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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(2): 97-101, abr./jun. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1367729

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar a presença do Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular (VEV) e seus fatores de risco para ocorrência e disseminação da enfermidade em equídeos das mesorregiões Leste e Oeste Potiguar do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram analisadas pela técnica de virusneutralização, 809 amostras sanguíneas de equídeos provenientes de noventa propriedades de dezesseis municípios Potiguares durante os meses de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019. Os fatores de riscos associados ao VEV foram avaliados por meio de questionário epidemiológico e os dados submetidos a análise estatística no programa IBM SPSS Statistics versão 21.0 com nível de confiança de 95%. Posteriormente, todas as variáveis estatisticamente significantes foram submetidas a análise de regressão de Poisson. A soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-VEV foi 24,6% (199/809), sendo 3,2% (13/402) de soropositivos na mesorregião Leste e 45,7% (186/407) na do Oeste Potiguar. Com relação aos sorotipos, observou-se uma prevalência de 3,8% (31/809) e 24,5% (198/809) para Indiana 2 e 3 respectivamente, com 15,1% (30/198) de coinfecção. Equídeos criados na mesorregião Oeste, em propriedades que não realizam quarentena e onde os animais enfermos são mantidos no rebanho, foram consideradas fatores predisponentes a infecção pelo VEV. Esses resultados demonstram a circulação do VEV em equídeos no Rio Grande do Norte, com destaque ao Oeste Potiguar, e sendo necessário a aplicação de medidas sanitárias que impeçam introdução e disseminação do vírus ente as espécies susceptíveis, principalmente em condições climáticas favoráveis para a sua manutenção, no ambiente de criação e pastagens.


This study aimed to investigate the presence of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and risk factors for its occurrence and dissemination in equines from the Eastern and Western mesoregions of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Blood samples were analyzed, by Serum Virus Neutralization Assay, from 809 animals belonging to 90 properties distributed in sixteen municipalities from July 2018 to February 2019. Risk factors were assessed using an epidemiological questionnaire. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the software IBM SPSS Statistics, version 21.0 with a 95% confidence level. Also, all statistically significant variables were subjected to Poisson regression analysis. The occurrence of anti-VSV antibodies was 24.6% (199/809) with 3.2% (13/402) and 45.7% (186/407) of seropositivity in the Western and Eastern mesoregion, respectively. Regarding serotypes, there were an occurrence of 3.8% (31/809) and 24.5% (198/809) for Indiana 2 and 3, respectively, and 15.1% (30/198) of co-infection for both. Equines kept of the Western mesoregion, on properties that do not quarantine, and where sick animals are kept in the herd, were considered risk factors for LVV infection. These results demonstrate the presence of VSV in equines in Rio Grande do Norte, with emphasis on Oeste Potiguar, and that sanitary measures must be adopted to prevent the introduction and viral spreading among susceptible species, especially due to favorable climatic conditions for the maintenance of VSV in the breeding and pasture environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus , Horse Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , Vesicular Stomatitis/virology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 51-57, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089332

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vaccines are well-established public health interventions with major impacton the prevalence of infectious diseases, but outbreaks are occurring frequently due to pri-mary and secondary failures, despite high coverage. Surveillance of efficacy and duration ofinduced immunity is a difficult task as it requires invasive blood sampling in children andteenagers. Saliva can be an acceptable alternative source of IgG to assess vaccine efficacyand toxoplasmosis incidence. We investigated IgG response for measles, mumps, rubella,and T. gondii in saliva samples of vaccinated young people. Methods: Saliva was collected from 249 public schools students from São Paulo, Brazil, aged7 to 13 years old, during an interactive exhibition on hygiene. We used S. aureus proteinA solid phase capture assay for IgG reactive to biotinylated purified proteins. Paired salivaand serum (47) were tested from young adults with serum evidence of T. gondii infectionand from negative children less than 12 month old for standardization. Reproducibility wasgreater than 98% and sensitivity and specificity of the saliva assays were greater than 95%,as well as the concordance of paired saliva and serum samples. Results: Saliva from high school students showed a prevalence of 8.5% (95% CI: 5.0-11.9%)for anti T. gondii IgG; 96.8% (94.6-99%) of anti-measles IgG; 59.1% (53-65%) of anti-rubella IgG,and 57.5% (51.3-63.6%) of anti-mumps IgG. Discussion: The prevalence of antibodies against mumps and rubella after 6-8 years of vaccination was lower than against measles among students. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of saliva sampling for follow-up of vaccine immune status in teenagers. This useful approach allows for IgG detection for vaccine control or epidemio- logical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/immunology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Reference Values , Rubella/immunology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/prevention & control , ROC Curve , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(6): 493-501, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056758

