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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e251811, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448952

ABSTRACT

Apesar da importância do envolvimento paterno, sua avaliação persiste desafiadora. No Brasil, o Inventário de Envolvimento Paterno (IFI-BR) vem se mostrando adequado para uso com pais de crianças de 5 a 10 anos. Entretanto, do ponto de vista do desenvolvimento infantil e de intervenções preventivas, seria importante avaliar o envolvimento paterno quando as crianças são mais novas. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivos: identificar limitações do IFI-BR, quando usado com pais de crianças entre 2 e 10 anos, e avaliar itens para o IFI-BR-revisado. No Estudo 1, 434 pais com filhos no Ensino Infantil ou Fundamental 1 responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e ao IFI-BR. Com base em análises de dados omissos, estrutura interna e precisão, modificações foram sugeridas, visando à manutenção da estrutura interna original do instrumento. No Estudo 2, 572 pais com filhos na mesma faixa etária responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e à versão modificada do IFI-BR. Foram comparadas as frequências de dados omissos e estimativas de precisão para os itens originais e modificados, selecionando aqueles que melhor representavam essa amostra de pais para compor a versão revisada do IFI-BR. Esses resultados indicaram evidências adequadas de validade, com base no conteúdo da versão revisada do IFI-BR, quando utilizada para avaliar a qualidade do envolvimento paterno de pais brasileiros com filhos do Ensino Infantil ao Fundamental 1. Após verificadas evidências de validade adicionais, essa versão revisada do IFI-BR poderá ser utilizada, por exemplo, em estudos longitudinais e na avaliação de intervenções precoces com pais.(AU)


Despite the importance assigned to father involvement, evaluating this construct remains a challenge. In Brazil, the Inventário de Envolvimento Paterno (IFI-BR) has showed satisfactory evidence of validity for fathers of children between 5 and 10 years old. From the perspective of child development and preventive interventions, however, evaluating father involvement with younger children is essential. Hence, this study sought to: identify limitations of the IFI-BR for fathers of children between 2 and 10 years old, and evaluate items for a revised IFI-BR. In Study 1, 434 fathers of children in early childhood and primary school settings answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the IFI-BR. Based on analyses of missing data, internal structure, and reliability, modifications were suggested to maintain the original internal structure. In Study 2, 572 fathers of children in the same age range answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the modified IFI-BR. After comparison between values for missing data and reliability of the original and modified items, the items that best represented the broader sample of fathers were selected to compose the revised IFI-BR. Results indicated adequate evidence of content validity for the revised IFI-BR when used to assess the involvement of Brazilian fathers with children in early childhood education and primary school settings. After additional evidence has been verified, this revised IFI-BR can be used, for example, in longitudinal studies and to evaluate early interventions with fathers.(AU)


La participación paterna es importante, pero su evaluación sigue siendo desafiadora. En Brasil, el Inventário de Envolvimento Paterno (IFI-BR) demuestra ser adecuado para aplicar a padres de niños de 5 a 10 años de edad. No obstante, desde la perspectiva del desarrollo infantil y de las intervenciones preventivas, sería importante evaluar la participación de los padres de niños más jóvenes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivos: identificar limitaciones del IFI-BR cuando se aplica a padres de niños entre los 2 y 10 años y evaluar ítems para el IFI-BR-revisado. En Estudio 1, 434 padres con hijos en el jardín de infantes o escuela primaria respondieron un cuestionario sociodemográfico y el IFI-BR. Con base en el análisis de datos faltantes, estructura interna y exactitud, se sugirieron modificaciones para mantener la estructura interna original del instrumento. En Estudio 2, 572 padres respondieron un cuestionario sociodemográfico y la versión modificada del IFI-BR. Se compararon las frecuencias de datos faltantes y estimaciones de exactitud para los ítems originales y modificados, seleccionando aquellos que representaban mejor a esta muestra de padres para la versión revisada del IFI-BR. Estos resultados indicaron evidencia adecuada de validez, basada en el contenido de la versión revisada del IFI-BR, cuando se utilizó para evaluar la calidad de la participación de padres brasileños con niños en el jardín de infantes y en la escuela primaria. Después de verificada la evidencia adicional de validez, la versión revisada del IFI-BR se puede utilizar, por ejemplo, en estudios longitudinales y en la evaluación de intervenciones precoz con los padres.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Paternity , Psychometrics , Family , Child Welfare , Anxiety , Paternal Behavior , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Personality Development , Aptitude , Play and Playthings , Problem Solving , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Reading , Assertiveness , School Health Services , Social Behavior , Social Justice , Social Support , Social Values , Sports , Stress, Psychological , Taboo , Teaching , Temperance , Time , Track and Field , Underachievement , Women , Women, Working , Women's Rights , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Child Custody , Single Parent , Marriage , Child, Abandoned , Child Advocacy , Child Care , Child Rearing , Mental Health , Family Health , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Parenting , Mental Competency , Family Planning Policy , Marital Status , Communication , Feminism , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Drawing , Counseling , Internet , Affect , Culture , Education, Primary and Secondary , Trust , Educational Status , Emotions , Empathy , Employee Discipline , Family Development Planning , Family Conflict , Child, Orphaned , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Father-Child Relations , Altruism , Masculinity , Social Skills , Work Performance , Work-Life Balance , School Teachers , Academic Performance , Androcentrism , Freedom , Egocentrism , Respect , Right to Work , Social Interaction , Gender Role , Sociodemographic Factors , Family Support , Family Structure , Psychological Well-Being , Working Conditions , Habits , Hostility , Human Development , Identification, Psychological , Income , Learning Disabilities , Leisure Activities , Love , Mothers , Music , Object Attachment
2.
Estilos clín ; 25(2): 210-219, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1286382

