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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1348-1356, oct. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521029

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is highly expressed in various types of cancers including breast cancer. However, the role of AhR with its endogenous ligand 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) on the progression of breast cancer remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate cell proliferation and migration states in breast cancer after activating AhR with the endogenous ligand ITE. Breast cancer tissue was evaluated by cell lines, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cell proliferation, flow cytometry, migration assays and western blot techniques. We found that AhR was widely expressed in breast cancer tissues and metastasis lymph node tissues, but not in normal tissues. The expression AhR was independent between the age, grades and TNM classifications for breast cancer tissues. ITE treatment significantly induced the activation of AhR in a time-dependent manner in both MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, ITE did not affect the cell migration but significantly suppressed the cell proliferation in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 andT47D cells, which probably attribute to the induction of cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and shortened S phase. Further mechanism study showed that ERK1/2 and AKT signaling were required for the activation of AhR in MCF-7 cells. These data suggest that AhR is a potential new target for treating patients with breast cancer. ITE may be more potentially used for therapeutic intervention for breast cancer with the kind of ER(+).


El receptor de hidrocarburo de arilo (AhR) es un factor de transcripción activado por ligando que se expresa en gran medida en varios tipos de cáncer, incluido el cáncer de mama. Sin embargo, el papel de AhR con su ligando endógeno 2- (1'H-indol-3'-carbonil)-tiazol-4-ácido carboxílico metil éster (ITE) en la progresión del cáncer de mama sigue siendo poco conocido. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la proliferación celular y los estados de migración en el cáncer de mama después de activar AhR con el ligando endógeno ITE. El tejido de cáncer de mama se evaluó mediante líneas celulares, inmunohistoquímica, reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa, proliferación celular, citometría de flujo, ensayos de migración y técnicas de transferencia Western. Descubrimos que AhR se expresó ampliamente en tejidos de cáncer de mama y en linfonodos con metástasis, pero no en tejidos normales. La expresión AhR fue independiente entre la edad, grados y clasificaciones TNM para tejidos de cáncer de mama. El tratamiento con ITE indujo significativamente la activación de AhR de manera dependiente del tiempo en las líneas celulares de cancer de mama MCF-7 y T47D. Mientras tanto, ITE no afectó la migración celular, pero suprimió significativamente la proliferación celular en células MCF-7 y T47D con receptor de estrógeno positivo (ER+), lo que probablemente se atribuye a la inducción de la detención del ciclo celular en la fase G1 y la fase S acortada. Un estudio adicional del mecanismo mostró que las señales de ERK1/2 y AKT eran necesarias para la activación de AhR en las células MCF-7. Estos datos sugieren que AhR es un nuevo objetivo potencial para el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer de mama. ITE puede ser utilizado más potencialmente en la intervención terapéutica para el cáncer de mama con el tipo de ER (+).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/drug effects , Indoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Estrogen , Blotting, Western , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Migration Assays , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1/genetics , Flow Cytometry , Indoles/pharmacology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 431-436, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440308

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad periodontal es una de las principales causas de pérdida dentaria. Clínicamente, esta patología, mediada por la desregulación del sistema inmune producto de una disbiosis ocurrida en el surco gingival, inicia con la inflamación de la encía y evoluciona con el daño irreversible de los tejidos que rodean el diente. El hueso alveolar es uno de los tejidos afectados esta patología, esto debido a la activación de osteoclastos por la sobreexpresión de la proteína RANKL en el huésped. El propósito de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de sobreexpresión de RANKL, en un modelo de células tumorales U2OS, frente a la infección con Porphyromonas gingivalis y Prevotella intermedia. Para identificar el nivel de RANKL, se definieron cuatro grupos: Un grupo control, no tratado; Grupo PG, tratado con P. gingivalis; Grupo PI, tratado con P. Intermedia; y un grupo PG+PI, tratado con ambas bacterias. El nivel relativo de la proteína RANKL fue determinado en el sobrenadante y en los extractos celulares de manera independiente, mediante la técnica Western blot. En sobrenadantes, el grupo PG mostró mayores niveles de RANKL comparados con PI (p < 0,05). En extractos celulares los niveles fueron mayores en el grupo PG+PI (p < 0,05). El grupo PI mostró los niveles más bajos de RANKL. La infección polimicrobiana resulta en una mayor expresión de RANKL en células tumorales U2OS, mientras que frente a la infección P. gingivalis, se observó mayor cantidad de RANKL soluble.


SUMMARY: Periodontal disease is one of the main causes of tooth loss. Clinically, this pathology, mediated by the deregulation of the immune system due to a dysbiosis occurred in the gingival sulcus, begins with the inflammation of the gum and evolves with the irreversible damage of the tissues that surround the tooth. Alveolar bone is one of the most affected tissues by this disease, due to the activation of osteoclasts by the upregulation of RANKL in the host. The aim of this study is to determine the increase of RANKL, in a U2OS tumor cells model, inoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. To identify the level of RANKL, four groups were defined: A control group, not treated; PG group, treated with P.gingivalis; PI group, treated with P. intermedia; and a PG+PI group, treated with both bacteria. The relative level of RANKL was determined in the supernatant and cell extracts independently, using the Western blot technique. In supernatants, the PG group showed higher RANKL levels compared to PI (p < 0.05). In cell extracts the levels were higher in the PG+PI group (p < 0.05.). The PI group showed the lowest levels of RANKL.Polymicrobial infection results in a greater expression of of soluble RANKL was observed.


