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2.
Med. lab ; 27(2): 97-109, 2023. Tabs, Grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435401

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) son y seguirán siendo un serio problema de salud pública en todo el mundo según los datos de la OMS, con el agravante que la mayoría de los casos son asintomáticos y, además, no existe otro reservorio distinto al humano. El diagnóstico se puede realizar con pruebas tradicionales y moleculares, estas últimas incluyen la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), de las cuales existen varios tipos, entre ellas, la PCR múltiple que tiene la capacidad de detectar ITS polimicrobianas a partir de una sola muestra. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer cuáles fueron las infecciones de transmisión sexual más frecuentes en diferentes grupos de pacientes, así como determinar la utilidad del uso de la técnica de PCR múltiple en el diagnóstico de las ITS. Metodología. Se trata de un estudio observacional de corte transversal realizado entre los años 2021 y 2022 con pacientes que acudieron al servicio de diagnóstico del Laboratorio Clínico VID por sospecha de ITS. Las muestras recolectadas fueron evaluadas utilizando una prueba comercial basada en la técnica de PCR múltiple e hibridación. Las muestras procesadas fueron: orina e hisopados de endocérvix, uretra, recto, faringe y úlceras. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.027 pacientes, de estos, 228 (22,2 %) fueron positivos para diferentes agentes de trasmisión sexual, distribuidos así: 50 (21,9 %) mujeres, 129 (56,6 %) hombres heterosexuales y 49 (21,5 %) hombres que tenían sexo con hombres (HSH). La edad promedio de las mujeres fue 30 años, y la de ambos grupos de hombres fue 36 años. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente identificados en mujeres fueron: C. trachomatis (A-K) en 28,6 %, seguido de virus herpes simplex tipo 2 (VHS-2) en 26,8 % y N. gonorrhoeae en 17,9 %. En hombres heterosexuales fueron C. trachomatis (A-K) en 37,5 %, N. gonorrhoeae en 21,5 % y VHS-2 en 18,7 %. En HSH fueron C. trachomatis (L1-L3) en 32,7 %, seguido de N. gonorrhoeae en 27,6 %, y de C. trachomatis (A-K) y VHS-2, ambos en 13,8 %. En 11 hombres heterosexuales, 8 HSH y en 6 mujeres, se identificó infección polimicrobiana. Conclusiones. C. trachomatis (A-K) fue el microorganismo más prevalente causante de ITS, seguido de N. gonorrhoeae en ambos grupos de hombres, y de VHS-2 en las mujeres, muy similar a lo reportado a nivel mundial. La prueba de PCR múltiple permite la detección de infecciones polimicrobianas comúnmente asociadas a ITS y el diagnóstico es preciso y confiable, incluso en pacientes asintomáticos


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are and will continue to be a serious public health problem throughout the world according to WHO data, with the aggravating factor that most cases are asymptomatic and, furthermore, there is no other reservoir other than humans. The diagnosis can be made with traditional and molecular tests, the latter include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which there are several types, among them, multiplex PCR that has the capacity to detect polymicrobial STIs from a single sample. The objective of this study was to establish which were the most frequent sexually transmitted infections in different groups of patients, as well as to determine the usefulness of the multiplex PCR technique in the diagnosis of STIs. Methodology. This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out between 2021 and 2022 with patients who attended the VID Clinical Laboratory for suspected STIs. The collected samples were evaluated using a commercial test based on the multiplex PCR technique and hybridization. The samples processed were: urine and swabs from endocervix, urethra, rectum, pharynx, and ulcers. Results. The study included 1,027 patients, of these, 228 (22.2%) were positive for different sexually transmitted agents, distributed as follows: 50 (21.9%) women, 129 (56.6%) heterosexual men and 49 (21.5%) men who had sex with men (MSM). The average age of the women was 30 years, and that of both groups of men was 36 years. The microorganisms most frequently identified in women were: C. trachomatis (A-K) in 28.6%, followed by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in 26.8% and N. gonorrhoeae in 17.9%. In heterosexual men they were C. trachomatis (A-K) in 37.5%, N. gonorrhoeae in 21.5% and HSV-2 in 18.7%. In MSM they were C. trachomatis (L1-L3) in 32.7%, followed by N. gonorrhoeae in 27.6%, and C. trachomatis (A-K) and HSV-2, both in 13.8%. Polymicrobial infection was identified in 11 heterosexual men, 8 MSM, and 6 women. Conclusions. C. trachomatis (A-K) was the most prevalent STI-causing microorganism, followed by N. gonorrhoeae in both groups of men, and HSV-2 in women, very similar to that reported worldwide. The multiplex PCR test allows the detection of polymicrobial infections commonly associated with STIs and the diagnosis is accurate and reliable, even in asymptomatic patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Chlamydia trachomatis , Herpesvirus 2, Human , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
3.
Med. infant ; 29(4): 268-274, dic 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1415399