ABSTRACT

Nosso objetivo é demonstrar como a ossatura do conceito mãe morta na obra bonaparteana serve de fundamento teórico para se pensar a clínica da adoção. Essa inferência só é possível porque, a posteriori, a autora reconhece na moribunda Mimau, sua babá, uma mãe adotiva. Este trabalho analisa a maneira através da qual é decifrado o enigma intelectual do morrer (orfandade) e descoberto o segredo da mensagem (sexual) do outro (substituto materno). Em suma, nossos resultados apontam que a autora faz equivaler amor e morte entre os mecanismos do inconsciente na clínica da adoção, pois a "mãe morta" é o que se dá a pensar, e, da parte da mãe adotiva, é o que se deixa a desejar via enigma do sexual.


Nuestro objetivo es demostrar cómo el concepto de madre muerta en el trabajo bonaparteano sirve como base teórica para pensar en la clínica de adopción. Esa inferencia solo es posible porque, a posteriori, el autor reconoce en el moribundo Mimau, su niñera, una madre adoptiva. Este trabajo analiza la forma en que se descifra el enigma intelectual de morir (orfandad) y se descubre el secreto del mensaje (sexual) del otro (sustituto materno). En resumen, nuestros resultados indican que el autor hace que el amor y la muerte igualen los mecanismos del inconsciente en la clínica de adopción, porque la "madre muerta" es lo que uno piensa, y, por parte de la madre adoptiva, es lo que es deja algo que desear a través del enigma de lo sexual.


Our objective is to demonstrate how the framework of the concept of dead mother in Bonapartean work serves as a theoretical foundation for thinking about the clinic of adoption. This inference is only possible because, a posteriori, the author recognizes in the dying Mimau, her nanny, an adoptive mother. This work analyzes the way in which the intellectual enigma of dying (orphanhood) is deciphered and the secret of the (sexual) message of the other (maternal substitute) is discovered. In summary, our results indicate that the author makes love and death equate between the mechanisms of the unconscious in the adoption clinic, because the "dead mother" is what one thinks, and, on the part of the adoptive mother, is what is leaves to be desired via enigma of the sexual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adoption/psychology , Child, Orphaned/psychology , Maternal Death , Psychoanalysis
3.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 142-167, maio 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1097371

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar os fatores de proteção e de risco envolvidos no processo de transição entre o acolhimento institucional e a vida adulta. Participaram 13 jovens entre 18 e 24 anos, de ambos os sexos, egressos do sistema de proteção da cidade de Curitiba, no sul do Brasil. Cinco cuidadores também participaram, representando cada uma das unidades de acolhimento de onde os jovens provieram. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas em profundidade e submetidos à análise temática. Os temas e subtemas identificados dentro de dois eixos temáticos (fatores de proteção e fatores de risco) atravessam diferentes níveis contextuais e revelam um desequilíbrio que dificulta o processo de transição. Conclui-se que, além da maior observância às políticas e diretrizes já existentes, é necessário formular programas novos e específicos para esses jovens, alicerçados na concepção de que eles próprios devem ser os protagonistas de suas trajetórias. (AU)


The study aimed to identify protective and risk factors involved in the transition process from residential care to independent living. Participants were 13 young people from 18 to 24 years old, man and women, who aged out of care in the city of Curitiba, south of Brazil. A total of five caregivers also participated, each representing one of the residential centers where those young people used to live. Data were collected with in depth semi structured interviews and analyzed through thematic analysis. The themes and subthemes, identified in two thematic axes (protective factors and risk factors), permeate different contexts and disclose an imbalance that hinders the transition process. We conclude that, in addition to compliance of existing social policies, it is necessary to create new and specific programs for young people aging out of care, based on a youth-centered approach. (AU)


Este estudio tuvo por objetivo identificar los factores de protección y de riesgo implicados en el proceso de transición entre el acogimiento institucional y la vida adulta. Participaron 13 jóvenes entre 18 e 24 años, de ambos sexos, egresados del sistema de protección de la ciudad de Curitiba, en el sur de Brasil. Cinco cuidadores también participaron, representando cada uno de los hogares de acogida donde vivieron esos jóvenes. Los datos fueron recogidos a través de entrevistas en profundidad y sometidos a análisis temático. Los temas y subtemas, identificados dentro de dos ejes temáticos (factores de protección y factores de riesgo), atraviesan distintos niveles contextuales y demuestran un desequilibrio que dificulta el proceso de transición. Se concluye que, además de cumplir las políticas y directrices ya existentes, es necesario formular programas nuevos y específicos para esta población, considerando que los propios jóvenes deben ser los protagonistas de sus trayectorias. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Minors , Orphanages , Child, Orphaned
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(3): e00189717, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089441