Subject(s)
Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/physiology , Bone Resorption/microbiology , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Porphyromonas gingivalis/physiology , Prevotella intermedia/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Electrophoresis , RANK Ligand/analysis
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 308-318, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430503

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Gastrin plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Its expression is up-regulated in GC tissues and several GC cell lines. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. Here, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of gastrin in GC proliferation. Gastrin-overexpressing GC cell model was constructed using SGC7901 cells. Then the differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ analysis. Next, we use flow cytometry and immunofluorescence to study the effect of gastrin on the mitochondrial potential and mitochondria-derived ROS production. Finally, we studied the underlying mechanism of gastrin regulating mitochondrial function using Co-IP, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence. Overexpression of gastrin promoted GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. A total of 173 proteins were expressed differently between the controls and gastrin- overexpression cells and most of these proteins were involved in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Among them, Cox17, Cox5B and ATP5J that were all localized to the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in gastrin-overexpression cells. Furthermore, gastrin overexpression led to mitochondrial potential decrease and mitochondria-derived ROS increase. Additionally, gastrin-induced ROS generation resulted in the inhibition of cell apoptosis via activating NF-kB, inhibiting Bax expression and promoting Bcl-2 expression. Finally, we found gastrin interacted with mitochondrial membrane protein Annexin A2 using Co-IP and mass spectrometry. Overexpr ession of gastrin inhibits GC cell apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction through interacting with mitochondrial protein Annexin A2, then up-regulating ROS production to activate NF-kB and further leading to Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decrease.


La gastrina juega un papel vital en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico (CG). Su expresión está regulada al alza en tejidos de CG y en varias líneas celulares de CG. Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente aun no se ha investigado. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el papel y el mecanismo de la gastrina en la proliferación de CG. El modelo de células CG que sobre expresan gastrina se construyó usando células SGC7901. Luego, las proteínas expresadas diferencialmente se identificaron mediante análisis iTRAQ. A continuación, utilizamos la citometría de flujo y la inmunofluorescencia para estudiar el efecto de la gastrina en el potencial mitocondrial y la producción de ROS derivada de las mitocondrias. Finalmente, estudiamos el mecanismo subyacente de la gastrina que regula la función mitocondrial utilizando Co-IP, espectrometría de masas e inmunofluorescencia. La sobreexpresión de gastrina promovió la proliferación de células CG in vitro e in vivo. Un total de 173 proteínas se expresaron de manera diferente entre los controles y las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina y la mayoría de estas proteínas estaban implicadas en la tumorigenesis y la proliferación celular. Entre estas, Cox17, Cox5B y ATP5J, todas localizadas en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial, estaban reguladas a la baja en las células con sobreexpresión de gastrina. Además, la sobreexpresión de gastrina provocó una disminución del potencial mitocondrial y un aumento de las ROS derivadas de las mitocondrias. Por otra parte, la generación de ROS inducida por gastrina resultó en la inhibición de la apoptosis celular mediante la activación de NF-kB, inhibiendo la expresión de Bax y promoviendo la expresión de Bcl-2. Finalmente, encontramos que la gastrina interactuaba con la proteína de membrana mitocondrial Anexina A2 usando Co-IP y espectrometría de masas. La sobreexpresión de gastrina inhibe la apoptosis de las células CG al inducir la disfunción mitocondrial a través de la interacción con la proteína mitocondrial Anexina A2, luego regula el aumento de la producción de ROS para activar NF-kB y conduce aún más a la disminución de la relación Bax/Bcl-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrins/metabolism , Annexin A2/metabolism , Mitochondria/pathology , Mass Spectrometry , NF-kappa B , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunoprecipitation , Cell Proliferation , Carcinogenesis , Flow Cytometry
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 286-296, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430539

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and colorectal cancer is the only cancer that has shown a sustained increase in mortality in the last decade. In the search for new chemotherapeutic agents against cancer, extremophilic microorganisms have shown to be a potential source to obtain molecules of natural origin and with selective cytotoxic action towards cancer cells. In this work we analyzed the ability of a collection of Antarctic soil bacteria, isolated on Collins Glacier from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica Desv plant, to secrete molecules capable of inhibiting cell proliferation of a colorectal cancer tumor line. Our results demonstrated that culture supernatants from the Antarctic bacteria K2I17 and MI12 decreased the viability of LoVo cells, a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the Antarctic bacteria showed that they were taxonomically related and nucleotide identity analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the bacterium K2I17 as a species belonging to the genus Bacillus.


El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y el cáncer colorrectal es el único que presenta un aumento sostenido de la mortalidad en la última década. En la búsqueda de nuevos agentes quimioterapeúticos contra el cáncer, se ha propuesto a los microorganismos extremófilos como una fuente potencial para obtener moléculas de origen natural y con acción citotóxica selectiva hacia las células cancerígenas. En este trabajo analizamos la capacidad de una colección de bacterias de suelo antártico, aisladas en el glaciar Collins desde rizosfera de la planta de Deschampsia antarctica Desv, de secretar moléculas capaces de inhibir la proliferación celular de una línea tumoral de cáncer colorrectal. Nuestros resultados demostraron que los sobrenadantes de cultivo de las bacterias antárticas K2I17 y MI12 disminuyeron la viabilidad de la línea celular de adenocarcinoma colorrectal LoVo, en un ensayo de reducción metabólica de MTT. La caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de las bacterias antárticas, demostró que estaban relacionadas taxonómicamente y el análisis de la identidad nucleotídica en base a la secuencia del gen ARNr 16S identificó a la bacteria K2I17 como una especie perteneciente al género Bacillus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/physiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phenotype , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Survival/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Genotype , Antarctic Regions
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 594-604, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984755