ABSTRACT

En los ó;ºltimos aó;±os la terapia gó;©nica se ha posicionado como una opció;n real y segura en el desarrollo de alternativas terapó;©uticas para la cura y la prevenció;n de diferentes enfermedades. Consiste en la inserció;n de material genó;©tico en un tejido o có;©lula defectuosa, mediante el uso de un vector. Existen varias consideraciones para seleccionar el vector más apropiado, incluyendo el potencial de unió;n y entrada a la có;©lula diana, la capacidad de transferencia del material genó;©tico al nó;ºcleo, la habilidad de expresió;n del inserto y la ausencia de toxicidad. En el panorama actual, los vectores virales más utilizados son los derivados de los virus adenoasociados (AAV). Características como su bioseguridad, baja toxicidad y tropismo selectivo, han posibilitado su evaluació;n como opció;n terapó;©utica en un amplio nó;ºmero de enfermedades monogó;©nicas o complejas. A pesar de sus ventajas, los vectores AAV presentan inconvenientes, siendo el más importante la respuesta inmune del paciente al vector, especialmente la respuesta mediada por anticuerpos neutralizantes (NAb). Los NAb disminuyen la transducció;n del vector e impiden la expresió;n del gen que transporta, limitando su aplicació;n clínica. Por lo tanto, identificar y cuantificar la presencia y actividad de los NAbs, es el primer paso en cualquier protocolo de terapia gó;©nica con vectores AAV. La presencia de NAb depende principalmente de la exposició;n al virus en la naturaleza y varía drásticamente segó;ºn edad, localizació;n geográfica y estado de salud de la persona evaluada.


In recent years, gene therapy has been positioned as a real and safe option in the development of therapeutic alternatives for the cure and prevention of different diseases. It consists in the insertion of genetic material in a defective tissue or cell, through the use of a vector. There are several considerations for selecting the most appropriate vector, including the potential for binding and entry to the target cell, the ability of the genetic material to transfer to the nucleus, the ability to express the insert, and the absence of toxicity. In the current scenario, the most commonly used viral vectors are those derived from adeno-associated viruses (AAV). Characteristics such as biosafety, low toxicity and selective tropism have enabled its evaluation as a therapeutic option in many monogenic or complex diseases. Despite their advantages, AAV vectors have drawbacks, the most important being the patient’s immune response to the vector, especially the response mediated by neutralizing antibodies (NAb). NAbs decrease the transduction of the vector and prevent the expression of the gene it transports, limiting its clinical application. Therefore, identifying and quantifying the presence and activity of NAbs is the first step in any gene therapy protocol with AAV vectors. The presence of NAbs depends mainly on exposure to the virus in nature and varies drastically according to age, geographic location and health status of the person evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genetic Therapy/methods , Dependovirus/genetics , Dependovirus/immunology , Parvoviridae Infections/genetics , Parvoviridae Infections/immunology , Parvoviridae Infections/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Serogroup , Genetic Vectors , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 143-146, Jan. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895551

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis, affecting humans, domestic and wild animals. The present study aimed to evaluate prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Barbary sheep at the Curitiba zoo. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed using 17 serogroups. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. were observed in 23.5% samples and Icterohaemorrhagiae was the only prevalent serogroup. The presence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in Barbary sheep indicates exposure to leptospires; thus monitoring and preventive measures are necessary in zoo's captive animals, since they can act as sentinels of environmental exposure in an area with high movement of people.(AU)