ABSTRACT

Objetiva-se descrever as consequências no aleitamento e na alimentação que terão as crianças órfãs menores de cinco anos em decorrência da morte materna, aplicando-se softwares livres de mineração de texto. Estudo transversal com base em artigos publicados nos repositórios PubMed e BIREME nos temas de morte materna e crianças órfãs. Foram selecionados dez artigos publicados entre 2005 e 2015, de acesso livre, nos quais foram lidos apenas o título ou o resumo e que cumpriam com os critérios. Os arquivos de texto definiram o corpus para análise de conteúdo semiestruturado. Palavras-chave foram incluídas para a mineração. A análise do corpus foi feita com TagCrowd e Textalyser para encontrar os termos mais e menos frequentes, AntConc e Voyant Tools, para extrair palavras-chave na análise de contexto. Foram analisadas 67.642 palavras em dez textos semiestruturados. Os termos CHILDREN (827) e DEATH (821) foram os mais frequentes, e os menos frequentes foram BREASTFEEDING (10) e NUTRITION (4). Foram encontradas 44 concordâncias para o termo raiz BREAST* e 25 para a palavra NUTRITION em orações como: "crianças órfãs têm o aumento de risco de mortalidade por falta de amamentação, e são mais susceptíveis às infecções". As sentenças de concordância apontam que a mudança no aleitamento materno conduz a uma nutrição pobre, o que deixa o recém-nascido exposto a infecções, aumentando o risco de morte. O processamento de texto com as ferramentas livres foi rápido e permitiu extrair informações úteis e compreensíveis; a análise dos dez artigos mostrou as consequências na alimentação da criança após a morte materna, tendo efeito na morbidade e mortalidade infantil.


The study aims to describe the consequences for future feeding of orphans under five years of age, following the mother's death, applying open-access text mining software packages. This was a crosscutting study of articles indexed in PubMed and BIREME on the themes of maternal death and orphan children. We selected ten open-access articles published from 2005 to 2015 in which only the title or abstract were read and which met the selection criteria. The text files determined the corpus for analysis of the semi-structured content. Keywords were included for the mining. Analysis of the corpus used TagCrowd and Textalyser to analyze the more versus less frequent terms, and AntConc and Voyant Tools were used to extract keywords in the context analysis. A total of 67,642 words were analyzed in ten semi-structured texts. The terms CHILDREN (827) and DEATH (821) were the most frequent, while the least frequent were BREASTFEEDING (10) and NUTRITION (4). We found 44 concordances for the root term BREAST* and 25 for the word NUTRITION in phrases such as "orphan infants have increased risk of mortality due to lack of breastfeeding and are more susceptible to infections". The concordant sentences indicate that the change away from maternal breastfeeding leads to poor nutrition and leaves the child more susceptible to infections, increasing the risk of death. Text processing with open-access tools was rapid and allowed extracting useful and comprehensible information; analysis of the ten articles showed the consequences for the child's feeding after the mother's death, affecting infant morbidity and mortality.


El objetivo del trabajo fue describir las consecuencias en la lactancia y la alimentación que tendrán los niños huérfanos menores de cinco años, como consecuencia de la muerte materna, aplicando softwares libres de minería de textos. Se trata de un estudio transversal, a partir de los artículos publicados en los repositorios PubMed y BIREME, sobre los temas muerte materna y niños huérfanos. Se seleccionaron diez artículos, publicados entre 2005-2015, de acceso libre en los que se había leído solamente el título o el resumen y que cumplían con los criterios. Los archivos de texto definieron el corpus para el análisis de contenido semiestructurado. Se incluyeron palabras claves para la minería. El análisis del corpus se realizó con TagCrowd y Textalyser para el análisis de los términos más y menos frecuentes, AntConc y Voyant Tools, para extraer palabras-clave en el análisis de contexto. Se analizaron 67.642 palabras en diez textos semiestructurados. Los términos CHILDREN (827) y DEATH (821) fueron los más frecuentes, mientras que los menos frecuentes fueron BREASTFEEDING (10) y NUTRITION (4). Se encontraron 44 concordancias para el término raíz BREAST* y 25 para la palabra NUTRITION en oraciones como: "niños huérfanos tienen aumento de riesgo de mortalidad por ausencia de la lactancia, siendo más susceptibles a las infecciones". Las frases de concordancia indican que el cambio en la lactancia materna conduce a una nutrición pobre, dejando al recién nacido expuesto a infecciones e incrementándose el riesgo de muerte. El procesamiento de texto con las herramientas libres fue rápido y permitió extraer información útil y comprensible; el análisis de los diez artículos mostró las consecuencias en la alimentación del niño tras la muerte materna, teniendo un efecto en la morbilidad y mortalidad infantil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child , Diet , Child, Orphaned , Data Mining , Maternal Death , Software , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Mothers
5.
Immune Network ; : 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811176

