermatan (DS) and keratan sulfate (QS), causing their accumulation at the lysosomal level. It is an X-linked disease, therefore it is common to ?nd most cases in men, rarely in women, it is considered an orphan disease given an incidence of approximately 1/100,000 live births. Various phenotypes of severe (2/3) and attenuated disease have been described. The diagnosis is based on clinical ?ndings and the measurement of mucopolysaccharides DS and QS in urine, which are elevated, con?rmed by determining the enzyme de?ciency in serum, leukocytes and ?broblasts. It has been observed that in patients with enzyme replacement therapy somatic symptoms have decreased, however there are several studies of alternative therapies in the future, including gene therapy as an alternative in the future

Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1563-1570, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993390


Objective:To discuss the surgical strategies of atlantoaxial dislocation in children with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.Methods:8 cases of atlantoaxial dislocation in children with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA treated with posterior atlantoaxial reduction, decompression, bone graft and internal fixation from April, 2019 to October, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including 6 males and 2 females, aged 6.2±3.1 years (range, 2-10 years). All the 8 children had lower limb weakness and walking instability, and some of them could not even stand and walk, and all of them had odontoid hypoplasia, atlantoaxial dislocation and systemic skeletal dysplasia. Measures, including American Spinal injury Association (ASIA) grade, modified atlanto-dental interval (mADI) and reduction rate, screw placement type and fusion of bone graft, were recorded and analyzed.Results:The follow-up time was 17.8±7.4 months (range, 8-27 months). The total operation time was 144.0±43.1 mins (range, 90-220 min) and the blood loss during the surgery was 89.1±55.1 ml (range, 15-180 ml). The ASIA grade were 3 cases of "C" level, 4 cases of "D" level and 1 case of "E" level before the operation, and 1 case of "C" level, 1 case of "D" level and 6 cases of "E" level at the latest follow-up. The mADI reduced from 7.38±2.62 mm pre-surgery to 2.50±1.60 mm ( t=5.71, P=0.001). The reduction rate of the latest follow-up mADI was 65.0%±26.3%. 31 pedicle screws were inserted, including 26 Type I screws (83.9%), 4 Type II screws (12.9%) and 1 Type III screw (3.2%), and no injury of spinal cord or blood vessels were observed associated with the Type III screw. One unilateral axial lamina screw was used in 1 case. 5 patients showed fusion (autogenous bone) 6 months after the surgery, 2 patients got fusion (allogeneic bone) 1 year after the surgery, and other patients showed bone graft resorption (allogeneic bone) at the latest follow-up. One patient developed type II respiratory failure on the night of operation and recovered after rescue. Other patients had no complications such as vascular and nerve injury, screw loosening and so on. Conclusion:The majority of children with type IVa mucopolysaccharidosis are accompanied by absence of odontoid process. If such children are complicated with atlantoaxial dislocation and cervical spinal canal stenosis resulting in cervical spinal cord injury, timely surgical intervention should be carried out. Posterior atlantoaxial fusion is a safe and effective surgical method. As children have the characteristics of multi-system involvement, multi-disciplinary cooperation may be needed to ensure perioperative safety.

Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1879-1882, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989973


Objective:To evaluate the activity of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) in fetal villi and peripheral blood plasma of pregnant women at high risk of mucopolysaccharidosis type Ⅱ (MPS Ⅱ), and to discuss the application of gene analysis in prenatal diagnosis of MPS Ⅱ.Methods:The enzymatic testing and gene analysis results of 23 pregnant women at high risk of MPS Ⅱ, who underwent prenatal diagnosis in Guangzhou Women and Children′s Medical Center from February 2013 to December 2020, were analyzed retrospectively.The IDS activity in fetal villi (30 cases) and plasma (28 cases) was detected by artificial substrate fluorescence.The IDS activity in fetal villi (28 cases) and plasma (34 cases) of normal pregnant women was taken as control.Meanwhile, the fetal villi of both pregnant women at high risk of MPS Ⅱ and normal pregnant women were also analyzed by gene testing and for fetal sex identification.Data were compared between groups by the independent samples t test. Results:The normal reference values of the IDS activity in fetal villi and plasma of normal pregnant women were(71.2±23.4) nmol/(mg·4 h) and (611.1±114.5) nmol/(mL·4 h), respectively.Among the 30 cases of high-risk fetal villi, the IDS activity in fetal villi of 8 affected male fetuses was (1.7±0.3) nmol/(mg·4 h), which was significantly lower than that of 11 unaffected male fetuses (83.2±6.3) nmol/(mg·4 h) and that of 9 non-carrier female fetuses (80.0±7.5) nmol/(mg·4 h) ( t=10.8, 8.8; all P<0.01). Meanwhile, the IDS activity was measured in the maternal peripheral plasma of 28 pregnant women at high risk of MPS Ⅱ.Among them, the IDS activity in 8 affected male fetuses was(225.4±20.5) nmol/(mL·4 h), which was significantly lower than that in non-affected male fetuses[(451.0±15.1) nmol/(mL·4 h)] and that in non-carrier female fetuses[(467.7±45.3)nmol/(mL·4 h)]. Eight known pathogenic mutations were found in 30 cases at high risk of MPS Ⅱ of fetal villi, and the mutation types were c. 1048A>C, c.212G>A, c.514C>T, c.257C>T, c.425C>T, and c. 998C>T.Of the 8 cases, 6 affected male fetuses had significantly reduced IDS activities, and the other 2 female carriers had normal IDS enzyme activities. Conclusions:The IDS activity in fetal villi and peripheral plasma of pregnant woman is consistent with the gene analysis results.The IDS activity has an important reference value for the prenatal diagnosis of MPS Ⅱ in the first trimester.When no genetic mutations are found in the probands or the pathogenicity of the new mutation remains unclear, the IDS activity in fetal villi can be detected separately for the prenatal diagnosis of MPS Ⅱ.