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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 251-259, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in promoting recovery of the facial function with the involvement of autophagy, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the control, sham-operated, facial nerve injury (FNI), EA, EA+3-methyladenine (3-MA), and EA+GDNF antagonist groups using a random number table, with 12 rats in each group. An FNI rat model was established with facial nerve crushing method. EA intervention was conducted at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yifeng (SJ 17), and Hegu (LI 4) acupoints for 2 weeks. The Simone's 10-Point Scale was utilized to monitor the recovery of facial function. The histopathological evaluation of facial nerves was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of Beclin-1, light chain 3 (LC3), and P62 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Additionally, IHC was also used to detect the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR.@*RESULTS@#The facial functional scores were significantly increased in the EA group than the FNI group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). HE staining showed nerve axons and myelin sheaths, which were destroyed immediately after the injury, were recovered with EA treatment. The expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3 were significantly elevated and the expression of P62 was markedly reduced in FNI rats (P<0.01); however, EA treatment reversed these abnormal changes (P<0.01). Meanwhile, EA stimulation significantly increased the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR (P<0.01). After exogenous administration with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or GDNF antagonist, the repair effect of EA on facial function was attenuated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA could promote the recovery of facial function and repair the facial nerve damages in a rat model of FNI. EA may exert this neuroreparative effect through mediating the release of GDNF, activating the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, and further regulating the autophagy of facial nerves.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Facial Nerve Injuries/therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Beclin-1 , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 54-70, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007908

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study is to explore the potential modulatory role of quercetin against Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced septic cardiac dysfunction.@*METHODS@#Specific pathogen-free chicken embryos ( n = 120) were allocated untreated control, phosphate buffer solution (PBS) vehicle, PBS with ethanol vehicle, LPS (500 ng/egg), LPS with quercetin treatment (10, 20, or 40 nmol/egg, respectively), Quercetin groups (10, 20, or 40 nmol/egg). Fifteen-day-old embryonated eggs were inoculated with abovementioned solutions via the allantoic cavity. At embryonic day 19, the hearts of the embryos were collected for histopathological examination, RNA extraction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical investigations, and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#They demonstrated that the heart presented inflammatory responses after LPS induction. The LPS-induced higher mRNA expressions of inflammation-related factors (TLR4, TNFα, MYD88, NF-κB1, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, p38, MMP3, and MMP9) were blocked by quercetin with three dosages. Quercetin significantly decreased immunopositivity to TLR4 and MMP9 in the treatment group when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly decreased protein expressions of TLR4, IFNγ, MMP3, and MMP9 when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin treatment prevented LPS-induced increase in the mRNA expression of Claudin 1 and ZO-1, and significantly decreased protein expression of claudin 1 when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly downregulated autophagy-related gene expressions (PPARα, SGLT1, APOA4, AMPKα1, AMPKα2, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1, and LC3B) and programmed cell death (Fas, Bcl-2, CASP1, CASP12, CASP3, and RIPK1) after LPS induction. Quercetin significantly decreased immunopositivity to APOA4, AMPKα2, and LC3-II/LC3-I in the treatment group when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly decreased protein expressions of AMPKα1, LC3-I, and LC3-II. Quercetin significantly decreased the protein expression to CASP1 and CASP3 by immunohistochemical investigation or Western blotting in treatment group when compared with LPS group.@*CONCLUSION@#Quercetin alleviates cardiac inflammation induced by LPS through modulating autophagy, programmed cell death, and myocardiocytes permeability.