ABSTRACT

IL-17 is produced by RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt)-expressing cells including Th17 cells, subsets of γδT cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The biological significance of IL-17-producing cells is well-studied in contexts of inflammation, autoimmunity and host defense against infection. While most of available studies in tumor immunity mainly focused on the role of T-bet-expressing cells, including cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells and NK cells, and their exhaustion status, the role of IL-17-producing cells remains poorly understood. While IL-17-producing T-cells were shown to be anti-tumorigenic in adoptive T-cell therapy settings, mice deficient in type 17 genes suggest a protumorigenic potential of IL-17-producing cells. This review discusses the features of IL-17-producing cells, of both lymphocytic and myeloid origins, as well as their suggested pro- and/or anti-tumorigenic functions in an organ-dependent context. Potential therapeutic approaches targeting these cells in the tumor microenvironment will also be discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Humans , Mice , Autoimmunity , Child, Orphaned , Friends , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(supl.1): 129-145, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056277

ABSTRACT

Resumo No Brasil oitocentista evidenciou-se a emergência de instituições assistenciais. Por meio delas, os estados provinciais projetaram membros das elites políticas e econômicas nomeando-os grandes benfeitores. Homens de notoriedade local desempenharam papel na construção de determinados espaços asilares por meio de práticas que ratificaram seu prestígio social não apenas entre seus pares e para sua época, mas também para a memória e a história das instituições às quais estavam vinculadas. O artigo problematiza a construção de três instituições assistenciais no Ceará: Asilo de Mendicidade, Colônia Orfanológica Cristina e Asilo de Alienados São Vicente de Paula, cuja tônica discursiva e ações filantrópicas estavam inseridas no cenário da grande seca de 1877-1879.


Abstract In the nineteenth century, Brazil witnessed the emergence of the first welfare institutions. These became the platforms for provincial states to raise the status of their political and economic elite, naming them great benefactors. Men of local repute played active roles in building certain institutional spaces, employing practices that reinforced their social prestige not just among their peers and for their time, but also for the memory and history of the institutions with which they were involved. The building of three welfare institutions in the province of Ceará is problematized: Asilo de Mendicidade, Colônia Orfanológica Cristina, and Asilo de Alienados São Vicente de Paula, whose discourse and philanthropic actions were entangled with the great drought of 1877-1879.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , Charities , Child, Orphaned , Workhouses , Mania , Brazil , History, 19th Century
8.
Rev. chil. ter. ocup ; 19(2): 95-104, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121474

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:conocer el estado actual del conocimiento sobre de problemas en el procesamiento sensorial en niños huérfanos, institucionalizados y adoptados. Metodología:revisión en la base de datos SCOPUS y en el buscador PubMed. Resultados: 12 trabajos que cumplen con los criterios de inclusión-exclusión. De ellos, 7 ilustran los problemas de salud y disfunciones ocupacionales de los niños que residen en instituciones y otros 5, de los niños adoptados. Conclusiones:A la luz de los estudios encontrados, parece ser que los niños institucionalizados, huérfanos y adoptados podrían presentan dificultades relacionadas con problemas en la Integración Sensorial.


Aim: examining the current state of knowledge about the problems in sensory processing in orphaned, institutionalized and adopted children.Methods: a review in the SCOPUS database and in the PubMed search engine was conducted. Results: 12 studies met the inclusion-exclusion criteria. 7 illustrated health problems and occupational dysfunctions of children residing in institutions. The other 5 examined problems in adopted children. Conclusions: to our best knowledge, institutionalized, orphaned and adopted children should present problems related to sensory integration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child, Institutionalized , Organizations , Child, Orphaned , Child, Adopted , Social Integration
9.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 17(2): 107-126, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043045

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) Estudio transversal cuyo objetivo fue determinar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) en 92 niños y adolescentes, entre los 8 y los 18 años de edad, que vivían en un hogar temporal de un municipio colombiano. Se aplicaron pruebas para la diferencia de promedios, de correlación y se construyó un modelo logístico con el fin de identificar los factores que se asociaron al desenlace, la CVRS. No se encontraron diferencias entre los promedios del puntaje de la CVRS según sexo (p = 0.094) y además estos en las dimensiones actividad física y salud, sentimientos, autopercepción, autonomía, vida familiar, relación con los pares y entorno escolar fueron mayores que el promedio de la CVRS; ser mujer y haber sufrido algún tipo de limitación, influyen en tener puntajes de la CVRS menores de 70 puntos.


Abstract (analytical) This is a cross-sectional study that had the objective of determining the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for 92 children and adolescents between 8 and 18 years of age who lived in a temporary home in a Colombian municipality. Tests were applied for the correlation of the difference of averages and a logical model was developed to identify the factors that were associated with the HRQoL outcome. No differences were found between the averages of the HRQoL scores according to sex (p = 0.094). The aspects of physical activity and health, feelings, self-perception, autonomy, family life, relationships with peers and school environment were higher than the average HRQoL. Being a woman and having suffered some type of limitation caused participants to have HRQoL scores below 70 points.