A leptospirose é uma zoonose mundial que afeta seres humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. em aoudads do zoológico de Curitiba. Foi realizado o teste de Soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM) utilizando 17 sorogrupos. Anticorpos contra Leptospira spp. foram observados em 23.5% das amostras de aoudads e Icterohaemorrhagiae foi o único sorogrupo prevalente. A presença de anticorpos em aoudads indica exposição a leptospiras portanto monitoramento e medidas preventivas são necessários em animais confinados em zoológicos, uma vez eles podem atuar como sentinelas de exposição ambiental em uma área com alta circulação de pessoas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Ruminants/immunology , Animals, Zoo/immunology , Serologic Tests/veterinary
5.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 34(3): 459-465, jul.-sep. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902950

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la prueba de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) para la detección de anticuerpos contra HTLV-1. Se realizó un estudio de evaluación de prueba diagnóstica. Se usaron cultivos celulares MT2 infectados con HTLV-1 y K-562 sin infección, luego fueron sembrados, fijados en láminas para inmunofluorescencia y enfrentados a sueros. Se usaron 155 sueros (80 positivos para HTLV-1 y 75 positivos para otras enfermedades) procedentes de la seroteca del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú. Adicionalmente, se evaluó la repetibilidad (en el laboratorio) y reproducibilidad (en laboratorios de costa, sierra y selva) de la prueba. La prueba IFI para la detección de anticuerpos contra HTLV-1 tuvo una sensibilidad de 98,75% (IC 95%: 95,69-100%), una especificidad de 98,67% (IC 95%: 95,40-100%) y el índice de kappa de 0,975. No hubo falsos positivos ni falsos negativos; sin embargo, sí se obtuvo un resultado indeterminado y uno inespecífico. La prueba mostró 100% de concordancia en la repetibilidad y reproductibilidad. Concluimos que los resultados obtenidos son comparables a la prueba de referencia. La prueba de IFI presenta un buen rendimiento diagnóstico y sería de utilidad para la confirmación de HTLV-1.


ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of the indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) test for the detection of antibodies against HTLV-1. A diagnostic test evaluation study was performed. HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and HTLV-1-uninfected K-562 cells were cultured; then these cells were impregnated and fixed in sheets for immunofluorescence and faced to Peruvian sera. A total of 155 sera (80 HTLV-1-positive sera and 75 sera positive for other diseases) from the Peruvian Instituto Nacional de Salud were used. In addition, the parameters of repeatability (intra-laboratory) and reproducibility (in laboratories of the Peruvian coast, mountains and jungle) of the test were evaluated. The IFI test detected the presence of antibodies against HTLV-1 reaching a sensitivity of 98.75% (95% CI: 95.69 - 100.00%), a specificity of 98.67% (95% CI: 95.40 - 100.00%) and the Kappa index was 0.975. There were no false positives or false negatives; however, one undetermined result and one non-specific result were obtained. The test showed 100% qualitative agreement when performing the repeatability and reproducibility. The results obtained are comparable to the reference test. Therefore, the IFI test had a good diagnostic performance and would be useful for the confirmation of HTLV-1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/immunology , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 49(3): 210-215, set. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041788

ABSTRACT

In this study we developed an indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) using an antigen produced from BHK-21 cells infected with a prototype strain of the virus. The optimal antigen concentration and serum dilutions were established. In order to analyze variability in the laboratory, reproducibility and repeatability within and between plates were determined. Then, a panel of 460 sera from conventional facilities and previously classified as positive or negative by the indirect fluorescent antibody assay was analyzed. The cutoff value was determined by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results of the indirect ELISA were compared with those of the indirect fluorescent antibody assay. The ELISA assay showed 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity. ELISA is a useful tool to be developed in standard virology laboratories and can be used for screening animals faster than the traditional indirect fluorescent antibody assay.