Subject(s)
Chick Embryo , Animals , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Caspase 3 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Claudin-1 , Inflammation/metabolism , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger , Autophagy , NF-kappa B
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 35-49, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010657

ABSTRACT

Acute hypobaric hypoxic brain damage is a potentially fatal high-altitude sickness. Autophagy plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury, but its role in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) remains unknown. Here we used an HH chamber to demonstrate that acute HH exposure impairs autophagic activity in both the early and late stages of the mouse brain, and is partially responsible for HH-induced oxidative stress, neuronal loss, and brain damage. The autophagic agonist rapamycin only promotes the initiation of autophagy. By proteome analysis, a screen showed that protein dynamin2 (DNM2) potentially regulates autophagic flux. Overexpression of DNM2 significantly increased the formation of autolysosomes, thus maintaining autophagic flux in combination with rapamycin. Furthermore, the enhancement of autophagic activity attenuated oxidative stress and neurological deficits after HH exposure. These results contribute to evidence supporting the conclusion that DNM2-mediated autophagic flux represents a new therapeutic target in HH-induced brain damage.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Hypoxia , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy , Cognition , Sirolimus/therapeutic use
4.
Biol. Res ; 57: 3-3, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) poses a major threat to both physical and mental health; however, there is still a lack of effective drugs to treat the disease. Recently, novel biological therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their products, namely, exosomes, are showing promising therapeutic potential due to their low immunogenicity, few ethical concerns, and easy accessibility. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived exosomes remain unclear. RESULTS: Exosomes derived from MSCs reduced hearing and hair cell loss caused by neomycin-induced damage in models in vivo and in vitro. In addition, MSC-derived exosomes modulated autophagy in hair cells to exert a protective effect. Mechanistically, exogenously administered exosomes were internalized by hair cells and subsequently upregulated endocytic gene expression and endosome formation, ultimately leading to autophagy activation. This increased autophagic activity promoted cell survival, decreased the mitochondrial oxidative stress level and the apoptosis rate in hair cells, and ameliorated neomycin-induced ototoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings reveal the otoprotective capacity of exogenous exosome-mediated autophagy activation in hair cells in an endocytosis-dependent manner, suggesting possibilities for deafness treatment.


Subject(s)
Neomycin/metabolism , Neomycin/toxicity , Exosomes/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Hair Cells, Auditory
5.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 89-94, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009480

ABSTRACT

Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa protein (ESAT-6) is the major virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which can resist the clearance of MTB in bodies by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis and autophagy reaction, thus impeding the immune defense function of the body against MTB infection. In addition, ESAT-6-induced apoptosis of macrophage and massive necrosis of innate immune cells can foster MTB proliferation and colonization, leading to systemic MTB infection. Moreover, ESAT-6 hampers the protective immune response of Th1 cells, reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and contributing to immune dysfunction, thus accelerating the course of MTB infection. During the process, the high immunogenicity of ESAT-6 can be leveraged as a dominant antigen in the development of new TB vaccines, making it a promising candidate with broad prospects for further development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vaccines , Cytokines , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Sepsis
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1816-1823, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528777

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To evaluate the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract on resistant cells, autophagy and necroptosis were investigated in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant colorectal cancer cells. Further underlying characteristics on drug resistance were evaluated, focused on ERK-RSK-ABCG2 linkage. SNU-C5 and 5-FU resistant SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) colorectal cancer cells were adopted for cell viability assay and Western blotting to examine the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract. Yeast extract induced autophagy in SNU-C5 cells with increased Atg7, Atg12-5 complex, Atg16L1, and LC3 activation (LC3-II/LC3-I), but little effects in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased Atg12-5 complex and Atg16L1. Both colorectal cancer cells did not show necroptosis after yeast extract treatment. Based on increased ABCG2 and RSK expression after yeast extract treatment, drug resistance mechanisms were further evaluated. As compared to wild type, SNU-C5/5-FUR cells showed more ABCG2 expression, less RSK expression, and less phosphorylation of ERK. ABCG2 inhibitor, Ko143, treatment induces following changes: 1) more sensitivity at 500 mM 5-FU, 2) augmented proliferation, and 3) less phosphorylation of ERK. These results suggest that protective autophagy in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased ABCG2 expression might be candidate mechanisms for drug resistance. As the ERK responses were different from each stimulus, the feasible mechanisms among ERK-RSK-ABCG2 should be further investigated in 5-FU-resistant CRC cells.