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis han aumentado su prevalencia, especialmente en jóvenes embarazadas. Esto adquiere relevancia en pediatría por el elevado riesgo de transmisión vertical al neonato y su potencial gravedad en el lactante. Estas infecciones requieren de un alto índice de sospecha, por cuadro clínico atípico y signos radiológicos inespecíficos. Los métodos diagnósticos convencionales presentan limitaciones para su detección. Las técnicas moleculares son las recomendadas por su elevada sensibilidad, especificidad y rapidez, lo cual permite una terapéutica adecuada y oportuna. En este estudio, desarrollado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales de un hospital de alta complejidad durante 12 años, se describieron las características de la población, su presentación clínica y evolución. La detección microbiológica se realizó por métodos moleculares. Se incluyeron 29 pacientes (p) con infección por C. trachomatis (3,9% del total de muestras enviadas),13 p con infección respiratoria y 16 p con compromiso ocular. La mediana de edad fue de 19 días al momento del diagnóstico y el 65% de las gestantes tenía <25 años. Veinticuatro p (83%) eran recién nacidos a término y 23 p (79%) previamente sanos. Nueve p (31%) presentaron fiebre al momento del ingreso y 12 (41%) eosinofilia. De los 13 p con enfermedad respiratoria, 9 (69%) consultaron por tos y 11 (85%) con hipoxemia, con requerimientos de oxígeno en 8 (61%), asistencia respiratoria mecánica en 3 (23%) y uno (16%) requirió ECMO. Los hallazgos radiológicos mostraron un patrón intersticial inespecífico. Nueve p (31%) presentaron coinfección y uno falleció asociado a influenza A (AU)


The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections has increased, especially among young pregnant women. This is of particular relevance in pediatrics due to the high risk of motherto-child transmission and the potential severity of the infection in infants. A high index of suspicion is required for these infections due to the atypical clinical features and non-specific radiological signs. The usefulness of conventional diagnostic methods is limited. Molecular techniques are recommended because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, allowing for adequate and timely treatment. In this 12-year study conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary-care hospital, patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome are described. Microbiological detection was performed using molecular methods. Twenty-nine patients with C. trachomatis infection (3.9% of the total samples submitted), of whom 13 had respiratory tract infection and 16 ocular involvement, were included. The median age at diagnosis was 19 days and 65% of the mothers were <25 years old. Twenty-four p (83%) were term newborns and 23 patients (79%) were previously healthy. On admission, 9 patients (31%) had fever and 12 (41%) had eosinophilia. Of the 13 patients with respiratory tract involvement, 9 (69%) consulted for cough and 11 (85%) had hypoxemia, requiring oxygen in 8 (61%), mechanical ventilation in 3 (23%), and ECMO in 1 (16%). Radiological findings showed a nonspecific interstitial pattern. Nine patients (31%) presented with coinfection, one of whom died due to an associated influenza A infection (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/etiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(3): 522-530, jul.-set. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403603

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis es una de las más frecuentes en el mundo. Cada año se registran cerca de 85 millones de nuevos casos de esta enfermedad, que cursa con graves complicaciones en la mujer y recién nacido. Objetivo. Determinar las características clínico-epidemiológicas de la infección por C. trachomatis en mujeres venezolanas sexualmente activas. Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo, transversal y de campo, sustentado en la historia clínica y el examen físico, la detección de infección con la prueba inmunoenzimática con anticuerpos policlonales anti-LPS y la confirmación de los resultados con la de biología molecular. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 mujeres sexualmente activas mayores de 12 años de edad, del estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Resultados. La mayoría de las mujeres se encontraba entre los 20 y los 45 años de edad. En el 25 % de las mismas, se detectaron anticuerpos IgG anti-C. trachomatis y, en el 84 % de estas, se confirmó la infección mediante PCR; en ninguna de las mujeres se hallaron anticuerpos IgM anti-C. trachomatis. Conclusión. La infección crónica predomina en las mujeres entre los 20 y los 45 años de edad; la prueba inmunoenzimática arrojó falsos positivos corroborados por PCR.