Se desarrolló un ELISA indirecto para detectar anticuerpos contra el virus diminuto del ratón (Mice minute virus -.#91;MVM-.#93;), utilizando un antígeno producido a partir de células BHK-21 infectadas con la cepa prototipo del virus. Se establecieron las diluciones óptimas de antígeno y el suero a utilizar. Para analizar la variabilidad en el laboratorio, se determinaron la reproducibilidad y la repetibilidad dentro de una placa y entre placas. Luego se analizaron 460 sueros provenientes de bioterios convencionales y clasificados previamente como positivos o negativos por inmunofluorescencia indirecta. El valor de corte se determinó mediante una curva ROC. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos con la prueba de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. El ELISA mostró 100% de sensibilidad y un 99% de especificidad. Esta técnica demostró ser una herramienta útil para desarrollar en laboratorios de virología estándar y puede utilizarse como prueba tamiz para seleccionar animales de manera más rápida que con la tradicional prueba de inmunofluorescencia indirecta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Minute Virus of Mice , Antibodies, Viral , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Minute Virus of Mice/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(supl.1): 75-85, abr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888513

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. El virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica es un arenavirus del Viejo Mundo que se hospeda en el ratón casero (Mus musculus), y puede causar infecciones congénitas, hidrocefalia, coriorretinitis y falla orgánica múltiple en pacientes receptores de trasplantes. En Colombia aún no se ha reportado la enfermedad mediante diagnóstico clínico, pero en estudios serológicos se ha detectado la infección por el virus Pichindé en roedores en los departamentos del Cauca y Valle del Cauca, y por el virus Guanarito, en roedores en Córdoba. Objetivo. Detectar el virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica en M. musculus en el municipio de Sincelejo. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron 80 muestras de plasma mediante la prueba ELISA usando antígeno del virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica. Además, se empleó la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR) anidada en muestras de animales seropositivos y seronegativos para la detección del segmento S. Resultados. Se encontró una seroprevalencia de 10% (8/80) y se detectó el genoma viral en 16 muestras de cerebro; el alineamiento (en la Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, BLAST) y el análisis filogenético (mediante el programa MrBayes, versión 3.2.2) confirmaron que correspondía al virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica. Conclusión. Los resultados indicaron que la infección por el virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica en humanos podría ocurrir en el área urbana de Sincelejo, aunque hasta la fecha no se hayan reportado casos.


Abstract Introduction: The lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is an Old World arenavirus that infects Mus musculus, and can cause congenital hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis and multisystemic failure in transplant human recipients. Although the disease has not been clinically diagnosed in Colombia yet, there have been reports of infection with the Pichindé virus in rodents from Cauca and Valle del Cauca departments, and with the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba department. Objective: To identify the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from Mus musculus captured in the municipality of Sincelejo. Materials and methods: We evaluated 80 samples of plasma by ELISA using antigen from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Additionally, a nested RT-PCR was performed to seropositive and seronegative samples for the S-segment. Results: We found a 10% seroprevalence (8/80) and the viral genome was detected in 16 brain samples; the alignment (BLAST) and the phylogenetic analysis (MrBayes, version 3.2.2) confirmed the presence of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Conclusion: The results indicated that human infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in humans could occur in the urban area of Sincelejo, although no cases have been reported so far.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rodentia/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Arenaviridae Infections/virology , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Phylogeny , Brain , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
8.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): 88-91, 2017. tab.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846779

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis is a systemic disease caused by the species of bacteria Leptospira spp., which affects human beings, domestic and wild animals. The present study searched the presence of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in the canine population of the city Teresina, Piauí, and the most common serovars. Blood samples from 425 stray dogs were collected in the local zoonosis center in Teresina from July 2010 to January 2012 and submitted to the Microscopic Seroagglutination Test (MAT). This study found an average infection rate of 17.41% (IC 95%; 13,8 ­ 21,0) by 11 different serovars; the four most frequent were Canicola (18.9%), Autumnalis (16.2%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (12.1%), and Butembo (12.1%). The questions raised in this study indicated the occurrence of Leptospira spp infection in dogs of Terezina- Piaui, Brazil.(AU)


A leptospirose é uma doença sistêmica causada por bactéria Leptospira spp. que afeta seres humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. O presente trabalho investigou a presença de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. na população canina da cidade de Teresina-Piauí, e os respectivos sorovares predominantes. Amostras de sangue de 425 cães foram coletadas no Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Teresina, no período de julho de 2010 a janeiro de 2012, e submetidas à prova de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM). Este estudo encontrou uma taxa de infecção média com 17,41% (IC 95%; 13,8 ­ 21,0) e 11 sorovares reagentes, sendo os prevalentes Canicola (18,9%), Autumnalis (16,2%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (12,1%) e Butembo (12,1%). As questões levantadas neste estudo indicam a ocorrência de infecção por Leptospira spp em cães da cidade de Teresina-Piauí, Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/epidemiology
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2119-2130, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886794