Resumo (analítico) Foi realizado um estudo transversal que teve por objetivo determinar a Qualidade de Vida Relacionada com a Saúde (QVRS) de 92 crianças e adolescentes, com idade entre 8 e 18 anos, que moram em um lar temporário em um município colombiano. Foram realizadas avalições para determinar a diferencia média e suas correlações, além disso, foi determinado um modelo logístico com o fim de identificar os principais fatores associados a QRVS. Não se encontraram diferencias entre as medias do valor da QRVS para o gênero (p = 0.094), entretanto, para o caso de atividade física y saúde, sentimentos, autoimagem, autonomia, vida familiar, relacionamento com os pais e ambiente escolar os valores foram maiores do que a média da QRVS; o fato de ser mulher e ter sofrido algum tipo de Deficiência, influenciaram na obtenção de valores da QRVS abaixo de 70 pontos.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Orphaned , Child, Abandoned
11.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 109(9): 679-685, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271249

ABSTRACT

Background. Limited research investigating treatment outcomes for HIV-positive orphans compared with non-orphans has shown mixed results, with several studies indicating that HIV-positive orphans are at greater risk of delayed access to HIV care and poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, while other data suggest that ART outcomes of orphans can be similar to those of non-orphans. Understanding the impact of orphan status on short-term ART outcomes could improve targeted intervention strategies, and subsequent long-term treatment and developmental outcomes, for HIV-positive infants, children and adolescents.Objectives. To evaluate the relationship between orphan status and ART outcomes among HIV-positive infants, children and adolescents initiating ART at two large public sector HIV clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa.Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive children aged <18 years initiating standard first-line ART between June 2004 and May 2013. Using propensity scores, orphans and non-orphans were matched for age, sex, World Health Organization stage and ART regimen. The effect of orphanhood on attrition from care (all-cause mortality and loss to follow-up) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, and its effect on having a detectable viral load (≥400 copies/mL) at 12 months on ART using binomial regression analysis with modified Poisson distribution.Results. A total of 251 (29.4%) orphans (maternal, paternal or both) and 603 (70.6%) non-orphans were included at ART initiation. Following multiple imputation for missing data and propensity score matching, 222 orphans and 222 non-orphans were included. Orphans had a median age of 8.0 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4.9 - 10.7) and non-orphans 7.4 years (IQR 4.2 - 10.2). A total of 12 (5.4%) orphans and 33 (14.9%) non-orphans experienced attrition from care during the first 12 months on ART (adjusted hazard ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 - 0.63). Among those alive and in care, with a viral load at 12 months on ART, 18.0% of orphans (33/183) and 14.8% of non-orphans (24/162) had a detectable viral load (adjusted risk ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.28).Conclusions. Orphans were less likely than non-orphans to experience attrition, but among those in care at 12 months, orphans were more likely to have detectable viral loads. Lower attrition among orphans may be due to their being in institutional or foster care, ensuring that they make their visits; however, their higher rates of non-suppression may result from lack of psychosocial support or stigma resulting in struggles to adhere. Additional research investigating age-specific outcomes will be important to elucidate these effects further


Subject(s)
HIV , Adolescent , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Child, Orphaned , South Africa , Sustained Virologic Response/mortality , Treatment Outcome
12.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 22(64): 141-152, jan.-mar. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-893458

ABSTRACT

No contexto do HIV/AIDS, estratégias comensais são acordadas pelas famílias para reduzir riscos. Com o objetivo de identificar percepções de risco nos convívios comensais desenvolveu-se estudo qualitativo com jovens órfãos pela AIDS. Os dados foram obtidos durante entrevista com questões sobre o cotidiano. Utilizou-se a proposta de Wright Mills do artesanato intelectual, na qual os sujeitos são considerados atores históricos e sociais. As estratégias mediante a percepção de risco ao HIV/AIDS foram consideradas acordos pactuados pela família para assegurar a interação social. Foi possível observar que as estratégias incluem a restrição do toque e do contato corporal; separação de utensílios e inutilização da comida tocada por soropositivos. A percepção de risco pode ser decorrente da inconstância dos achados científicos e de crenças que reforçam o processo de estigma e discriminação.(AU)


En el contexto del VIH/SIDA, las familias acuerdan estrategias comensales para reducir riesgos. Con el objetivo de identificar percepciones de riesgo en las convivencias comensales se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo con jóvenes huérfanos debido al SIDA. Los datos se obtuvieron durante entrevista con preguntas sobre el cotidiano. Se utilizó la propuesta de Wright Mills de la artesanía intelectual, en la cual los sujetos se consideran actores históricos y sociales. Las estrategias mediante la percepción de riesgo del VIH/SIDA se consideraron acuerdos pactados por la familia para asegurar la interacción social. Fue posible observar que las estrategias incluyen la restricción del toque y del contacto corporal, separación de utensilios e inutilización de la comida tocada por personas que son seropositivas. La percepción del riesgo puede ser consecuencia de la inconstancia de los hallazgos científicos y de creencias que refuerzan el proceso de estigmatización y discriminación.(AU)