Para evaluar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura en células resistentes, se investigaron la autofagia y la necroptosis en células de cáncer colorrectal resistentes al 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU). Además se evaluaron otras características subyacentes de la resistencia a los medicamentos centrándose en el enlace ERK-RSK-ABCG2. Se usaron células de cáncer colorrectal SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) resistentes a SNU-C5 y 5- FU para el ensayo de viabilidad celular y la transferencia Western para examinar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura. El extracto de levadura indujo autofagia en células SNU-C5 con mayor activación de Atg7, complejo Atg12-5, Atg16L1 y LC3 (LC3-II/LC3-I), pero pocos efectos en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con aumento de Atg12-5 complejo y Atg16L1. Ambas células de cáncer colorrectal no mostraron necroptosis después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura. Se evaluaron los mecanismos de resistencia a los medicamentos. en base al aumento de la expresión de ABCG2 y RSK después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura.En comparación con las de tipo salvaje, las células SNU-C5/5-FUR mostraron más expresión de ABCG2, menos expresión de RSK y menos fosforilación de ERK. El tratamiento con inhibidor de ABCG2, Ko143, induce los siguientes cambios: 1) más sensibilidad a 5-FU 500 mM, 2) proliferación aumentada y 3) menos fosforilación de ERK. Estos resultados sugieren que la autofagia protectora en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con mayor expresión de ABCG2 podría ser un mecanismo candidato para la resistencia a los medicamentos. Como las respuestas de ERK fueron diferentes de cada estímulo, los mecanismos factibles entre ERK-RSK- ABCG2 deberían investigarse más a fondo en células CCR resistentes a 5-FU.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Yeasts , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa , Electrophoresis , Fluorouracil , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2 , Necroptosis
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 637-643, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the regulatory mechanism of human hepatocyte apoptosis induced by lysosomal membrane protein Sidt2 knockout.@*METHODS@#The Sidt2 knockout (Sidt2-/-) cell model was constructed in human hepatocyte HL7702 cells using Crispr-Cas9 technology.The protein levels of Sidt2 and key autophagy proteins LC3-II/I and P62 in the cell model were detected using Western blotting, and the formation of autophagosomes was observed with MDC staining.EdU incorporation assay and flow cytometry were performed to observe the effect of Sidt2 knockout on cell proliferation and apoptosis.The effect of chloroquine at the saturating concentration on autophagic flux, proliferation and apoptosis of Sidt2 knockout cells were observed.@*RESULTS@#Sidt2-/- HL7702 cells were successfully constructed.Sidt2 knockout significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased apoptosis of the cells, causing also increased protein expressions of LC3-II/I and P62(P < 0.05) and increased number of autophagosomes.Autophagy of the cells reached a saturated state following treatment with 50 μmol/L chloroquine, and at this concentration, chloroquine significantly increased the expressions of LC3B and P62 in Sidt2-/- HL7702 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#Sidt2 gene knockout causes dysregulation of the autophagy pathway and induces apoptosis of HL7702 cells, and the latter effect is not mediated by inhibiting the autophagy-lysosomal pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lysosomal Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Autophagy , Apoptosis , Hepatocytes , Lysosomes/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Nucleotide Transport Proteins/metabolism
8.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 552-559, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the regulatory effect of berberine on autophagy and apoptosis balance of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore the mechanism.@*METHODS@#The inhibitory effect of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 μmol/L berberine on RA-FLS proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 method. Annexin V/PI and JC-1 immunofluorescence staining was used to analyze the effect of berberine (30 μmol/L) on apoptosis of 25 ng/mL TNF-α- induced RA-FLSs, and Western blotting was performed to detect the changes in the expression levels of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins. The cells were further treated with the autophagy inducer RAPA and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine to observe the changes in autophagic flow by laser confocal detection of mCherry-EGFP-LC3B. RA-FLSs were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mimic H2O2 or the ROS inhibitor NAC, and the effects of berberine on ROS, mTOR and p-mTOR levels were observed.