Introduction: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most frequent in the world; about 85 million new cases of this pathology are registered each year, which causes severe complications in women and newborns. Objective: To determine the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of C. trachomatis infection in sexually active Venezuelan women. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, and field study based on the clinical history and physical examination, detection of infection with immunoenzymatic assay with anti-LPS polyclonal antibody and confirmation of results with molecular biology test. The sample consisted of 100 sexually active women over 12 years of age from Carabobo state, Venezuela. Results: The women were mostly between 20 and 45 years old, in 25% of them IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis were detected and in 84% of these the infection was confirmed by PCR, in none of the women IgM antibodies to C. trachomatis were found. Conclusion: Chronic infection characterizes women between 20 and 45 years of age; the immunoenzymatic test yielded false positives corroborated by PCR.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiology , Infections
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(6): 614-620, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394796

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection on female's fertility is not completely established yet, since the level of evidence associating these factors is still weak. Hence, the goal of the present review is to contribute to a better elucidation of this matter. The electronic database chosen was the Medline/PubMed, with the last survey on May 11, 2021. Publication date was used as a filter, with the previous 5 years having been selected. The following describers were used: chlamydia trachomatis AND infertility; chlamydia trachomatis AND tubal alteration AND infertility; chlamydia AND low pregnancy rates. From the 322 studies screened, 293 that failed to meet our eligibility criteria were excluded. Subsequently, we removed seven studies for not having the possible correlation between CT infections and female infertility as its main focus, and three for being about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in general. Moreover, two studies designed as reviews were also excluded. Ergo, we included 17 studies in our qualitative analysis. The authors conducted research individually and analyzed carefully the studies selected. As we retrieved the information needed for our study through reading the texts, no contact was made with the authors of the studies selected. This systematic review corroborates the hypothesis that CT infection potentiates female infertility, as 76.47% of the included studies found a positive correlation between them. We conclude that there is an important association between CT infection and female infertility. Ergo, making CT screening part of the infertility investigation routine is relevant and has a reasonable justification.


Resumo O impacto da infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) na fertilidade feminina ainda não está completamente estabelecido, uma vez que o nível de evidência associando esses fatores ainda é insignificante. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão é contribuir para uma melhor elucidação deste assunto. A base de dados eletrônica escolhida foi a Medline/PubMed, com a última pesquisa em 11 de maio de 2021. Utilizou-se como filtro a data de publicação, sendo selecionados os 5 anos anteriores. Foram usados os seguintes descritores: Chlamydia trachomatis E infertility; Chlamydia trachomatis E tubal alteration E infertility; Chlamydia E low pregnancy rates. Dos 322 estudos selecionados, 293 que não atenderam aos nossos critérios de elegibilidade foram excluídos. Posteriormente, retiramos sete estudos por não terem como foco principal a possível correlação entre infecção por CT e infertilidade feminina e três por tratarem de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (ISTs) em geral. Além disso, dois estudos concebidos como revisões também foram excluídos. Portanto, incluímos 17 estudos em nossa análise qualitativa. Os autores realizaram pesquisas individualmente e analisaram criteriosamente os estudos selecionados. Como obtivemos as informações necessárias para nosso estudo por meio da leitura dos textos, nenhum contato foi feito com os autores. Esta revisão sistemática corrobora a hipótese de que a infecção por CT potencializa a infertilidade feminina, pois 76,47% dos estudos incluídos encontraram correlação positiva entre eles. Concluímos que existe uma associação importante entre infecção por CT e infertilidade feminina. Portanto, tornar os procedimentos de triagem por CT parte da rotina de investigação de infertilidade é relevante e justificável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy, Tubal , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Chlamydia trachomatis
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 340-344, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407784

ABSTRACT

Resumen El linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV) es una infección de transmisión sexual (ITS) causada por Chlamydia trachomatis. En los últimos años, ha emergido principalmente en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). Es frecuente su asociación con otras ITS como el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la sífilis. Si bien el compromiso genital es la forma de presentación clásica, el síndrome anorrectal constituye el principal cuadro clínico en la actualidad. Presentamos el caso de un HSH con infección por VIH en terapia anti-retroviral, herpes genital recurrente y sífilis latente tratada, sin viajes recientes al extranjero, con adenopatías inguinales fistulizadas a piel, asociada a una úlcera genital dolorosa, sin síntomas anorrectales ni sistémicos, refractario a múltiples tratamientos antibacterianos y antivirales. El estudio con RPC de secreción de la fístula fue positiva a C. trachomatis. Se trató con doxiciclina por seis semanas, con buena respuesta clínica, sin complicaciones.


