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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(2): 97-101, abr./jun. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1367729

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar a presença do Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular (VEV) e seus fatores de risco para ocorrência e disseminação da enfermidade em equídeos das mesorregiões Leste e Oeste Potiguar do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram analisadas pela técnica de virusneutralização, 809 amostras sanguíneas de equídeos provenientes de noventa propriedades de dezesseis municípios Potiguares durante os meses de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019. Os fatores de riscos associados ao VEV foram avaliados por meio de questionário epidemiológico e os dados submetidos a análise estatística no programa IBM SPSS Statistics versão 21.0 com nível de confiança de 95%. Posteriormente, todas as variáveis estatisticamente significantes foram submetidas a análise de regressão de Poisson. A soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-VEV foi 24,6% (199/809), sendo 3,2% (13/402) de soropositivos na mesorregião Leste e 45,7% (186/407) na do Oeste Potiguar. Com relação aos sorotipos, observou-se uma prevalência de 3,8% (31/809) e 24,5% (198/809) para Indiana 2 e 3 respectivamente, com 15,1% (30/198) de coinfecção. Equídeos criados na mesorregião Oeste, em propriedades que não realizam quarentena e onde os animais enfermos são mantidos no rebanho, foram consideradas fatores predisponentes a infecção pelo VEV. Esses resultados demonstram a circulação do VEV em equídeos no Rio Grande do Norte, com destaque ao Oeste Potiguar, e sendo necessário a aplicação de medidas sanitárias que impeçam introdução e disseminação do vírus ente as espécies susceptíveis, principalmente em condições climáticas favoráveis para a sua manutenção, no ambiente de criação e pastagens.


This study aimed to investigate the presence of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and risk factors for its occurrence and dissemination in equines from the Eastern and Western mesoregions of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Blood samples were analyzed, by Serum Virus Neutralization Assay, from 809 animals belonging to 90 properties distributed in sixteen municipalities from July 2018 to February 2019. Risk factors were assessed using an epidemiological questionnaire. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the software IBM SPSS Statistics, version 21.0 with a 95% confidence level. Also, all statistically significant variables were subjected to Poisson regression analysis. The occurrence of anti-VSV antibodies was 24.6% (199/809) with 3.2% (13/402) and 45.7% (186/407) of seropositivity in the Western and Eastern mesoregion, respectively. Regarding serotypes, there were an occurrence of 3.8% (31/809) and 24.5% (198/809) for Indiana 2 and 3, respectively, and 15.1% (30/198) of co-infection for both. Equines kept of the Western mesoregion, on properties that do not quarantine, and where sick animals are kept in the herd, were considered risk factors for LVV infection. These results demonstrate the presence of VSV in equines in Rio Grande do Norte, with emphasis on Oeste Potiguar, and that sanitary measures must be adopted to prevent the introduction and viral spreading among susceptible species, especially due to favorable climatic conditions for the maintenance of VSV in the breeding and pasture environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus , Horse Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , Vesicular Stomatitis/virology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
2.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(4): 380-390, Dec. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977261

ABSTRACT

Equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3) is the etiological agent of equine coital exanthema (ECE), which is a venereal, highly contagious disease, characterized by the formation of papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers on the external genitalia of mares and stallions. EHV3 remains in a latent state after a successful infection and there are latently infected animals in which the virus is reactivated and generally re-excreted subclinically. There are no available vaccines for this condition and prevention is based on the clinical examination of mares prior to mating, which allows to segregate those showing clinical signs. As this approach does not eliminate the risk of contagion in stallions from subclinically infected mares, there is a need for a specific EHV3 treatment. Nowadays, there exist various antiviral compounds of proven effectiveness for other alphaherpesviruses affecting humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of three antiviral compounds, acyclovir, ganciclovir and cidofovir against EHV3 in vitro, and to assess their efficacy against six EHV3 Argentinian field isolates. To determine the efficacy of these compounds in vitro, three parameters were analyzed: reduction of plaque number, reduction of plaque size and reduction of viral production. Additionally, the effectiveness of the three compounds at an optimum concentration previously determined in this study was investigated for the EHV3 field isolates. Based on our results, ganciclovir was the most potent antiviral compound to reduce EHV3 replication in vitro and may thus be a valuable candidate for treatment and prevention of ECE in mares and stallions.