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Yellow fever is an arthropod-borne viral disease that still poses high public health concerns, despite the availability of an effective vaccine. The development of recombinant viruses is of utmost importance for several types of studies, such as those aimed to dissect virus-host interactions and to search for novel antiviral strategies. Moreover, recombinant viruses expressing reporter genes may greatly facilitate these studies. Here, we report the construction of a recombinant yellow fever virus (YFV) expressing Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) (YFV-GLuc). We show, through RT-PCR, sequencing and measurement of GLuc activity, that stability of the heterologous gene was maintained after six passages. Furthermore, a direct association between GLuc expression and viral replication was observed (r2=0.9967), indicating that measurement of GLuc activity may be used to assess viral replication in different applications. In addition, we evaluated the use of the recombinant virus in an antiviral assay with recombinant human alfa-2b interferon. A 60% inhibition of GLuc expression was observed in cells infected with YFV-GLuc and incubated with IFN alfa-2b. Previously tested on YFV inhibition by plaque assays indicated a similar fold-decrease in viral replication. These results are valuable as they show the stability of YFV-GLuc and one of several possible applications of this construct.


Subject(s)
Animals , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Luciferases/genetics , Virus Replication , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Luciferases/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99845

ABSTRACT

Effective and tolerable vaccination is an essential strategy to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) in endemic areas. Although the live attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine (LAJEV) has been widely used since its introduction, the systemic data of LAJEV was very rarely available in Korea. We conducted the open-label, prospective cohort study to assess the immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine. Ninety subjects were enrolled, and LAJEV in a 2-dose primary series was given with a 12-month interval. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured before and after each vaccination, and active monitoring for adverse events was performed. After the first dose, 91.1% of subjects had seroprotection with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 40.9. Seroprotection rate after the second dose was 97%, and GMT showed an increase of 6.5-fold. Most adverse events following immunization were self-limited, and no serious adverse events were reported until 42 days after each dose. The 2-dose administration of LAJEV in the primary immunization schedule appeared to be highly immunogenic and safe.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibody Formation , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines/immunology , Male , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
11.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2015; 21 (2): 83-89
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-184413

ABSTRACT

Despite high coverage rates of polio vaccine in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the seroconversion rates of infants may be inadequate. This study measured seroprevalence of antibodies against poliovirus serotypes 1 to 3 [PV1, PV2 and PV3] in 7-month-old infants who had received at least 4 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine. A serosurvey was conducted in 2010 in rural areas of Chabahar, Sistan-va-Baluchestan province. Using cluster sampling, 72 eligible infants were tested for antibody against the 3 poliovirus serotypes according to WHO guidelines. Antibody titres >/= 1:10 were considered positive. The seropositive rates for antibody against PV1, PV2 and PV3 were 84.7%, 95.8% and 70.8% respectively. Only 63.9% of participants were seropositive for antibodies against all 3 poliovirus serotypes. Except for PV2, the seroprevalence of antibody against the other 2 poliovirus serotypes, especially PV3, was unsatisfactory


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Female , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Infant , Surveys and Questionnaires , Parents
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(5): 462-468, May 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-714718