Abstract Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. In the past years, it has emerged as a relevant infectious agent, mainly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM), frequently associated with other sexually transmitted infections as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. Even though genital lesions correspond to the classical presentation of LGV, nowadays anorectal syndrome is more frequently reported. We present a MSM patient, HIV infected, being treated with antiretroviral drugs, with a history of recurrent genital herpes, also recently treated for a syphilis in a latent stage. He had no recent trips. He referred inguinal fistulized enlarged lymph nodes, associated with a painful genital ulcer, he denied anorectal or systemic symptoms. He had been treated with multiple antibiotic and antiviral drugs, with no clinical response. Molecular studies from the content of the fistulized lymph node identified C. trachomatis. The patient received doxycycline for 6 weeks, showing good clinical response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/complications , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/diagnosis , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/drug therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chile , Chlamydia trachomatis , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Homosexuality, Male , Genitalia/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Niger. j. clin. pract. (Online) ; 26(2): 294-299, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436523

ABSTRACT

: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis on semen quality has been studied with varied results. Aim: To determine the prevalence of antichlamydial antibodies and their relationship with sperm quality among male partners of infertile couples in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study of infertile male partners of couples attending infertility clinics at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria. Their sera were assayed for antichlamydial antibodies, and semen analysis and culture were done for each participant. Results: Two hundred and eighty-two (282) male partners of infertile couples were studied. Infertility was commoner among participants aged 40 years or more (45.1%) and was mainly of the "primary type" (62.1%). Antichlamydia antibody was detected in 156 (55.3%) participants and was significantly associated with sperm quality (P = 002; OR = 2.294; 95% CI = 1.36­3.88). Overall, 81 (28.7%) had abnormal sperm quality. The sperm count, progressive motility, and vitality were significantly lower in participants with abnormal sperm quality than those with normal sperm quality (P < 0.001) while morphology, volume, and liquefaction time did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant organism isolated from culture (122/282, 43.3%) while Streptococcus species were the least (4/262, 1.4%). There was significantly more Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the semen of participants that were seropositive to antichlamydial antibodies than those that were seronegative (80/156, 51.3% vs. 42/126, 33.3%; OR = 2.105; 95% CI = 1.30­3.42; P = 0.003). Conclusion: The prevalence of antichlamydial antibodies among male partners of infertile couples in Enugu, Nigeria is high and there is a significant association with sperm quality, sperm count, and bacterial isolates in seminal culture. Male partners of infertile couples in Enugu should be screened for antichlamydial antibodies and appropriate treatment offered wherever indicated. There is a need for increased public awareness and advocacy campaigns on the impact of Chlamydia infection on male factor infertility. This primary preventive measure may help in reducing the burden of Chlamydia infection and male factor infertility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chlamydia Infections , Fertility Clinics , Infertility, Male , Spermatozoa , Chlamydia trachomatis
9.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 62-71, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401047

ABSTRACT

Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) management in sub-Saharan Africa is syndromic but molecular diagnostics provide quicker, sensitive diagnosis and treatment. Effective STD control hinges on identification and treatment of infected persons and sexual partner contact tracing. Objectives: This study assessed feasibility of using the Xpert CT/NG test to identify prevalent Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhea (NG) infections among STD clinic attendees and their sexual partners and tested for antimicrobial resistance for N. gonorrhea. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 4 outpatient STD clinics in Kampala, Uganda from February 2019 to October 2019. Participants received a syndromic diagnosis, were tested for NG and CT, as well as their sexual partners. Urine (men) and high vaginal swabs (women) were collected, examined using Xpert CT/NG assay. A total of 79 participants were enrolled at baseline of whom 25 had CT/NG. 21 partners of infected baseline participants and 7 partners of the 21 primary partners were enrolled. Results: The mean age of the reported sexual partners was 26 (18-43) years. The prevalence of NG was 25% at baseline and 18 % for CT. Nine (11.4%) people were dually infected. Men were more likely to have NG (p<0.001) at multivariable level. Two participants tested HIV-1 positive. On microbiological culture, 8 samples (2.5%) grew NG, and all were resistant to penicillin, ciprofloxacin. For CT, we found a preponderance of the F-serovar in this population. Conclusion: The most prevalent organism was Neisseria gonorrhea. Generally, the prevalence of CT and NG was high. Infection proportions increased among primary partners, particularly women. Etiologic testing without partner tracing and treatment may underestimate burden of CT/NG in this population and contribute to re-infection


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Sexual Partners , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Chlamydia trachomatis , Prevalence , Sentinel Surveillance , Pathology, Molecular , Africa South of the Sahara , Information Services
10.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 56-61, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928512