@*RESULTS@#The results of CCK-8 assay showed that berberine significantly inhibited the proliferation of RA-FLSs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry and JC-1 staining showed that berberine (30 μmol/L) significantly increased apoptosis rate (P < 0.01) and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of RA-FLSs (P < 0.05). Berberine treatment obviously decreased the ratios of Bcl-2/Bax (P < 0.05) and LC3B-II/I (P < 0.01) and increased the expression of p62 protein in the cells (P < 0.05). Detection of mCherry-EGFP-LC3B autophagy flow revealed obvious autophagy flow block in berberine-treated RA-FLSs. Berberine significantly reduced the level of ROS in TNF-α-induced RA-FLSs and upregulated the expression level of autophagy-related protein p-mTOR (P < 0.01); this effect was regulated by ROS level, and the combined use of RAPA significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of berberine in RA-FLSs (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Berberine can inhibit autophagy and promote apoptosis of RA-FLSs by regulating the ROS-mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Synoviocytes , Berberine/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Sincalide/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Fibroblasts , Autophagy , Cells, Cultured
9.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1152-1162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is one of the main signaling pathways related to autophagy. Autophagy plays a key role in the formation of silicosis fibrosis. The phenotypic transformation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is a hallmark of the transition from the inflammatory phase to the fibrotic phase in silicosis. This study aims to investigate whether the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway affects the phenotypic transformation of silicosis-induced lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts via mediating macrophage autophagy.@*METHODS@#The human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages by treating with 100 ng/mL of phorbol ester for 24 h. Macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) and different times (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h) of SiO2 dust suspension. The survival rate of macrophages was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the contents of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the cell supernatant. The co-culture system of macrophages and HFL-1 cells was established by transwell. A blank control group, a SiO2 group, a LY294002 group, a SC79 group, a LY294002+SiO2 group, and a SC79+SiO2 group were set up in this experiment. Macrophages in the LY294002+SiO2 group were pretreated with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) for 18 hours, and macrophages in the SC79+SiO2 group were pretreated with SC79 (Akt activator) for 24 hours, and then exposed to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust suspension for 12 hours. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in macrophages was detected by the immunofluorescence method. The protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, Beclin-1, LC3 in macrophages, and collagen III (Col III), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1) in HFL-1 cells were measured by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#After the macrophages were exposed to SiO2 dust suspension of different concentrations for 12 h, the survival rates of macrophages were gradually decreased with the increase of SiO2 concentration. Compared with the 0 μg/mL group, the survival rates of macrophages in the 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL groups were significantly decreased, and the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were obviously increased (all P<0.05). When 100 μg/mL SiO2 dust suspension was applied to macrophages, the survival rates of macrophages were decreased with the prolonged exposure time. Compared with the 0 h group, the survival rates of macrophages were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were significantly increased, and the protein expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3II were increased markedly in the 6, 12, 24, and 48 h groups (all P<0.05). Immunofluorescence results demonstrated that after exposure to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust for 12 h, LC3 exhibited punctate aggregation and significantly higher fluorescence intensity compared to the blank control group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated in the SiO2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were down-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were up-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were decreased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were down-regulated (all P<0.05) in the LY294002+SiO2 group. Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were up-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were down-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were increased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated (all P<0.05) in the SC79+SiO2 group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Silica dust exposure inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, increases autophagy and concentration of inflammatory factors in macrophages, and promotes the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts. The regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway can affect the autophagy induction and the concentration of inflammatory factors of macrophages by silica dust exposure, and then affect the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts induced by silica dust exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Silicon Dioxide/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Sirolimus , Beclin-1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Dust , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Silicosis/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Autophagy