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the mechanism of Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) in promoting cell migration, invasion and proliferation in pancreatic cancer. Methods: The correlation between DCLK1 and Hippo pathway was analyzed using TCGA and GTEx databases and confirmed by fluorescence staining of pancreatic cancer tissue microarrays. At the cellular level, immunofluorescence staining of cell crawls and western blot assays were performed to clarify whether DCLK1 regulates yes associated protein1 (YAP1), a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to analyze the expressions of YAP1 binding transcription factor TEA-DNA binding proteins (TEAD) and downstream malignant behavior-promoting molecules CYR61, EDN1, AREG, and CTGF. Transwell test of the DCLK1-overexpressing cells treated with the Hippo pathway inhibitor Verteporfin was used to examine whether the malignant behavior-promoting ability was blocked. Analysis of changes in the proliferation index of experimental cells used real-time label-free cells. Results: TCGA combined with GTEx data analysis showed that the expressions of DCLK1 and YAP1 molecules in pancreatic cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (P<0.05). Moreover, DCLK1was positively correlated with the expressions of many effectors in the Hippo pathway, including LATS1 (r=0.53, P<0.001), LATS2 (r=0.34, P<0.001), MOB1B (r=0.40, P<0.001). In addition, the tissue microarray of pancreatic cancer patients was stained with multicolor fluorescence, indicated that the high expression of DCLK1 in pancreatic cancer patients was accompanied by the up-regulated expression of YAP1. The expression of DCLK1 in pancreatic cancer cell lines was analyzed by the CCLE database. The results showed that the expression of DCLK1 in AsPC-1 and PANC-1 cells was low. Thus, we overexpressed DCLK1 in AsPC-1 and PANC-1 cell lines and found that DCLK1 overexpression in pancreatic cancer cell lines promoted YAP1 expression and accessible to the nucleus. In addition, DCLK1 up-regulated the expression of YAP1 binding transcription factor TEAD and increased the mRNA expression levels of downstream malignant behavior-promoting molecules. Finally, Verteporfin, an inhibitor of the Hippo pathway, could antagonize the cell's malignant behavior-promoting ability mediated by high expression of DCLK1. We found that the number of migrated cells with DCLK1 overexpressing AsPC-1 group was 68.33±7.09, which was significantly higher than 22.00±4.58 of DCLK1 overexpressing cells treated with Verteporfin (P<0.05). Similarly, the migration number of PANC-1 cells overexpressing DCLK1 was 65.66±8.73, which was significantly higher than 37.00±6.00 of the control group and 32.33±9.61 of Hippo pathway inhibitor-treated group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the number of invasive cells in the DCLK1-overexpressed group was significantly higher than that in the DCLK1 wild-type group cells, while the Verteporfin-treated DCLK1-overexpressed cells showed a significant decrease. In addition, we monitored the cell proliferation index using the real-time cellular analysis (RTCA) assay, and the proliferation index of DCLK1-overexpressed AsPC-1 cells was 0.66±0.04, which was significantly higher than 0.38±0.01 of DCLK1 wild-type AsPC-1 cells (P<0.05) as well as 0.05±0.03 of DCLK1-overexpressed AsPC1 cells treated with Verteporfin (P<0.05). PANC-1 cells showed the same pattern, with a proliferation index of 0.77±0.04 for DCLK1-overexpressed PANC-1 cells, significantly higher than DCLK1-overexpressed PANC1 cells after Verteporfin treatment (0.14±0.05, P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of DCLK1 is remarkably associated with the Hippo pathway, it promotes the migration, invasion, and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells by activating the Hippo pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Doublecortin-Like Kinases , Hippo Signaling Pathway , Verteporfin/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , YAP-Signaling Proteins , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 499-507, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984749

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the mechanisms involvement in Alisertib-resistant colorectal cells and explore a potential target to overcome Alisertib-resistance. Methods: Drug-resistant colon cancer cell line (named as HCT-8-7T cells) was established and transplanted into immunodeficient mice. The metastasis in vivo were observed. Proliferation and migration of HCT-8-7T cells and their parental cells were assessed by colony formation and Transwell assay, respectively. Glycolytic capacity and glutamine metabolism of cells were analyzed by metabolism assays. The protein and mRNA levels of critical factors which are involved in mediating glycolysis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined by western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR), respectively. Results: In comparison with the mice transplanted with HCT-8 cells, which were survival with limited metastatic tumor cells in organs, aggressive metastases were observed in liver, lung, kidney and ovary of HCT-8-7T transplanted mice (P<0.05). The levels of ATP [(0.10±0.01) mmol/L], glycolysis [(81.77±8.21) mpH/min] and the capacity of glycolysis [(55.50±3.48) mpH/min] in HCT-8-7T cells were higher than those of HCT-8 cells [(0.04±0.01) mmol/L, (27.77±2.55) mpH/min and(14.00±1.19) mpH/min, respectively, P<0.05]. Meanwhile, the levels of p53 protein and mRNA in HCT-8-7T cells were potently decreased as compared to that in HCT-8 cells (P<0.05). However, the level of miRNA-125b (2.21±0.12) in HCT-8-7T cells was significantly elevated as compared to that in HCT-8 cells (1.00±0.00, P<0.001). In HCT-8-7T cells, forced-expression of p53 reduced the colon number (162.00±24.00) and the migration [(18.53±5.67)%] as compared with those in cells transfected with control vector [274.70±40.50 and (100.00±29.06)%, P<0.05, respectively]. Similarly, miR-125b mimic decreased the glycolysis [(25.28±9.51) mpH/min] in HCT-8-7T cells as compared with that [(54.38±12.70)mpH/min, P=0.003] in HCT-8-7T cells transfected with control. Meanwhile, in comparison with control transfected HCT-8-7T cells, miR-125b mimic also significantly led to an increase in the levels of p53 and β-catenin, in parallel with a decrease in the levels of PFK1 and HK1 in HCT-8-7T cells (P<0.05). Conclusions: Silencing of p53 by miR-125b could be one of the mechanisms that contributes to Alisertib resistance. Targeting miR-125b could be a strategy to overcome Alisertib resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Humans , Azepines , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 490-498, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984748