ABSTRACT

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. However, unlike that in female infertility, the role of CT infection in male infertility remains controversial. The objective of this retrospective study was to explore the impacts of CT infection in the genital tract on sperm quality, sperm acrosin activity, antisperm antibody levels, and inflammation in a large cohort of infertile males in China. A total of 7154 semen samples were collected from infertile male subjects, 416 of whom were CT positive (CT+ group) and 6738 of whom were CT negative (CT- group), in our hospital between January 2016 and December 2018. Routine semen parameters (semen volume, pH, sperm concentration, viability, motility, morphology, etc.), granulocyte elastase levels, antisperm antibody levels, and sperm acrosin activity were compared between the CT+ and CT- groups. Our results showed that CT infection was significantly correlated with an abnormally low semen volume, as well as an increased white blood cell count and granulocyte elastase level (all P < 0.05) in the semen of infertile males; other routine semen parameters were not negatively impacted. The antisperm antibody level and sperm acrosin activity were not affected by CT infection. These findings suggested that CT infection might contribute to inflammation and hypospermia but does not impair sperm viability, motility morphology, and acrosin activity or generate antisperm antibodies in the infertile males of China.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Chlamydia trachomatis , Genitalia , Infertility, Male/epidemiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Spermatozoa
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(6): 820-823, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388312

ABSTRACT

Resumen La proctitis infecciosa secundaria a una enfermedad de transmisión sexual ha aumentado en incidencia y deben ser consideradas especial-mente en varones homosexuales o bisexuales con síntomas rectales. Presentamos un paciente con una proctitis y enfermedad perianal por Chlamydia trachomatis que podría haber sido diagnosticado con otra enfermedad ano-rectal como es la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, si la historia clínica no hubiese sido considerada. Un alto nivel de sospecha es necesario para evitar un diagnóstico incorrecto, retrasar el tratamiento antimicrobiano y el desarrollo de complicaciones.


Abstract Infectious proctitis by sexually transmitted diseases are increasing in incidence and should be considered in homosexual patients with rectal symptoms. In this case, we show a patient with proctitis and perianal disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that could be diagnosed as another anorectal disease such as inflammatory bowel disease if the clinical history is not taken into account. A high level of suspicion is crucial, in order to avoid an incorrect diagnosis, delayed antibiotic therapy and the development of complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Proctitis/diagnosis , Proctitis/etiology , Proctitis/drug therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Intraabdominal Infections
12.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 33: 1-6, dez.30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292001

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) are among the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. CT infection in women living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can facilitate HIV transmission by increasing HIV shedding in cervicovaginal secretions. The prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is higher in women living with HIV when compared to HIVnegative women, even when comparing those with the same sociodemographic characteristics. Generally, they have a high viral load and a higher persistence of viral infection, which increases the risk of developing premalignant and malignant lesions in the lower genital tract. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of CT and High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection among women living with HIV and the association with sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out with a population of 66 non-pregnant women aged between 18 and 70 years living with HIV and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói (RJ), Brazil, between the period of March 1, 2018 and October 31, 2018. A standardized questionnaire was applied including sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, and clinical information (use of oral contraceptives, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count, and viral load). Endocervical samples were collected for CT (COBAS 4800® system, Roche) and HPV (COBAS® HPV test, Roche) detection. Fisher's Exact Test was used to assess the association between variables. Regression analyses were performed using the logistic model in order to identify the factors associated with the outcomes of interest. Results: A frequency of 1.5% for CT and 21.2% for HR-HPV was found. Age was the single factor that presented statistical significance associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusion: Our study showed that some women living with HIV promote risky behavior which could facilitate the acquisition of other STIs, such as HPV and CT infection. Some of them, with detected viral load, were not using condoms even with HIV-negative partners. These results may suggest that in addition to treatment and follow-up of women living with HIV, STIs counseling and guidance may play an important role in the control of STIs in this population


Introdução: As infecções causadas por Chlamydia trachomatis e por papilomavírus humano (HPV) estão entre as infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) mais prevalentes em todo o mundo. A infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis em mulheres que vivem com HIV pode facilitar a transmissão do HIV, aumentando a disseminação do HIV cérvico-vaginal. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV é maior em mulheres vivendo com HIV quando comparadas às mulheres HIV negativas, mesmo quando comparadas àquelas com as mesmas características sociodemográficas. Geralmente apresentam carga viral elevada e maior persistência de infecção viral, o que aumenta o risco de desenvolver lesões pré-malignas e malignas no trato genital inferior. Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis e HPV de alto risco (HR-HPV) em mulheres vivendo com HIV e sua associação com características sociodemográficas, comportamentais e clínicas. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com uma população de 66 mulheres não gestantes de 18 a 70 anos vivendo com HIV e/ou AIDS no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense ­ Niterói (RJ), Brasil, entre 1º de março e 31 de outubro de 2018. Aplicou-se um questionário padronizado incluindo características sociodemográficas e comportamentais e informações clínicas (uso de anticoncepcionais orais, terapia antirretroviral, contagem de células CD4 e carga viral). Amostras endocervicais foram coletadas para detectar Chlamydia trachomatis (COBAS 4800® Roche) e HPV (COBAS ® HPV Roche). O teste exato de Fisher avaliou a associação entre as variáveis. As análises de regressão foram realizadas por meio do modelo logístico, a fim de identificar os fatores associados aos desfechos de interesse. Resultados: Encontrou-se frequência de 1,5% para Chlamydia trachomatis e 21,2% para HR-HPV. A idade foi o único fator que apresentou significância estatística associada à infecção por HR-HPV. Conclusão: Nosso estudo mostra que algumas mulheres vivendo com HIV praticam comportamentos de risco que podem facilitar a aquisição de outras IST, como a infecção por HPV e Chlamydia trachomatis. Algumas delas com carga viral detectada não usavam preservativo, mesmo com parceiros HIV negativos. Esses resultados podem sugerir que, além do tratamento e acompanhamento de mulheres vivendo com HIV, o aconselhamento e a orientação para IST podem desempenhar um papel importante no controle das IST nessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomaviridae , Chlamydia trachomatis , HIV , Women , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Condoms
13.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 33: 1-7, dez.30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344286