10.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 699-706, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of curcumin on the proliferation of renal cell carcinoma and analyze its regulation mechanism.@*METHODS@#In RCC cell lines of A498 and 786-O, the effects of curcumin (2.5, 5, 10 µ mo/L) on the proliferation were analyzed by Annexin V+PI staining. Besides, A498 was inoculated into nude mice to establish tumorigenic models, and the model mice were treated with different concentrations of curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), once daily for 30 days. Then the tumor diameter was measured, the tumor cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the protein expressions of miR-148 and ADAMTS18 were detected by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, after transfection of miR-148 mimics, miR-148 inhibitor or si-ADAMTS18 in cell lines, the expression of ADAMTS18 was examined by Western blotting and the cell survival rate was analyzed using MTT. Subsequently, Western blot analysis was again used to examine the autophagy phenomenon by measuring the relative expression level of LC3-II/LC3-I; autophagy-associated genes, including those of Beclin-1 and ATG5, were also examined when miR-148 was silenced in both cell lines with curcumin treatment.@*RESULTS@#Curcumin could inhibit the proliferation of RCC in cell lines and nude mice. The expression of miR-148 and ADAMTS18 was upregulated after curcumin treatment both in vitro and in vivo (P<0.05). The cell survival rate was dramatically declined upon miR-148 or ADAMTS18 upregulated. However, si-ADAMTS18 treatment or miR-148 inhibitor reversed these results, that is, both of them promoted the cell survival rate.@*CONCLUSION@#Curcumin can inhibit the proliferation of renal cell carcinoma by regulating the miR-148/ ADAMTS18 axis through the suppression of autophagy in vitro and in vivo. There may exist a positive feedback loop between miR-148 and ADAMTS18 gene in RCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Curcumin/therapeutic use , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Autophagy , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , ADAMTS Proteins/metabolism
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 801-808, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of emodin on high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte apoptosis and whether the potential anti-apoptotic mechanism of emodin is related to induction of adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated autophagy in podocytes (MPC5 cells) in vitro.@*METHODS@#MPC5 cells were treated with different concentrations of HG (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mmol/L), emodin (2, 4, 8 µ mol/L), or HG (40 mmol/L) and emodin (4 µ mol/L) with or without rapamycin (Rap, 100 nmol/L) and compound C (10 µ mol/L). The viability and apoptosis of MPC5 cells were detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3) I/II, and AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins were determined by Western blot. The changes of morphology and RFP-LC3 fluorescence were observed under microscopy.@*RESULTS@#HG at 20, 40, 80 and 160 mmol/L dose-dependently induced cell apoptosis in MPC5 cells, whereas emodin (4 µ mol/L) significantly ameliorated HG-induced cell apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage (P<0.01). Emodin (4 µ mol/L) significantly increased LC3-II protein expression levels and induced RFP-LC3-containing punctate structures in MPC5 cells (P<0.01). Furthermore, the protective effects of emodin were mimicked by rapamycin (100 nmol/L). Moreover, emodin increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and suppressed the phosphorylation of mTOR. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 µ mol/L) reversed emodin-induced autophagy activation.@*CONCLUSION@#Emodin ameliorated HG-induced apoptosis of MPC5 cells in vitro that involved induction of autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway, which might provide a potential therapeutic option for diabetic nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Emodin/pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Podocytes , Caspase 3/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Autophagy
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1916-1920, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010060