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of lenvatinib on regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods: CCK-8 and clone formation assay were used to observe the inhibitory effect of lenvatinib on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells treated with lenvatinib. The expression levels of related proteins were detected by western blot and immunohistochemical staining. The inhibitory effect of lenvatinib on the tumor formation ability of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo was observed by subcutaneous tumor formation experiment in mice. Results: CCK-8 and clone formation assay showed that lenvatinib could inhibit the proliferation of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The number of clones of HepG2, SMMC7721 and regorafenib-resistant HepG2, SMMC7721 cells in lenvatinib group (120.67±11.06, 53.00±11.14, 55.00±9.54, 78.67±14.64) were all lower than those in control group (478.00±24.52, 566.00±27.87, 333.67±7.02, 210.00±12.77, all P<0.05). Flow cytometry showed that lenvatinib could promote apoptosis of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells, the apoptosis rates of HepG2, SMMC7721 and regorafenib-resistant HepG2, SMMC7721 cells in lenvatinib group [(12.30±0.70)%, (9.83±0.38)%, (15.90±1.32)%, (10.60±0.00)%] were all higher than those in control group [(7.50±0.87)%, (5.00±1.21)%, (8.10±1.61)%, (7.05±0.78)%, all P<0.05]. The apoptosis-related protein levels suggested that apoptosis was increased in the treatment of lenvatinib. The animal study showed that lenvatinib can inhibit the growth of regorafenib-resistant cells in vivo. Immunohistochemistry and western blot results showed that lenvatinib could down-regulate the abnormally activated IGF1R/Mek/Erk signaling pathway in regorafenib-resistant cells. Conclusion: Lenvatinib can reverse regorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly by down-regulating IGF1R/Mek/Erk signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 482-489, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984747

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) knockdown on the migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) KYSE-450 cell and underlying mechanism. Methods: Lentiviral transfection was conducted to establish sh-NC control cell and ACC1 knocking down cell (sh-ACC1). Human siRNA HSP27 and control were transfected by Lipo2000 to get si-HSP27 and si-NC. The selective acetyltransferase P300/CBP inhibitor C646 was used to inhibit histone acetylation and DMSO was used as vehicle control. Transwell assay was performed to detect cell migration. The expression of HSP27 mRNA was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the expressions of ACC1, H3K9ac, HSP27 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins E-cadherin and Vimentin were detected by western blot. Results: The expression level of ACC1 in sh-NC group was higher than that in sh-ACC1 group (P<0.01). The number of cell migration in sh-NC group was (159.00±24.38), lower than (361.80±26.81) in sh-ACC1 group (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-NC group were statistically significant compared with sh-AAC1 group (P<0.05). The migrated cell number in sh-NC+ si-NC group was (189.20±16.02), lower than (371.60±38.40) in sh-ACC1+ si-NC group (P<0.01). The migrated cell number in sh-NC+ si-NC group was higher than that in sh-NC+ si-HSP27 group (152.40±24.30, P<0.01), and the migrated cell number in sh-ACC1+ si-NC group was higher than that in sh-ACC1+ si-HSP27 group (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-NC+ si-NC group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ si-NC and sh-NC+ si-HSP27 groups (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-ACC1+ si-NC group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ si-HSP27 group (P<0.01). After 24 h treatment with C646 at 20 μmmo/L, the migrated cell number in sh-NC+ DMSO group was (190.80±11.95), lower than (395.80±17.10) in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group (P<0.01). The migrated cell number in sh-NC+ DMSO group was lower than that in sh-NC+ C646 group (256.20±23.32, P<0.01). The migrated cell number in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group was higher than that in sh-ACC1+ C646 group (87.80±11.23, P<0.01). The protein expressions of H3K9ac, HSP27, E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-NC+ DMSO group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group and sh-NC+ C646 group (P<0.01). The protein expression levels of H3K9ac, HSP27, E-cadherin and Vimentin in sh-ACC1+ DMSO group were significantly different from those in sh-ACC1+ C646 group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Knockdown of ACC1 promotes the migration of KYSE-450 cell by up-regulating HSP27 and increasing histone acetylation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Cadherins/metabolism , Cell Movement , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 471-481, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984746