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is a sexually transmitted bacterium that is highly prevalent in young patients. Chlamydial infections during the gestational period have been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, such as spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). However, results in the literature are inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the association between CT infection and sPTB. Methods: This was a case-control study nested in the cohort of the prospective Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort study. Pregnant patients were recruited in private and public health clinics in São Luís and Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. At the gestational age of 20-25 weeks, cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected for the diagnosis of CT using a polymerase chain reaction. Plasma levels of Transforming Growth Factor-α (TGF- α), Interferon-γ (IFN- γ), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-13, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF- α), and TNF-ß were measured using a multiplex assay. Results: Of the 561 pregnant patients evaluated, 121 had sPTB and 440 had a full-term delivery (control group). According to our results, CT infection was not associated with sPTB (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.50­2.56); however, it was more frequent among younger patients (p=0.0078), unmarried patients (p=0.0144), and those with multiple sexual partners (p=0.0299). There were no significant differences in the immune mediators between patients with sPTB or full-term deliveries, or between patients with or without a CT infection. Conclusion: In conclusion, CT infection was not associated with sPTB in our study. However, its correlation with younger pregnant patients suggests that these patients require careful clinical management.


Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) é uma bactéria sexualmente transmissível com alta prevalência em mulheres jovens. As infecções por CT durante o período gestacional têm sido associadas com desfechos obstétricos adversos como o parto pré-termo espontâneo (PPTe). No entanto, os achados na literatura sobre essa temática ainda são inconclusivos. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre infecção por CT e PPTe. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle aninhado na coorte prospectiva de nascimentos de Ribeirão Preto e São Luís (acrônimo BRISA em inglês). As gestantes incluídas foram recrutadas com idade gestacional entre 20 e 25 semanas em serviços de saúde públicos e privados de São Luis e Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. O diagnóstico de CT foi feito por reação em cadeia da polimerase em amostras de conteúdo cervicovaginal coletadas no momento da inclusão no estudo. Também foram dosados os níveis séricos de fator transformador de crescimento-α (TGF- α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleucina-10 (IL-10), IL-13, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α) e TNF-ß por ensaio multiplex. Resultados: Das 561 gestantes avaliadas, 121 tiveram PPTe e 440 tiveram parto a termo (grupo controle). De acordo com nossos resultados, a infecção por CT não esteve associada ao PPTe (odds ratio 1,13; intervalo de confiança de 95%, 0,50­2,56); no entanto, ela foi mais frequente entre as gestantes mais jovens (p=0,0078), solteiras e divorciadas (p=0,0144) e aquelas com múltiplos parceiros sexuais (p=0,0299). Não houve diferença significativa quanto aos imunomediadores entre o grupo com PPTe e controle nem entre as gestantes com diagnóstico positive para CT e as que não apresentavam a infecção. Conclusão: No presente estudo, a infecção por CT não esteve associada ao PPTe, no entanto sua relação com gestantes jovens sugere que essa população requeira maiores cuidados e atenção no manejo clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chlamydia trachomatis , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , Bacteria , Women , Reproductive Tract Infections
15.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 239-244, 20210930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368574

ABSTRACT

A OMS estima que mais de 1 milhão de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis é adquirido todos os dias em todo o mundo. Dentre as ISTs, a clamídia é a principal causa da doença inflamatória pélvica e de infertilidade em mulheres em todo o mundo. Para esta pesquisa foi realizada uma revisão sistemática. O processo de revisão foi realizado através de uma busca na base de dados eletrônica, como PubMed, Scielo, Google Acadêmico, e em livros didáticos, utilizando os descritores infertilidade, IST, Chlamydia trachomatis. O objetivo deste estudo é buscar na literatura estudos que relatam a relação da Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) com problemas de infertilidade e os melhores métodos de diagnósticos e custo/benefício. O estudo concluiu que a CT é uma IST bastante prevalente no mundo e preocupante devido às complicações que muitas vezes são irreversíveis, como a infertilidade. Dentre os testes existentes no mercado, a PCR e a captura híbrida foram os que apresentaram melhor sensibilidade e especificidade.