ABSTRACT

Este estudo descreve a primeira investigação de anticorpos para arbovírus em primatas não humanos do Novo Mundo no nordeste brasileiro. No período de março de 2008 a setembro de 2010 foram colhidos soros sanguíneos de 31 macacos-prego-galegos (Cebus flavius) de vida livre na Paraíba e de 100 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus) em cativeiro nos estados de Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí e Rio Grande do Norte. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos utilizou-se o teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (IH), usando antígenos de 19 diferentes tipos de arbovírus, pertencentes aos gêneros Flavivirus,Alphavirus e Bunyavirus. As amostras de soro foram testadas nas diluições de 1:20 a 1:1280. Dentre as amostras examinadas, todas as de C. flavius foram negativas e 46 por cento das de C. libidinosus em cativeiro apresentaram anticorpos para arbovírus. Foram detectados anticorpos para nove (9/19) arbovírus. Foram observadas 17 reações heterotípicas, para dois ou mais vírus, do gênero Flavivirus, e 15 para o gênero Alphavirus, com títulos variando de 1:20 a 1:1280. Quinze amostras apresentaram reação monotípica para ILHV (n=4), MAYV (n=6), SLEV (n=1), ROCV (n=2), OROV (n=1) e MUCV (n=1). Estes resultados sugerem que houve intensa circulação de arbovírus na população estudada de macacos-prego em cativeiro.


This paper describes the first investigation of arbovirus antibodies on New World non-human primates from Northeast Brazil. From March 2008 to September 2010 blood serum samples were collected from 31 wild blond capuchin monkeys (Cebus flavius) from Paraíba and 100 captive capuchin monkeys from Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte. The haemagglutination-inhibition test (HI) was employed for 19 arbovirus of the Flavivirus,Alphavirus and Bunyavirus genus. Serum samples were tested from 1:20 to 1:1280 dilutions. Among the primates tested all C. flavius were negative and 46 percent C. libidinosus presented antibodies to arbovirus. Antibodies were detected for nine arbovirus (9/19). Seventeen heterotypic reactions were observed for at least two Or Flavirus and 15 for Alphavirus, at titers varying between 1:20 to 1:1280. Fifteen samples presented monotypic reaction for ILHV (n=4), MAYV (n=6), SLEV (n=1), ROCV (n=2), OROV (n=1) and MUCV (n=1). These results suggest that there was an intense arbovirus circulation in the studied population of captive capuchin monkeys.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alphavirus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Cebus/immunology , Cebus/virology , Flavivirus/isolation & purification , Orthobunyavirus/isolation & purification , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 33(6): 427-432, Jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-682471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT) to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants' perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. METHODS: A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. RESULTS: The ELISA reported 184 (37%) of the 497 participants as being "positive" for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4%) as being "reactive" for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%-99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval) and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001). Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. Trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01733927.


OBJETIVO: Comparar la sensibilidad y la especificidad de una prueba oral rápida con las del análisis de inmunoadsorción enzimática (ELISA) para la detección del VIH en Santiago de Chile, Chile; hacer un seguimiento del número de participantes en el estudio que regresan para saber los resultados del ELISA; y analizar las percepciones de los participantes con relación a la prueba oral rápida en comparación con el ELISA. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 497 personas en Santiago de Chile: 153 tenían resultados positivos para el VIH, y la situación de las restantes 344 era desconocida. Se sometió a los participantes a pruebas de detección del VIH tanto mediante el ELISA como mediante la prueba oral rápida, con objeto de analizar y comparar la especificidad y la sensibilidad. Se recopilaron datos cualitativos de 22 participantes para comparar sus impresiones con relación a la experiencia de someterse a la prueba oral rápida en comparación con el ELISA. RESULTADOS: Mediante el ELISA se notificó que 184 de los 497 participantes (37%) obtuvieron un resultado "positivo" en las pruebas de detección de anticuerpos contra el VIH; mediante la prueba oral rápida 181 participantes (36,4%) fueron "reactivos" para el VIH. Esta prueba demostró una sensibilidad de 98,4% (intervalo de confianza de 95%: 95,7-99,9%) y una especificidad de 100%. El coeficiente kappa (K) fue de 0,983 (P < 0,0001). De los 344 participantes cuyo estado con respecto a la infección por el VIH era desconocido al comienzo del estudio, 55 no regresaron para conocer los resultados del ELISA. Los participantes percibieron positivamente la prueba oral rápida debido al período de espera más breve y la reducción de la ansiedad por conocer los resultados de la prueba. La obtención de una muestra oral mediante hisopo resultó más práctica y menos invasora que la extracción de sangre necesaria para llevar a cabo un ELISA. CONCLUSIONES: La prueba oral rápida y el ELISA se mostraron estadísticamente equivalentes en cuanto a especificidad y sensibilidad. La primera proporciona resultados más rápidos, garantiza que más personas puedan conocerlos, y no requiere el manejo o la exposición a hemoderivados potencialmente peligrosos. Número de ensayo: Identificador de ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01733927.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mass Screening/methods , Mouth Mucosa/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205007