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of lncRNA DRAIC on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells and its mechanism. Methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of DRAIC in lung cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues of 40 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery in Tangshan People's Hospital from 2019 to 2020. Lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and H1299 were cultured in vitro and divided into si-NC group, si-DRAIC group, miR-NC group, let-7i-5p mimics group, si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group, and si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group. CCK-8 method and clone formation experiment were used to detect cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Transwell array was used to detect the cell migration and invasion. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax. The double luciferase reporter gene experiment was used to verify the regulatory relationship between DRAIC and let-7i-5p. Independent sample t test was used for comparison between two groups, one-way ANOVA was used for comparison between multiple groups, and Pearson correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis. Results: Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression level of DRAIC in lung adenocarcinoma tissues increased (P<0.05), but the expression level of let-7i-5p decreased (P<0.05). The expression levels of DRAIC and let-7i-5p in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were negatively correlated (r=-0.737, P<0.05). The absorbance value of A549 and H1299 cells in the si-DRAIC group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(91.00±6.08 vs. 136.67±6.51); (50.67±1.53 vs. 76.67±4.51)], the number of migration [(606.67±31.34 vs. 960.00±33.06); (483.33±45.96 vs. 741.67±29.67)], the number of invasion [(185.00±8.19 vs. 447.33±22.05); (365.00±33.87 vs. 688.00±32.97)] were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(13.43±2.79)% vs. (4.53±0.42)%; (23.77±1.04)% vs. (6.60±1.42)%] were higher than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in si-DRAIC group were higher than those in si-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in si-NC group (P<0.05). DRAIC is located in the cytoplasm. DRAIC targeted and negatively regulated the expression of let-7i-5p. The absorbance values of A549 and H1299 cells in the let-7i-5p mimics group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were lower than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(131.33±14.47 vs. 171.33±6.11); (59.33±4.93 vs. 80.33±7.09)], the number of migration [(137.67±3.06 vs. 579.33±82.03); (425.00±11.14 vs. 669.33±21.13)], the number of invasion [(54.00±4.36 vs. 112.67±11.59); (80.00±4.58 vs. 333.33±16.80)] were lower than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(14.57±1.10)% vs. (6.97±1.11)%; (23.97±0.42)% vs. (7.07±1.21)%] were higher than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in let-7i-5p mimics group were higher than those in miR-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in miR-NC group (P<0.05). The absorbance values of A549 and H1299 cells in the si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were higher than those in the si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(82.00±5.29 vs. 59.00±5.57); (77.67±4.93 vs. 41.33±7.57)], the number of migration [(774.33±35.81 vs. 455.67±19.04); (569.67±18.72 vs. 433.67±16.77)], the number of invasion [(670.33±17.21 vs. 451.00±17.52); (263.67±3.06 vs. 182.33±11.93)] were higher than those in the si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(7.73±0.45)% vs. (19.13±1.50)%; (8.00±0.53)% vs. (28.40±0.53)%] were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group were higher than those in si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05). Conclusion: DRAIC is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and DRAIC promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells and inhibits apoptosis by targeting let-7i-5p.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 389-395, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984734

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct a new co-cultured liver cancer research model composed of activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSC) and liver cancer cells, explore the efficacy difference between it and traditional model, so as to establish a liver cancer research model in vitro and in vivo that can reflect the real clinical efficacy. Methods: A new co-culture model of liver cancer consisting of aHSC and liver cancer cells was constructed. The differences in efficacy between the new co-culture model and the traditional single cell model were compared by cytotoxicity test, cell migration test, drug retention test and in vivo tumor inhibition test. Western blot was used to detect the drug-resistant protein P-gp and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins. Masson staining was used to observe the deposition of collagen fibers in tumor tissues of tumor-bearing mice. CD31 immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the microvessel density in tumor tissues of tumor-bearing mice. Results: The cytotoxicity of single cell model and co-culture model was dose-dependent. With the increase of curcumin (CUR) concentration, the cell viability decreased, but the cell viability of single cell model decreased faster than that of co-culture model. When the concentration of CUR was 10 μg/ml, the cell viability of the co-culture model was 62.3% and the migration rate was (28.05±3.68)%, which were higher than those of the single cell model [38.5% and (14.91±5.92)%, both P<0.05]. Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of P-gp and vimentin were up-regulated in the co-culture model, which were 1.55 and 2.04 fold changes of the single cell model, respectively. The expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated, and the expression level of E-cadherin in the single cell model was 1.17 fold changes of the co-culture model. Drug retention experiment showed that the co-culture model could promote drug efflux and reduce drug retention. In vivo tumor inhibition experiment showed that the m-HSC+ H22 co-transplantation model had faster tumor growth and larger tumor volume than those of the H22 single cell transplantation model. After CUR treatment, the tumor growths of m-HSC+ H22 co-transplantation model and H22 single cell transplantation model were inhibited. Masson staining showed that the deposition of collagen fibers in tumor tissues of m-HSC+ H22 co-transplantation model mice was more than that of H22 single cell transplantation model. CD31 immunohistochemical staining showed that the microvessel density in tumor tissue of m-HSC+ H22 co-transplantation model was higher than that of H22 single cell transplantation model. Conclusions: The aHSC+ liver cancer cell co-culture model has strong proliferation and metastasis ability and is easy to be resistant to drugs. It is a new type of liver cancer treatment research model superior to the traditional single cell model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Tumor Microenvironment , Coculture Techniques , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Cadherins , Curcumin/pharmacology , Collagen , Cell Line, Tumor
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 375-381, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984732