ABSTRACT

Iron metabolism is involved in the development and drug resistance of many malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Based on recent studies on iron metabolism and MM, this paper reviews the relationship between iron metabolism and disease process of MM in terms of iron overload leading to ferroptosis in MM cells, the role of iron deficiency in oxidative respiration and proliferation of MM cells, and the interaction between ferroptosis and autophagy in the disease process. The mechanisms by which iron metabolism-related substances lead to MM cells' resistance to proteasome inhibitors (PI) through inducing redox imbalance and M2 macrophage polarization are also briefly described, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the application of iron metabolism-related drugs to the clinical treatment of MM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy , Disease Progression , Iron/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1629-1634, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010015

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of knocking down nucleostemin ( NS) combined with rapamycin (RAPA) on autophagy and apoptosis in HL-60 cells , and to explore its role in HL-60 cells .@*METHODS@#The expression of NS protein was detected using Western blot , after transfection of HL-60 cells was achieved by the recombinant lentviral vector NS -RNAi-GV248 . Flow cytometry was used to detect changes in cells apoptosis after NS silencing/ rapamycin for 24 , 48 hours , and the expressions of NS , LC3 , p62 , BCL-2 and Bax proteins in cells were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The expression of NS in HL-60 cells was successfully down-regulated by recombinant lentiviral vector. After treatment with rapamycin for 24 and 48 h , the apoptosis rate of cells in each group increased (P < 0.05) , and the apoptosis was more obvious at 48 hours . Compared with the NS silencing group or rapamycin group , after treated with NS down-regulation combined with rapamycin for 48 hours , the apoptosis of HL-60 cells was significantly increased ( P < 0.05 ) , LC3 -II/LC3 -I ratio was significantly increased ( P < 0.05 ) , p62 protein expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) , and BCL-2/Bax ratio was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) .@*CONCLUSION@#NS down-regulation combined with rapamycin can enhance the apoptosis and autophagy of HL-60 cells , and the induction of apoptosis of HL-60 cells may be related to the expression of BCL-2 and Bax proteins .


Subject(s)
Humans , HL-60 Cells , Sirolimus/pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Autophagy , Apoptosis
14.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981909

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and apoptosis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Methods hBMSCs were isolated and cultured. The cells were divided into control group, 3-MA group, H2O2 group, H2O2 combined with 3-MA group. DCFH-DA staining was used to analyze the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). hBMSCs were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L H2O2, and then the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. The level of autophagy was detected by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and LysoTracker Red staining. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of beclin 1, mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), cleaved caspase-3(c-caspase-3) and caspase-3 proteins. Results Compared with the control group and 3-MA group, ROS level and autophagosomes were increased and the proliferation and apoptosis were decreased in H2O2 group. The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Compared with the 3-MA group, the H2O2 combined with 3-MA group also had an increased ROS level and autophagosomes, but not with significantly increased apoptosis rate; The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, and the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Conclusion H2O2 can induce hMSCs to trigger oxidative stress response. It enhances the autophagy and inhibits the proliferation and apoptosis of hBMSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beclin-1/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Apoptosis , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
15.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 356-362, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981874

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the role of autophagy, apoptosis of neutrophils and neutrophils extracellular traps (NET) formation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Thirty-six patients with SLE were recruited as research subjects, and 32 healthy controls matched accordingly were enrolled as control subjects. The expression levels of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related gene5(ATG5), P62, B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl2), Bcl2-related X protein (BAX) in neutrophils were detected by Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was employed to analyze the expression of LC3B on neutrophils. The expression level of myeloperoxidase(MPO) in plasma was estimated by ELISA. Furthermore, neutrophils were cultured in vitro and stimulated by 100 nmol/L rapamycin and 10 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 6 hours, respectively. And then, the expression levels of LC3B, ATG5, P62, Bcl2 and BAX in neutrophils were detected by Western blot analysis. The level of MPO in culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The change of fluorescence intensity of NET in culture supernatant was assayed by SytoxTM Green staining combined with fluorescence spectrophotometry. Results Compared with healthy controls, the levels of autophagy and apoptosis of neutrophils and NET formation in SLE patients were increased. The level of apoptosis and NET formation was positively associated with neutrophil autophagy. The level of autophagy showed an increase but had no effect on apoptosis and NET formation for neutrophil stimulated by rapamycin. The levels of autophagy and NET formation also increased with no significant effect on apoptosis for neutrophil induced by LPS. Conclusion The autophagy, apoptosis and NET formation of neutrophils increase in SLE patients. The activation of autophagy and NET in neutrophils possibly result from the inflammatory internal environment in SLE patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neutrophils , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Autophagy
16.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 647-654, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008112

ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is a new type of programmed cell death different from other cell death pathways such as apoptosis,autophagy,necrosis,and pyroptosis in terms of initiation,mechanisms,and molecular characteristics.As the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides is the hallmark of ferroptosis,the balance between oxidative damage and antioxidant defense is critical to the regulatory mechanism of ferroptosis.In cancer,the upregulation of antioxidant defense pathways can inhibit ferroptosis,thereby promoting cancer cells to survive the oxidative stress and develop drug resistance.This review systematically introduces the main features and regulatory mechanisms of ferroptosis.In addition,we summarize the role of ferroptosis in the progression and drug resistance of malignant tumors,providing novel implications for further research on the pathogenesis of malignant tumors and discovery of new targets for anti-cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ferroptosis , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Neoplasms , Autophagy
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2086-2100, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Metastasis is the main cause of tumor-associated death and mainly responsible for treatment failure of breast cancer. Autophagy accelerates tumor metastasis. In our work, we aimed to investigate the possibility of microRNAs (miRNAs) which participate in the regulation of autophagy to inhibit tumor metastasis.@*METHODS@#MiRNA array and comprehensive analysis were performed to identify miRNAs which participated in the regulation of autophagy to inhibit tumor metastasis. The expression levels of miR-3653 in breast cancer tissues and cells were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In vivo and in vitro assays were conducted to determine the function of miR-3653. The target genes of miR-3653 were detected by a dual luciferase reporter activity assay and Western blot. The relationship between miR-3653 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was assessed by Western blot. Student's t -test was used to analyze the difference between any two groups, and the difference among multiple groups was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test.@*RESULTS@#miR-3653 was downregulated in breast cancer cells with high metastatic ability, and high expression of miR-3653 blocked autophagic flux in breast cancer cells. Clinically, low expression of miR-3653 in breast cancer tissues (0.054 ± 0.013 vs . 0.131 ± 0.028, t  = 2.475, P  = 0.014) was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (0.015 ± 0.004 vs . 0.078 ± 0.020, t  = 2.319, P  = 0.023) and poor prognosis ( P  < 0.001). miR-3653 ameliorated the malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells, including proliferation, migration (MDA-MB-231: 0.353 ± 0.013 vs . 1.000 ± 0.038, t  = 16.290, P  < 0.001; MDA-MB-468: 0.200 ± 0.014 vs . 1.000 ± 0.043, t  = 17.530, P  < 0.001), invasion (MDA-MB-231: 0.723 ± 0.056 vs . 1.000 ± 0.035, t  = 4.223, P  = 0.013; MDA-MB-468: 0.222 ± 0.016 vs . 1.000 ± 0.019, t  = 31.050, P  < 0.001), and colony formation (MDA-MB-231: 0.472 ± 0.022 vs . 1.000 ± 0.022, t  = 16.620, P  < 0.001; MDA-MB-468: 0.650 ± 0.040 vs . 1.000 ± 0.098, t  = 3.297, P  = 0.030). The autophagy-associated genes autophagy-related gene 12 ( ATG12 ) and activating molecule in beclin 1-regulated autophagy protein 1 ( AMBRA1 ) are target genes of miR-3653. Further studies showed that miR-3653 inhibited EMT by targeting ATG12 and AMBRA1 .@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggested that miR-3653 inhibits the autophagy process by targeting ATG12 and AMBRA1 , thereby inhibiting EMT, and provided a new idea and target for the metastasis of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Autophagy/genetics , Genes, Regulator , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2077-2085, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Osteopenia has been well documented in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) are a crucial regulator of bone homeostasis. Our previous study revealed a decreased osteogenic ability of BMSCs in AIS-related osteopenia, but the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear.@*METHODS@#A total of 22 AIS patients and 18 age-matched controls were recruited for this study. Anthropometry and bone mass were measured in all participants. Bone marrow blood was collected for BMSC isolation and culture. Osteogenic and adipogenic induction were performed to observe the differences in the differentiation of BMSCs between the AIS-related osteopenia group and the control group. Furthermore, a total RNA was extracted from isolated BMSCs to perform RNA sequencing and subsequent analysis.@*RESULTS@#A lower osteogenic capacity and increased adipogenic capacity of BMSCs in AIS-related osteopenia were revealed. Differences in mRNA expression levels between the AIS-related osteopenia group and the control group were identified, including differences in the expression of LRRC17 , DCLK1 , PCDH7 , TSPAN5 , NHSL2 , and CPT1B . Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed several biological processes involved in the regulation of autophagy and mitophagy. The Western blotting results of autophagy markers in BMSCs suggested impaired autophagic activity in BMSCs in the AIS-related osteopenia group.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study revealed that BMSCs from AIS-related osteopenia patients have lower autophagic activity, which may be related to the lower osteogenic capacity and higher adipogenic capacity of BMSCs and consequently lead to the lower bone mass in AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Scoliosis/genetics , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Osteogenesis/genetics , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/genetics , Kyphosis , Autophagy/genetics , Bone Marrow Cells , Cells, Cultured , Doublecortin-Like Kinases