The WHO estimates that more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections are acquired every day worldwide. Among STIs, chlamydia is the main cause of pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in women worldwide. For this research a systematic review was carried out. The review process was carried out through a search in the electronic database, such as Pubmed, Scielo, Google Scholar and in textbooks, using the descriptors infertility, IST, Chlamydia trachomatis. The aim of this study is to search the literature for studies that report the relationship between CT and infertility problems and the best diagnostic methods and cost benefit. The study concludes that CT is an STI that is quite prevalent in the world and worrisome due to complications that are often irreversible such as infertility. Among the tests on the market, PCR and hybrid capture showed the best sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/diagnosis , Infertility
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(4): 523-531, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388267

ABSTRACT

Resumen Chlamydia trachomatis es la infección de transmisión sexual bacteriana más frecuente en el mundo. Según datos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, su prevalencia se estima alrededor de 4,2% en mujeres. Es una infección silente; sin embargo, puede desarrollar complicaciones en la fertilidad o durante el embarazo. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir la prevalencia de C. trachomatis en estudios recientes en Chile, que utilicen para su detección reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC), revisar las posibles complicaciones perinatales asociadas, conocer las recomendaciones de tamizaje en gestantes en otros países y discutir la necesidad de incluir en nuestro país un programa de tamizaje prenatal.


Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent bacterial sexually transmitted disease around the world. Estimated prevalence by WHO is 4,2% for women. Most cases are asymptomatic, but complications in fertility and during pregnancy are possible. The aim of this review is to describe the prevalence of C. trachomatis in Chilean studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection, to describe the possible perinatal complications, to know recommendations about pregnancy screening in other countries, and to discuss the possibility of implementing in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence
17.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(4): 281-289, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358424

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Chlamydia trachomatis es la principal causa de infecciones bacterianas de transmisión sexual a nivel mundial. Se estima que cada año se producen 131 millones de casos. Cursa de manera asintomática, pero la infección ascendente en mujeres puede conducir a la enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, embarazo ectópico e infertilidad. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de C. trachomatis en mujeres de población abierta que acuden al Hospital General de Zona No. 29. Material y métodos: se realizó la identificación de C. trachomatis por pruebas de PCR a 200 muestras de exudado vaginal y se determinó su genotipo. Paralelamente, se realizó el diagnóstico microbiológico de rutina. Resultados: la prevalencia de C. trachomatis fue del 8.5% (17/200) con una concomitancia significativa de p = 0.006 con Gardnerella vaginalis (riesgo relativo de 2.871, IC95%: 1.574-5.236). Asimismo, se identificó C. trachomatis en cinco muestras como el único agente etiológico. Dieciséis cepas de C. trachomatis pertenecieron al genotipo F. Una cepa identificada de C. trachomatis presentó motivos genéticos similares a la variante mexicana reportada en 2019. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de C. trachomatis en la población estudiada nos indica la necesidad de implementar técnicas de diagnóstico para esta bacteria. El uso de la PCR permite realizar una determinación genotípica rápida, que explicaría el comportamiento epidemiológico de la C. trachomatis y representaría una mejora significativa de la calidad de vida de la paciente.


Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the main cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. An estimated of 131 million cases occur each year. It is asymptomatic, but ascending infection in women can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Objective: To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis in open population women who attend the Hospital General de Zona No. 29. Material and methods: Identification of C. trachomatis was carried out by PCR testing of 200 vaginal exudate samples and its genotype was determined. In parallel, a routine microbiological diagnosis was carried out. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis was 8.5% (17/200) with a significant concomitance of p = 0.006 with Gardnerella vaginalis (relative risk of 2.871, 95%CI: 1.574- 5.236). Likewise, C. trachomatis was identified in 5 samples as the only etiological agent. Sixteen strains of C. trachomatis belong to genotype F. An identified strain of C. trachomatis presented genetic motifs similar to the Mexican variant repor- ted in 2019. Conclusions: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the studied population indicates the need to implement diagnostic techniques for this bacterium. The use of PCR allows a rapid genotypic determination that would explain the epidemiological behavior of C. trachomatis and would represent a sig- nificant improvement in the quality of life of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bacterial Infections , Women , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gardnerella vaginalis , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Hospitals, General , Mexico
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): .333-339, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388247