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of S100A7 inducing the migration and invasion in cervical cancers. Methods: Tissue samples of 5 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma were collected from May 2007 to December 2007 in the Department of Gynecology of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of S100A7 in cervical carcinoma tissues. S100A7-overexpressing HeLa and C33A cells were established with lentiviral systems as the experimental group. Immunofluorescence assay was performed to observe the cell morphology. Transwell assay was taken to detect the effect of S100A7-overexpression on the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to examine the mRNA expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin. The expression of extracellular S100A7 in conditioned medium of cervical cancer cell was detected by western blot. Conditioned medium was added into Transwell lower compartment to detect cell motility. Exosomes were isolated and extracted from the culture supernatant of cervical cancer cell, the expressions of S100A7, CD81 and TSG101 were detected by western blot. Transwell assay was taken to detect the effect of exosomes on the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Results: S100A7 expression was positively expressed in cervical squamous carcinoma and negative expression in adenocarcinoma. Stable S100A7-overexpressing HeLa and C33A cells were successfully constructed. C33A cells in the experimental group were spindle shaped while those in the control group tended to be polygonal epithelioid cells. The number of S100A7-overexpressed HeLa cells passing through the Transwell membrane assay was increased significantly in migration and invasion assay (152.00±39.22 vs 105.13±15.75, P<0.05; 115.38±34.57 vs 79.50±13.68, P<0.05). RT-qPCR indicated that the mRNA expressions of E-cadherin in S100A7-overexpressed HeLa and C33A cells decreased (P<0.05) while the mRNA expressions of N-cadherin and fibronectin in HeLa cells and fibronectin in C33A cells increased (P<0.05). Western blot showed that extracellular S100A7 was detected in culture supernatant of cervical cancer cells. HeLa cells of the experimental group passing through transwell membrane in migration and invasion assays were increased significantly (192.60±24.41 vs 98.80±47.24, P<0.05; 105.40±27.38 vs 84.50±13.51, P<0.05) when the conditional medium was added into the lower compartment of Transwell. Exosomes from C33A cell culture supernatant were extracted successfully, and S100A7 expression was positive. The number of transmembrane C33A cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells of the experimental group was increased significantly (251.00±49.82 vs 143.00±30.85, P<0.05; 524.60±52.74 vs 389.00±63.23, P<0.05). Conclusion: S100A7 may promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells by epithelial-mesenchymal transition and exosome secretion.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , HeLa Cells , Fibronectins/metabolism , Culture Media, Conditioned , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma , Cadherins/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Cell Movement , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , S100 Calcium Binding Protein A7/metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 322-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984725

ABSTRACT

Objective: To produce chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) targeting human hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met (HGF/c-Met) protein and detect its cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells H1975 in vitro. Methods: The whole gene sequence of c-Met CAR containing c-Met single-chain fragment variable was synthesized and linked to lentiviral vector plasmid, plasmid electrophoresis was used to detect the correctness of target gene. HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmid and the concentrated solution of the virus particles was collected. c-Met CAR lentivirus was transfected into T cells to obtain second-generation c-Met CAR-T and the expression of CAR sequences was verified by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot, and the positive rate and cell subtypes of c-Met CAR-T cells were detected by flow cytometry. The positive expression of c-Met protein in NSCLC cell line H1975 was verified by flow cytometry, and the negative expression of c-Met protein in ovarian cancer cell line A2780 was selected as the control. The cytotoxicity of c-Met CAR-T to H1975 was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay at 1∶1, 5∶1, 10∶1 and 20∶1 of effector: target cell ratio (E∶T). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ from c-Met CAR-T co-cultured with H1975. Results: The size of band was consistent with that of designed c-Met CAR, suggesting that the c-Met CAR plasmid was successfully constructed. The results of gene sequencing were consistent with the original design sequence and lentivirus was successfully constructed. CAR molecules expression in T cells infected with lentivirus was detected by western blot and RT-qPCR, which showed c-Met CAR-T were successfully constructed. Flow cytometry results showed that the infection efficiency of c-Met CAR in T cells was over 38.4%, and the proportion of CD8(+) T cells was increased after lentivirus infection. The NSCLC cell line H1975 highly expressed c-Met while ovarian cancer cell line A2780 negatively expressed c-Met. LDH cytotoxicity assay indicated that the killing efficiency was positively correlated with the E∶T, and higher than that of control group, and the killing rate reached 51.12% when the E∶T was 20∶1. ELISA results showed that c-Met CAR-T cells released more IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ in target cell stimulation, but there was no statistical difference between c-Met CAR-T and T cells in the non-target group. Conclusions: Human NSCLC cell H1975 expresses high level of c-Met which can be used as a target for immunotherapy. CAR-T cells targeting c-Met have been successfully produced and have high killing effect on c-Met positive NSCLC cells in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Interleukin-2/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cell Line, Tumor , HEK293 Cells , Lung Neoplasms , Ovarian Neoplasms , Immunotherapy, Adoptive
13.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 185-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971677

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the third most common malignancy with a high recurrence and metastasis rate in South China. Natural compounds extracted from traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been developed and utilized for the treatment of a variety of cancers with modest properties and slight side effects. Maackiain (MA) is a type of flavonoid that was first isolated from leguminous plants, and it has been reported to relieve various nervous system disorders and exert anti-allergic as well as anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we demonstrated that MA inhibited proliferation, arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 and CNE2 cells in vitro and in vivo. The expression of the related proteins associated with these processes were consistent with the above effects. Moreover, transcriptome sequencing and subsequent Western blot experiments revealed that inhibition of the MAPK/Ras pathway may be responsible to the anti-tumor effect of MA on NPC cells. Therefore, the effects of MA and an activator of this pathway, tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), alone or combination, were investigated. The results showed TBHQ neutralized the inhibitory effects of MA. These data suggest that MA exerts its anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the MAPK/Ras signaling pathway and it has the potential to become a treatment for patients with NPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Signal Transduction , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 36-46, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971662