Within the HIV/AIDS context, commensal strategies are agreed upon by the families aiming to reduce risks. With the objective of identifying risk perceptions in the commensal meetings, we developed a study with youth orphaned by AIDS. Interviews produced data through questions regarding daily life. The Wright Mills' proposal about intellectual craftsmanship was used for analysis. In this approachsubjects are considered historical and social actors. The strategies used from risk perception of HIV/AIDS were assumed as agreements by the families to ensure social interaction. It was observed that strategies include restrictions for touching and body contact; separation of dishes and disposal of food touched by the HIVpositive. The risk perception found may be due to variability of scientific findings and beliefs, thus reinforcing the process of stigma and discrimination.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Child, Orphaned/psychology , Eating , Interpersonal Relations , Risk Factors
13.
Saúde Soc ; 27(1): 268-289, jan.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962564

ABSTRACT

Resumen El acogimiento familiar es una modalidad para el cuidado alternativo de niños y adolescentes sin protección parental. El objetivo de este estudio es realizar una revisión sistemática del acogimiento familiar en Iberoamérica. La metodología utilizada es la búsqueda en bases de datos como PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, PsycINFO, con información publicada entre 2010 y 2017. Se incluyeron 93 evidencias, observándose que el acogimiento familiar en Iberoamérica se está implementando. Uno de los aspectos cruciales es la terminología empleada por los diferentes países. En los tipos de acogimiento familiar en Iberoamérica, prevalece el acogimiento en familia extendida y sustituta (ajena). Se observó que cada país de Iberoamérica tiene un ente regulador de políticas públicas y de protección. Hay pocas publicaciones científicas relacionadas con el acogimiento familiar en Honduras, Nicaragua, Salvador, Bolivia y Venezuela; de las islas del Caribe, eso se observa principalmente en Haití y otros países como Cuba, Puerto Rico y República Dominicana. De otra manera, no se observa en Brasil, Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, Perú y España. El acogimiento familiar en Iberoamérica se desarrolla gradualmente. Los países analizados ratificaron la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño, excepto Puerto Rico, por lo que reconocen el derecho del niño a vivir en familia a través de la implementación de las directrices sobre las modalidades alternativas de cuidado.


Abstract Foster care is one modality for the alternative care of children and teenagers without parental care. The objective of this study is to carry out a systematic review of foster care in Latin America. The method used was the search in databases such as PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, PsycINFO, with information published between 2010 and 2017. Ninety-one evidences were included, observing that family fostering in Latin America is being implemented. One of the crucial aspects is the terminology used by different countries. In the types of foster care in Latin America, foster care in extended and surrogate families prevails. It was observed that each Latin American country has a regulatory body of public policies and protection. There are few scientific publications related to family fostering in Honduras, Nicaragua, Salvador, Bolivia, and Venezuela, from the Caribbean Islands, this is observed mainly in Haiti and other countries such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic. Otherwise, this is not observed in Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Guatemala, Peru, and Spain. Family fostering in Latin America develops gradually. The countries analyzed have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child, except Puerto Rico. Therefore, they recognize the right of the child to live with the family through the implementation of the Guidelines on alternative care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Public Policy , Social Work , Adoption , Child , Child Advocacy , Adolescent , Child, Orphaned , Child, Foster
14.
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 18(1): 1-8, 2018.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256651

ABSTRACT

This qualitative study explored the psycho-educational and social interventions provided for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in a community-based organisation (CBO) in Soweto, South Africa. The study involved 12 OVC (males = 40%, and females = 60%; aged 10 to 18 years). Data was collected using individual interviews, focus group discussions, and autobiographies. The thematically analysed data revealed that the OVC received psychological interventions through mentorship and peer-group support in the CBO. Educational interventions included the provision of school uniforms and educational materials, as well as sponsorship of tuition, sports and excursion fees. Academic track records presented a challenge, however, which was attributed to the enormous numbers of OVC under the care of the CBO. It was further established that social interventions were addressed by empowering the OVC with life skills and providing economic support for their families, specifically to pay rent and provide meals. The major contributions of this study are to note the importance of the CBO in addressing issues related to the lack of counselling, the stigmatisation of OVC by community members and the need for empowerment of their families by providing income-generating activities. The information obtained is useful in opening up avenues for interested parties to further explore the effectiveness of these psycho-educational and social interventions in improving the lives of OVC in society


Subject(s)
Child, Orphaned , Psychology, Educational , Social Support , South Africa , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Mycobiology ; : 361-369, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729740

ABSTRACT

The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is an important pathogen of rice plants. It is well known that genes encoded in the genome have different evolutionary histories that are related to their functions. Phylostratigraphy is a method that correlates the evolutionary origin of genes with evolutionary transitions. Here we applied phylostratigraphy to partition total gene content of M. oryzae into distinct classes (phylostrata), which we designated PS1 to PS7, based on estimation of their emergence time. Genes in individual phylostrata did not show significant biases in their global distribution among seven chromosomes, but at the local level, clustering of genes belonging to the same phylostratum was observed. Our phylostrata-wide analysis of genes revealed that genes in the same phylostratum tend to be similar in many physical and functional characteristics such as gene length and structure, GC contents, codon adaptation index, and level of transcription, which correlates with biological functions in evolutionary context. We also found that a significant proportion of genes in the genome are orphans, for which no orthologs can be detected in the database. Among them, we narrowed down to seven orphan genes having transcriptional and translational evidences, and showed that one of them is implicated in asexual reproduction and virulence, suggesting ongoing evolution in this fungus through lineage-specific genes. Our results provide genomic basis for linking functions of pathogenicity factors and gene emergence time.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Base Composition , Bias , Child, Orphaned , Codon , Fungi , Genome , Magnaporthe , Methods , Oryza , Reproduction, Asexual , Virulence , Virulence Factors
16.
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 16(4): 305-313, 2017. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256642