19.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1279-1286, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on functional constipation (FC) at the combined lower he-sea and front-mu points of large intestine based on enteric neuronal autophagy.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 SPF Kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8), i.e. a control group, a model group, an acupuncture group, a 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) group, and a 3-MA + acupuncture group. Except the control group, the FC model was established by gavage with compound diphenoxylate suspension for 14 days in the other 4 groups. After successful modeling, the mice of the acupuncture group and the 3-MA + acupuncture group received EA at bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37), stimulated for 30 min with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz of frequency, 1 mA of intensity. EA was delivered once daily. One course of treatment was composed of 5 days and 2 courses were needed, with an interval of 2 days. An intraperitoneal injection of 3-MA (15 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before EA in the mice of the 3-MA group and the 3-MA + acupuncture group, once daily. Before and after intervention, the time of the first black stool defecation and defecation behaviors in 6 h were observed in each group. After intervention, in every group, the small intestine propulsion rate was calculated, the colon tissue morphology was observed using HE staining, the ultrastructure of enteric neuronal autophagy was observed under transmission electron microscope, and the expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1 and neuronal nuclear antigen protein (NeuN) in neurons of colonic muscularis were determined by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#Before intervention, when compared with those in the control group, the time of the first black stool defecation was prolonged (P<0.01, P<0.05), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01, P<0.05) and water content (P<0.05, P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were reduced in the model, acupuncture, 3-MA and 3-MA + acupuncture groups. After intervention, compared with those in the control group, the time of the first black stool defecation was longer (P<0.05), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were decreased in the model group. The time of the first black stool defecation was shortened (P<0.01), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were increased in the acupuncture group when compared with those in the model group. The time of the first black stool defecation was extended (P<0.01), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were declined in the 3-MA + acupuncture group in comparison with those in the acupuncture group. All layers of colon tissue were normal and intact in each group. When compared with the control group, the small intestine propulsion rate and the average optical density (OD) values of LC3, Beclin-1 and NeuN in neurons of colonic muscularis were decreased (P<0.01), and autophagosomes were dropped in the model group. In the acupuncture group, the small intestine propulsion rate and the average OD values of NeuN, LC3 and Beclin-1 in neurons of colonic muscularis increased (P<0.01,P<0.05), and autophagosomes were elevated when compared with those in the model group. The small intestine propulsion rate and the average OD values of NeuN, LC3 and Beclin-1 in neurons of colonic muscularis were dropped (P<0.05,P<0.01) in the 3-MA + acupuncture group in comparison with those in the acupuncture group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electroacupuncture may promote enteric neuronal autophagy and increase the number of neurons so that the intestinal motility can be improved and constipation symptoms can be relieved in FC mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Acupuncture Points , Constipation/therapy , Intestine, Small , Autophagy , Water
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 682-693, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010981

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important factor for the occurrence and development of CKD. The protective effect of dihydroartemisinin on AKI and and reported mechanism have not been reported. In this study, we used two animal models including ischemia-reperfusion and UUO, as well as a high-glucose-stimulated HK-2 cell model, to evaluate the protective effect of dihydroartemisinin on premature senescence of renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that dihydroartemisinin improved renal aging and renal injury by activating autophagy. In addition, we found that co-treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, abolished the anti-renal aging effect of dihydroartemisinin in vitro. These findings suggested that activation of autophagy/elimination of senescent cell might be a useful strategy to prevent AKI/UUO induced renal tubular senescence and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Kidney , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Ischemia , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Autophagy , Reperfusion
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