ABSTRACT

Bavachin is a dihydroflavonoid compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia, and exhibits anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and lipid-lowering activities. Recent attention has gradually drawn on bavachin-induced apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms in colorectal cancer remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of bavachin on colorectal cancer in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that bavachin inhibited the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and induce apoptosis. These changes were mediated by activating the MAPK signaling pathway, which significantly up-regulated the expression of Gadd45a. Furthermore, Gadd45a silencing obviously attenuated bavachin-mediated cell apoptosis. Inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway by JNK/ERK/p38 inhibitors also weakened the up-regulation of Gadd45a by bavachin. The anticancer effect of bavachin was also validated using a mouse xenograft model of human colorectal cancer. In conclusion, these findings suggest that bavachin induces the apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells through activating the MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signal Transduction , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Proteins/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Cycle Proteins/pharmacology
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 120-129, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971656

ABSTRACT

Globally, it is evident that glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignant cancer with a high mortality rate and no effective treatment options. Glioblastoma is classified as the stage-four progression of a glioma tumor, and its diagnosis results in a shortened life expectancy. Treatment options for GBM include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgical intervention, and conventional pharmacotherapy; however, at best, they extend the patient's life by a maximum of 5 years. GBMs are considered incurable due to their high recurrence rate, despite various aggressive therapeutic approaches which can have many serious adverse effects. Ceramides, classified as endocannabinoids, offer a promising novel therapeutic approach for GBM. Endocannabinoids may enhance the apoptosis of GBM cells but have no effect on normal healthy neural cells. Cannabinoids promote atypical protein kinase C, deactivate fatty acid amide hydrolase enzymes, and activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPV2 to induce pro-apoptotic signaling pathways without increasing endogenous cannabinoids. In previous in vivo studies, endocannabinoids, chemically classified as amide formations of oleic and palmitic acids, have been shown to increase the pro-apoptotic activity of human cancer cells and inhibit cell migration and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the biological synthesis and pharmacology of endogenous cannabinoids for the enhancement of cancer cell apoptosis, which have potential as a novel therapy for GBM. Please cite this article as: Duzan A, Reinken D, McGomery TL, Ferencz N, Plummer JM, Basti MM. Endocannabinoids are potential inhibitors of glioblastoma multiforme proliferation. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 120-128.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma/pathology , Endocannabinoids/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 184-193, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Physical exercise, a common non-drug intervention, is an important strategy in cancer treatment, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. Due to the importance of hypoxia and cancer stemness in the development of HCC, the present study investigated whether the anti-HCC effect of physical exercise is related to its suppression on hypoxia and cancer stemness.@*METHODS@#A physical exercise intervention of swimming (30 min/d, 5 d/week, for 4 weeks) was administered to BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous human HCC tumor. The anti-HCC effect of swimming was assessed in vivo by tumor weight monitoring, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. The expression of stemness transcription factors, including Nanog homeobox (NANOG), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), v-Myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (C-MYC) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), was detected using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A hypoxia probe was used to explore the intratumoral hypoxia status. Western blot was used to detect the expression of HIF-1α and proteins related to protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway. The IHC analysis of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31), and the immunofluorescence co-location of CD31 and desmin were used to analyze tumor blood perfusion. SMMC-7721 cells were treated with nude mice serum. The inhibition effect on cancer stemness in vitro was detected using suspension sphere experiments and the expression of stemness transcription factors. The hypoxia status was inferred by measuring the protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α. Further, the expression of proteins related to Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was detected.@*RESULTS@#Swimming significantly reduced the body weight and tumor weight in nude mice bearing HCC tumor. HE staining and IHC results showed a lower necrotic area ratio as well as fewer PCNA or Ki67 positive cells in mice receiving the swimming intervention. Swimming potently alleviated the intratumoral hypoxia, attenuated the cancer stemness, and inhibited the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, the desmin+/CD31+ ratio, rather than the number of CD31+ vessels, was significantly increased in swimming-treated mice. In vitro experiments showed that treating cells with the serum from the swimming intervention mice significantly reduced the formation of SMMC-7721 cell suspension sphere, as well as the mRNA expression level of stemness transcription factors. Consistent with the in vivo results, HIF-1α and Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway were also inhibited in cells treated with serum from swimming group.@*CONCLUSION@#Swimming alleviated hypoxia and attenuated cancer stemness in HCC, through suppression of the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. The alleviation of intratumoral hypoxia was related to the increase in blood perfusion in the tumor. Please cite this article as: Xiao CL, Zhong ZP, Lü C, Guo BJ, Chen JJ, Zhao T, Yin ZF, Li B. Physical exercise suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma progression by alleviating hypoxia and attenuating cancer stemness through the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 184-193.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/therapeutic use , Mice, Nude , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/genetics , beta Catenin/therapeutic use , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Desmin/therapeutic use , Ki-67 Antigen , Cell Line, Tumor , Hypoxia , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation
17.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 62-76, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The current study evaluated various new colchicine analogs for their anticancer activity and to study the primary mechanism of apoptosis and in vivo antitumor activity of the analogs with selective anticancer properties and minimal toxicity to normal cells.@*METHODS@#Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to screen various colchicine analogs for their in vitro cytotoxicity. The effect of N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-(pyrrolidine-1-yl)5,6,7,9-tetrahydrobenzo[a] heptalene-7-yl] acetamide (IIIM-067) on clonogenicity, apoptotic induction, and invasiveness of A549 cells was determined using a clonogenic assay, scratch assay, and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and annexin V/propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were observed using fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis was used to quantify expression of proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy studies against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Ehrlich solid tumor models were conducted using Swiss albino mice.@*RESULTS@#IIIM-067 showed potent cytotoxicity and better selectivity than all other colchicine analogs screened in this study. The selective activity of IIIM-067 toward A549 cells was higher among other cancer cell lines, with a selectivity index (SI) value of 2.28. IIIM-067 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity against A549 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.207, 0.150 and 0.106 μmol/L at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. It also had reduced toxicity to normal cells (SI > 1) than the parent compound colchicine (SI = 1). IIIM-067 reduced the clonogenic ability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. IIIM-067 enhanced ROS production from 24.6% at 0.05 μmol/L to 82.1% at 0.4 μmol/L and substantially decreased the MMP (100% in control to 5.6% at 0.4 μmol/L). The annexin V-FITC assay demonstrated 78% apoptosis at 0.4 μmol/L. IIIM-067 significantly (P < 0.5) induced the expression of various intrinsic apoptotic pathway proteins, and it differentially regulated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, IIIM-067 exhibited remarkable in vivo anticancer activity against the murine EAC model, with tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 67.0% at a dose of 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and a reduced mortality compared to colchicine. IIIM-067 also effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the murine solid tumor model with TGI rates of 48.10%, 55.68% and 44.00% at doses of 5 mg/kg (i.p.), 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and 7 mg/kg (p.o.), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#IIIM-067 exhibited significant anticancer activity with reduced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo and is a promising anticancer candidate. However, further studies are required in clinical settings to fully understand its potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Colchicine/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mammals/metabolism
18.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 132-142, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971627