ABSTRACT

Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world. It is recognised that young women, especially adolescents, are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection and bear a disproportionate burden of HIV incidence. The HIV data from Swaziland show the location of the epidemic, which is particularly high among adolescent girls and young women. This paper is based on research in Swaziland, commissioned because of the perception that large numbers of children were dropping out of the school. It was assumed that these "dropouts" had increased risk of HIV exposure. This study carried out a detailed analysis using the Annual Education Census Reports from 2012 to 2014 produced by the Ministry of Education. In addition, this topic was explored, during fieldwork with key informants in the country. While HIV prevalence rises rapidly among young women in Swaziland, as is the case across most of Southern Africa, the data showed there were few dropouts. This was the case at all levels of education ­ primary, junior secondary and senior secondary. The major reason for dropping out of primary school was family reasons; and in junior and senior secondary, pregnancy was the leading cause. Swaziland is doing well in terms of getting its children into school, and, for the most part, keeping them there. This paper identifies the students who face increased vulnerability: the limited number of dropouts; repeaters who consequently were "out-of-age for grade"; and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). The learners who were classified as repeaters and OVC greatly outnumbered the dropouts. We argue, on the basis of these data, for re-focussed attention and the need to develop a method for tracking children as they move across the vulnerable groups. We acknowledge schooling is protective in reducing children's vulnerability to HIV, and Swaziland is on the right track in education, although there are challenges


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child, Orphaned , Eswatini , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Schools , Student Dropouts , Vulnerable Populations
17.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 402-406, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported associations of retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with depression and anxiety disorders. Based on these, we attempt to test whether RORA polymorphism is associated with anxiety sensitivity (AS), the intermediate phenotype of depression and anxiety disorders. Considering gene-environment interactions and sex differences in AS, childhood maltreatment (CM) and sex were considered as confounders. METHODS: Two-hundred and five healthy young Korean adults (female: 98, male: 107; age, 23.0±3.2 years) completed genotyping for the RORA SNP rs11071547, as well as measures for AS and CM. Generalized linear models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of RORA genotype, CM, and sex in determining AS. RESULTS: The main effect of RORA polymorphisms was not found (p=0.760) whereas the main effect of CM and interaction effects among sex, genotype, and maltreatment were significant on AS. In separate analyses by sex, the interaction effect between RORA genotype and maltreatment was significant only in males (p < 0.001). In females, the main effects of genotype and CM were significant (both were p < 0.001), in which both a history of CM and C genotype tended to be associated with higher AS. CONCLUSION: The association between RORA polymorphism and AS might differ by sex. The interaction between RORA polymorphism and CM was significant only in males whereas RORA genotype and CM independently associated with AS in females. Further studies are encouraged to confirm the relationship between RORA polymorphism and AS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Child, Orphaned , Depression , Gene-Environment Interaction , Genotype , Linear Models , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sex Characteristics
18.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 32(3)jul.-set. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960477

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la esfera socio-afectiva, desde las edades tempranas de la vida, incluye experiencias emocionales, socializadoras y motivacionales que permiten al niño relacionarse con los otros, respondiendo a determinadas costumbres, creencias, normas de convivencia y modelos de interacción. Objetivo: caracterizar la esfera socio-afectiva de preescolares sin amparo filial, pertenecientes al círculo interno Lu-Xun, de Arroyo Naranjo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, durante el año 2014. La muestra la integraron 20 niños, con edades entre 3 y 5 años, a los que se les aplicó pruebas proyectivas, que permitieron valorar el estado actual de sus habilidades socio-afectivas. Resultados: el 100 por ciento reflejó, en sus dibujos, estados de ánimos desfavorables, pobreza en sus contenidos y escasa creatividad e imaginación. El 60 por ciento mostró dificultades en el control muscular. El 70 por ciento exhibió dificultades en las relaciones de intercambio, con pobre capacidad de socialización. El 95 por ciento mostró preferencias adecuadas a su edad, con gran inclinación hacia el juego y las flores, gustando de paseos y golosinas. El 50 por ciento mostró niveles de afectividad adecuados hacia determinada figura parental. El 45 por ciento mostró dificultades en las habilidades narrativas, con pobre vocabulario. El 95 por ciento transmitió, en las historias relatadas, conflictos en el área doméstica. Conclusiones: la esfera socio-afectiva se caracterizó, en el orden intrapersonal, por baja autoestima, necesidades insatisfechas, en especial la de abrigo y cuidados maternos, con proyección de miedos e inseguridad. En el orden interpersonal, existieron dificultades en el intercambio social y en la efectividad del aprendizaje(AU)