ABSTRACT

A 55-year-old woman presented with diplopia following painful skin eruptions on the right upper extremity. On presentation, she was found to have 35 prism diopters of esotropia and an abduction limitation in the left eye. Two weeks later, she developed blepharoptosis and anisocoria with a smaller pupil in the right eye, which increased in the darkness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and a positive result for immunoglobulin G antibody to varicella zoster virus. She was diagnosed to have zoster meningitis with Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy. After intravenous antiviral and steroid treatments, the vesicular eruptions and abducens nerve palsy improved. Horner's syndrome and diplopia resolved after six months. Here we present the first report of Horner's syndrome and contralateral abducens nerve palsy associated with zoster meningitis.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Electromyography , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Herpes Zoster/complications , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Horner Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningitis/complications , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86619

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to assess the immune status of the Korean population against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) through a seroepidemiologic study. Residual blood samples were collected from diagnostic laboratories throughout Korea. Samples were collected in October 2009 to March 2010 from persons 0-79 yr of age and were tested by ELISA (Enzygnost(R); Dade Behring, Schwalbach, Germany). Total seroprevalence in subjects 1-79 yr of age was 89.6%. Seroprevalence increased as age increased from 67.3% in subjects 1-4 yr of age to 94.2% in subjects 10-14 yr of age and in subjects over 20 yr of age seroprevalence ranged from 98.0% to 100%. In children under 1 yr of age, passive immunity waned after birth with none of the subjects having antibodies from 7 months of age and over. Among subjects 1-79 yr of age, susceptible subjects to VZV were mainly under 20 yr of age. These results provide information in understanding the dynamics of varicella disease in Korea, which is important in building up strategies for disease control.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 58(5): 527-531, set.-out. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify measles virus genotypes in three cases of travelers suspected of measles infection. METHODS: Samples (blood and urine) were collected for serology, virus isolation, and genotyping. Sera were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus and rubella virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Siemens - Marburg, Germany). Clinical samples (lymphocytes and urine) were inoculated into Statens Serum Institute rabbit corneal epithelial cell line- ATCC CL 60 (SIRC) and Vero Slam cells. RNA was extracted from clinical samples and cell culture was inoculated and processed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with oligonucleotides specific for measles virus (MV) and rubella virus (RV). RESULTS: All patients showed IgM negative serology for MV and positive IgM for RV. RV belonging to genotypes 1B, 1C, and 1E were isolated from patients who came from Finland, Peru, and Germany, respectively. Genotype 1B has been found in Europe and on the East Coast of South America; 1C has been found in Peru and the West Coast of South America, and 1E, first identified in 1997, now appears to have worldwide distribution. CONCLUSION: Information about RV and MV genotypes circulating in São Paulo is essential for the control of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Brazil.