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Chlamydia trachomatis es reconocida como el agente causal de una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) más común y curable. En mujeres, puede ser gatillante de enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, un factor de riesgo para infertilidad o adquisición de otras ITS. OBJETIVO: Determinar C. trachomatis en mujeres con diagnóstico clínico de vaginitis asociando factores sociodemográficos, sexuales, clínicos y microbiota vaginal. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Participaron 121 mujeres voluntarias > 18 años, con diagnóstico clínico de vaginitis y descarga vaginal anormal, atendidas en servicios de atención primaria en salud (APS) en Temuco-Chile. Se tomó muestra de flujo vaginal, determinándose C. trachomatis por una reacción de polimerasa en cadena convencional y microbiota vaginal por tinción de Gram. Se colectaron datos clínicos, sociodemográficos y sexuales mediante encuesta. RESULTADOS: Rango de edad 18-61 años. La frecuencia de C. trachomatis fue 14,9%. Se asoció C. trachomatis a mayor número de parejas sexuales en los últimos 5 años (p = 0,001), relaciones sexuales oral más anal (p = 0,055) y juguetes sexuales (p = 0,027). Asociación no significativa hubo con vaginosis bacteriana 31,2% (p = 0,091) e inicio de la actividad sexual < 18 años 20,6% (p = 0,07). CONCLUSIONES: Sería beneficioso incorporar en la semiología ginecológica de las mujeres atendidas en servicios de APS, los factores encontrados como favorecedores de infección por C. trachomatis, pues ello podría ayudar al manejo de esta ITS.


BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is recognized as the causative agent of one of the most common and curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In women, it can be a trigger for pelvic inflammatory disease, a risk factor for infertility or acquisition of other STIs. AIM: To determine CT in women with vaginitis and associate it with sociodemographic, sexual, clinical, and vaginal microbiota factors. Methods: 121 female volunteers > 18 years of age, with a clinical diagnosis of vaginitis and abnormal vaginal discharge, attending in primary health care services (PHC) in Temuco-Chile were recluted. A vaginal discharge sample was taken, determining C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction and vaginal microbiota by Gram stain. Clinical, sociodemographic and sexual data were collected by survey. RESULTS: Age range was 18-61 years. The frequency of C. trachomatis was 14.9%. C. trachomatis was associated with a higher number of sexual partners in the last 5 years (p = 0.001), oral plus anal sex (p = 0.055) and sex toys (p = 0.027); there was a non-significant association with bacterial vaginosis 31.2% (p = 0.091) and initiation of sexual activity < 18 years 20.6% (p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: It would be beneficial to incorporate in the gynecological semiology of the women attended in PHC services, the factors found to favor C. trachomatis infection, as this could help the management of this STI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaginitis/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Primary Health Care , Chlamydia trachomatis , Prevalence , Risk Factors
19.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(2): 231-239, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518392

ABSTRACT

La infección por Chlamydia trachomatis es la infección de transmisión sexual bacteriana más frecuente en el mundo. En este artículo se revisa la prevalencia reportada en Chile, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento, prevención y complicaciones a largo plazo en mujeres.


Chlamydia trachomatis infection is known to be the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection world-wide. This article reviews the prevalence reported in the Chilean population, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications in women


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/therapy , Chlamydia trachomatis , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/physiopathology , Chlamydia Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 176-183, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248741

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a global public health problem. Urethritis are among the most common STIs, and can cause several complications and facilitate the transmission of the HIV virus. Objectives: To investigate the main etiologic agents of urethritis in 170 men treated at Fundação Alfredo da Matta. Methods: To identify the agents, urethral exudate and urine were collected. Gram and culture tests were performed in Thayer-Martin medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and polymerase chain reaction for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and herpes simplex types 1 and 2. Results: N. gonorrhoeae were identified in 102 (60.0%) patients, C. trachomatis in 50 (29.4%), U. urealyticum in 29 (17.0%), M. genitalium in 11 (6.5 %), U. parvum in ten (5.9%), and M. hominis in seven (4.1%). Herpes simplex type 2 was diagnosed in 24 (21.6%) of the 111 patients who underwent PCR for this pathogen. In 69 cases there was co-infection; the most frequent were: N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in 21 (14.7%) patients; N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in 21 (12.4%) patients; N. gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex type 2 in 11 (6.5%), and N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum in nine (5.3%). Study limitations: Not relevant. Conclusion: N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, U. urealyticum, and herpes simplex type 2 were the pathogens most frequently identified in the present study. The main coinfection found was N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. T. vaginalis and herpes simplex type 1 were not identified in any of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Urethritis , Mycoplasma genitalium , Mycoplasma Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis
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