Introduction: The sphere partner affective, from the youths of life, he includes emotional experiences, socializadoras and motivational that they permit the little boy getting acquainted with others, answering to determined way of life, beliefs, standards of cohabitation and models of interaction. Objective: Characterizing the sphere partner affective of kindergartens, without son-and-daughter protection, pertenecientes to the internal Circle Lu Xun, of Arroyo Naranjo. Methods: The observational accomplished a study itself, descriptive, de transversal cut, during the year 2014. Sample was integrated by 20 children, with ages among 3 and 5 years, to the ones that were applied tests projective, the fact that they permitted appreciating the present-day status of his abilities partner affective. Results: The 100 percent reflected, in his drawings, states of unfavorable tempers, poverty in his contents and scarce creativity and imagination. The 60 % showed difficulties in muscular control. The 70 percent exhibited difficulties in exchange relationships with scant capability, of socialization. The 95 percent showed adapted preferences to his age, with great inclination toward the game and flowers, liking walks and sweets. The 50 percent showed levels of adapted affectivity toward determined to figure parental. The 45 percent showed difficulties in narrative abilities with scant vocabulary. The 95 percent transmitted conflicts in the area domestic, in related stories. Conclusions: The sphere partner affective characterized, in the order intrapersonal, for low self-esteem, unsatisfied needs itself, specially the one belonging to coat and maternal cares, with projection of fears and insecurity. In the interpersonal order, difficulties existed in the social interchange and in the effectiveness of learning(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Child, Orphaned/psychology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
19.
Univ. salud ; 18(2): 364-372, mayo-ago. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-797478

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La mortalidad materna es considerada un indicador sensible al desarrollo social, porque muchas de estas muertes ocurren por razones evitables, vinculadas a condiciones de pobreza. Hay datos estadísticos sobre el número de muertes maternas a nivel internacional y local, que resaltan la magnitud del problema, así como el conocimiento científico de las causas de estos fallecimientos; pero escasa información publicada sobre el impacto familiar y el desequilibrio que se produce cuando ocurre una muerte materna, situación que trae consigo desconocimiento sobre la real situación de los hijos huérfanos y la familia. Objetivo: Conocer las implicaciones familiares y sociales de la muerte materna a través de la revisión sistemática de la literatura científica publicada. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos incluidas en los servicios LILACS, ProQuest, MEDLINE y en la biblioteca virtual de salud SciELO. La muestra final fue de 20 artículos. Resultados: Los estudios mostraron que la pérdida inesperada de la madre genera consecuencias emocionales, económicas y de salud en todos los miembros del hogar. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos indican que esta problemática debe ser abordada de manera integral con el fin de mitigar el impacto que genera la muerte materna.


Introduction: Maternal mortality is considered a sensitive indicator of social development, as many of these deaths occur for preventable reasons, linked to poverty. There is statistical data on the number of internationally and locally maternal deaths, which highlights the magnitude of the problem as well as the scientific knowledge of the causes of these deaths; but there is limited published information on the family impact and imbalance that occurs when a maternal death occurs, which leads to lack of knowledge about the real situation of orphaned children and family. Objective: To know the family and social implications of maternal death through a systematic review of the published scientific literature. Materials and methods: A search in the databases including LILACS, PROQUEST, MEDLINE services and virtual health library SCIELO was conducted. The final sample consisted of 20 articles. Results: The studies showed that the unexpected loss of the mother generates emotional, economic and health consequences for all household members. Conclusions: The findings indicate that this problem must be addressed comprehensively in order to mitigate the impact generated by maternal death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mental Health , Child, Orphaned , Maternal Death , Family Relations
20.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e267-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210162

ABSTRACT

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes crosslinking, polyamination or deamidation of glutamine residues in proteins. It has been reported that TG2 is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases including celiac disease, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis and sepsis. Recently, using a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, we showed that TG2 is required to trigger inflammation via the induction of T helper type 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in response to tissue damage. However, the role of TG2 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is thought to be a Th17 cell-associated disease, has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of TG2 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, the most widely used mouse model for IBD. Age- and sex-matched wild-type and TG2(−/−) mice were fed 2% DSS for 7 days or 3.5% DSS for 5 days in drinking water. An in situ TG activity assay revealed that DSS treatment activates TG2 in various colon cell types, including columnar absorptive cells and goblet cells. DSS-treated TG2(−/−) mice showed lower interleukin (IL)-6, but higher IL-17A and RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt) expression levels in the colon tissues than that in the wild-type mice. Moreover, TG2(−/−) mice showed higher mortality than the wild-type mice because of DSS treatment. Nevertheless, we found no significant differences in changes of body weight, colon length, morphology, immune cell infiltration and in vivo intestinal permeability between DSS-treated wild-type and TG2(−/−) mice. These results indicate that TG2-mediated Th17 cell differentiation is not required for the pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Humans , Mice , Body Weight , Celiac Disease , Cell Differentiation , Child, Orphaned , Colitis , Colon , Cystic Fibrosis , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , Drinking Water , Fibrosis , Glutamine , Goblet Cells , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-17 , Interleukins , Lung , Mortality , Multiple Sclerosis , Permeability , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Sepsis , Th17 Cells
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