OBJETIVO: Identificar o genótipo do vírus do sarampo em três viajantes suspeitos de infecção por sarampo. MÉTODOS: Amostras (sangue e urina) foram coletadas para sorologia, isolamento viral e genotipagem. As sorologias para pesquisa de IgM para o vírus do sarampo e da rubéola foi realizada utilizando-se o kit de ELISA (Siemens - Marburg, Alemanha). As amostras clínicas (linfócito e urina) foram inoculadas na SIRC (Statens Serum Institute rabbit corneal epithelial cell line-ATCC CL 60) e nas células Vero Slam. O RNA foi extraído das amostras clínicas e das células inoculadas e processadas por PCR, utilizando oligonucleotideos específicos para sarampo e rubéola. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes apresentaram sorologia IgM negativa para sarampo e positivo para rubéola. Os vírus da rubéola isolados dos pacientes que vieram da Finlândia, Peru e Alemanha pertencem aos genótipos 1B, 1C e 1E, respectivamente. O genótipo 1B foi encontrado na Europa e na costa oriental da América do Sul, o genótipo 1C foi encontrado no Peru e na costa oeste da América do Sul e o genótipo 1E, identificado pela primeira vez em 1997, agora aparenta ser um genótipo com distribuição mundial. CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento dos genótipos de sarampo e rubéola que circulam em São Paulo é essencial para o controle do sarampo, rubéola e síndrome da rubéola congênita.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Male , Rabbits , Measles virus/genetics , Measles/virology , Rubella virus/genetics , Rubella/epidemiology , Travel , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genotype , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Measles virus/isolation & purification , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rubella virus/isolation & purification , Rubella/transmission , Vero Cells
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Validation of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays is important for evaluating antibody responses to influenza virus, and selection of erythrocytes for use in these assays is important. This study aimed to determine the correlation between receptor binding specificity and effectiveness of the HI assay for detecting antibody response to pandemic influenza H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. METHODS: Hemagglutination (HA) tests were performed using erythrocytes from 6 species. Subsequently, 8 hemagglutinating units of pH1N1 from each species were titrated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. To investigate the effect of erythrocyte binding preference on HI antibody titers, comparisons of HI with microneutralization (MN) assays were performed. RESULTS: Goose erythrocytes showed most specific binding with pH1N1, while HA titers using human erythrocytes were comparable to those using turkey erythrocytes. The erythrocyte binding efficiency was shown to have an impact on antibody detection. Comparing MN titers, HI titers using turkey erythrocytes yielded the most accurate results, while those using goose erythrocytes produced the highest geometric mean titer. Human blood group O erythrocytes lacking a specific antibody yielded results most comparable to those obtained using turkey erythrocytes. Further, pre-existing antibody to pH1N1 and different erythrocyte species can distort HI assay results. CONCLUSIONS: HI assay, using turkey and human erythrocytes, yielded the most comparable and applicable results for pH1N1 than those by MN assay, and using goose erythrocytes may lead to overestimated titers. Selection of appropriate erythrocyte species for HI assay allows construction of a more reliable database, which is essential for further investigations and control of virus epidemics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Chickens , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Geese , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Horses , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Swine , Turkeys
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108422

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/blood , Cattle , Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral/genetics , Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral/genetics , Hair/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
20.
São Paulo; s.n; 2011. 62 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IBPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IBACERVO | ID: biblio-1080921

ABSTRACT

O rotavírus é a principal causa de diarréia em crianças em todo o mundo. Infecta também adultos, mas não há dados completos sobre a sua incidência nesse grupo nem sobre o papel de anticorpos preexistentes na proteção contra o vírus. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a presença de anticorpos IgA e IgG anti-rotavírus SA-11, por ELISA, em amostras de soro de adultos saudáveis e sua ação neutralizante frente ao vírus, em ensaios de neutralização. Por Immunoblotting foi avaliado o reconhecimento de proteínas virais pelos anticorpos séricos. Observou-se que os títulos das amostras foram muito variáveis, sendo os de IgG superiores aos de IgA. Todas as amostras mostraram-se capazes de neutralizar o vírus em diferentes níveis, porém não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação com os títulos de anticorpos. Foi observado que anticorpos da classe IgG reconhecem mais proteínas virais que os da classe IgA. Este trabalho pode ser considerado mais um passo na elucidação do papel dos anticorpos séricos IgA e IgG anti-rotavírus na infecção em adultos.


Rotavirus has been considered the leading cause of diarrhea in children worldwide. The virus also infects adults but there is no conclusive data neither on the incidence of infection on this group nor on the role of pre-existing antibodies. The aim of the work was to evaluate the presence of anti-rotavirus SA-11 IgA and IgG by ELISA in serum samples of healthy adults and the serum neutralizing ability against the virus by neutralization assays. Immunoblotting was used to evaluate viral proteins recognition by serum antibodies. The antibody titers were extremely variable where IgG titers are greater than IgA ones. All samples were able to neutralize the virus in different levels but it was not possible to establish a correlation between antibody titers and neutralization ones. Immunoblotting assays revealed that IgG antibodies recognize more viral proteins than IgA did. This work can be considered a valuable step for elucidating the role of serum anti-rotavirus IgG and IgA antibodies in adults infection.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Immunologic Factors , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Effluent Neutralization
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