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor that mainly occurs in East and Southeast Asia. Although patients benefit from the main NPC treatments (e.g., radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy), persistent and recurrent diseases still occur in some NPC patients. Therefore, investigating the pathogenesis of NPC is of great clinical significance. In the present study, replication factor c subunit 4 (RFC4) is a key potential target involved in NPC progression via bioinformatics analysis. Furthermore, the expression and mechanism of RFC4 in NPC were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that RFC4 was more elevated in NPC tumor tissues than in normal tissues. RFC4 knockdown induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, HOXA10 was confirmed as a downstream target of RFC4, and the overexpression of HOXA10 attenuated the silencing of RFC4-induced cell proliferation, colony formation inhibition, and cell cycle arrest. For the first time, this study reveals that RFC4 is required for NPC cell proliferation and may play a pivotal role in NPC tumorigenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Replication Protein C/metabolism , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement
19.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 119-131, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971625

ABSTRACT

Treating patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is challenging due to the high chemoresistance. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is crucial in the development of various types of tumors and negatively related to the prognosis of ESCC patients according to our previous research. In this study, the link between GDF15 and chemotherapy resistance in ESCC was further explored. The relationship between GDF15 and the chemotherapy response was investigated through in vitro and in vivo studies. ESCC patients with high levels of GDF15 expression showed an inferior chemotherapeutic response. GDF15 improved the tolerance of ESCC cell lines to low-dose cisplatin by regulating AKT phosphorylation via TGFBR2. Through an in vivo study, we further validated that the anti-GDF15 antibody improved the tumor inhibition effect of cisplatin. Metabolomics showed that GDF15 could alter cellular metabolism and enhance the expression of UGT1A. AKT and TGFBR2 inhibition resulted in the reversal of the GDF15-induced expression of UGT1A, indicating that TGFBR2-AKT pathway-dependent metabolic pathways were involved in the resistance of ESCC cells to cisplatin. The present investigation suggests that a high level of GDF15 expression leads to ESCC chemoresistance and that GDF15 can be targeted during chemotherapy, resulting in beneficial therapeutic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/drug therapy , Cisplatin/metabolism , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Growth Differentiation Factor 15/therapeutic use , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type II/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 105-118, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971622

ABSTRACT

The third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor osimertinib (OSI) has been approved as the first-line treatment for EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aims to explore a rational combination strategy for enhancing the OSI efficacy. In this study, OSI induced higher CD47 expression, an important anti-phagocytic immune checkpoint, via the NF-κB pathway in EGFR-mutant NSCLC HCC827 and NCI-H1975 cells. The combination treatment of OSI and the anti-CD47 antibody exhibited dramatically increasing phagocytosis in HCC827 and NCI-H1975 cells, which highly relied on the antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis effect. Consistently, the enhanced phagocytosis index from combination treatment was reversed in CD47 knockout HCC827 cells. Meanwhile, combining the anti-CD47 antibody significantly augmented the anticancer effect of OSI in HCC827 xenograft mice model. Notably, OSI induced the surface exposure of "eat me" signal calreticulin and reduced the expression of immune-inhibitory receptor PD-L1 in cancer cells, which might contribute to the increased phagocytosis on cancer cells pretreated with OSI. In summary, these findings suggest the multidimensional regulation by OSI and encourage the further exploration of combining anti-CD47 antibody with OSI as a new strategy to enhance the anticancer efficacy in EGFR-mutant NSCLC with CD47 activation induced by OSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Acrylamides/pharmacology , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , CD47 Antigen/therapeutic use
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