El alfa-herpesvirus equino 3 (EHV3) es el agente etiológico del exantema coital equino (ECE), enfermedad venérea, altamente contagiosa y caracterizada por la aparición de pápulas, vesículas, pústulas y úlceras en los genitales externos de yeguas y padrillos. Luego de la primo-infección, el EHV3 se mantiene en el animal en un estado de latencia a partir del cual puede reactivar y excretarse, generalmente de manera subclínica. No existen vacunas, por lo que la prevención se basa en la detección de las lesiones clínicas previo al servicio, y la segregación de estos animales. Sin embargo, este abordaje no previene la infección del padrillo por parte de yeguas que excretan el virus de manera subclínica, y por lo tanto existe la necesidad de un tratamiento específico contra el EHV3. En la actualidad, existen varios compuestos antivirales de probada eficacia contra herpesvirus humanos y veterinarios. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar la eficacia de 3 compuestos antivirales, aciclovir, ganciclovir y cidofovir, contra EHV3 in vitro, y evaluar la eficacia de los mismos contra 6 cepas de campo argentinas de EHV3. Para determinar la eficacia de los compuestos in vitro se evaluaron 3 parámetros: reducción del número de placas de lisis, reducción del tamaño de placas de lisis y reducción de la producción de virus. Adicionalmente, la efectividad de los compuestos en una concentración óptima, previamente determinada en este estudio, fue determinada para 6 cepas de campo argentinas de EHV3. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, ganciclovir fue el compuesto más potente en reducir la replicación del EHV3 in vitro, y por lo tanto podría considerarse un potencial candidato para el tratamiento y la prevención del ECE en yeguas y padrillos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Acyclovir/pharmacology , Ganciclovir/pharmacology , Herpesvirus 3, Equid/drug effects , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Cidofovir/pharmacology , Horse Diseases/virology , Cells, Cultured , Herpesvirus 3, Equid/isolation & purification , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Horses
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 336-346, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Equine influenza is one of the major respiratory infectious diseases in horses. An equine influenza virus outbreak was identified in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in a veterinary school hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in September 2015. The twelve equine influenza viruses isolated belonged to Florida Clade 1. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase amino acid sequences were compared with the recent isolates from North and South America and the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended Florida Clade 1 vaccine strain. The hemagglutinin amino acid sequences had nine substitutions, compared with the vaccine strain. Two of them were in antigenic site A (A138S and G142R), one in antigenic site E (R62K) and another not in antigenic site (K304E). The four substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of hemagglutinin. Three distinct genetic variants were identified during the outbreak. Eleven variants were found in four quasispecies, which suggests the equine influenza virus evolved during the outbreak. The use of an out of date vaccine strain or updated vaccines without the production of protective antibody titers might be the major contributing factors on virus dissemination during this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Disease Outbreaks , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/isolation & purification , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/virology , Orthomyxoviridae , Viral Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/classification , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/genetics , Genotype , Horses , Hospitals, Animal , Neuraminidase/genetics
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 700-704, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990854

ABSTRACT

Resumen Con la aparición de la enfermedad de las vacas locas a finales del siglo XX, nació la tentación de llamar enfermedad de los caballos locos a una Antigua enzootia alemana, una encéfalo-mielietis conocida desde el siglo XVII y desde 1970 llamada "enfermedad de Borna", a causa de severos brotes afectando a los caballos en esa ciudad de la Sajonia desde 1885. Como los animales caminaban en círculos, cruzaban las patas, se veían lentos y estúpidos y parecían experimentar fuerte cefalea, algunos observadores ignorantes, entonces y ahora, pudieron pensar que estos caballos estaban locos. Más, no era una encefalitis espongiforme causada por un prion, sino una infección viral que podía afectar a varias especies animales. Después de setenta años de investigación en busca del agente causal, la aparición de las vacas locas motivó a los investigadores a darse prisa, que se hizo frenética al encontrar el virus en pacientes humanos afectados por diversas patologías psiquiátricas en los años ochenta, hasta llegar a la completa secuenciación del ahora llamado Bornavirus. No terminaba de rechazarse por completo su rol en estas patologías, cuando investigadores japoneses encontraron elementos homólogos al gen de la nucleoproteína N del virus en el genoma de varias especies de mamíferos, incluyendo la humana. Designadas estas secuencias como elementos endógenos Borna-like N (EBLN), que se habrían integrado a nuestro genoma hace dos millones de años, la pregunta que surge es… ¿qué han estado haciendo allí durante tanto tiempo?


With the apparition of the crazy cows disease at the end of twentieth century, great was the temptation for denominate "crazy horses disease" an ancient enzootic encephalo-myelitis, known from the 17th century and now named "Borna disease" in 1970, because severe outbreaks affecting horses in this city of Germany since 1885. But the sickness was not a prion disease but a viral one, causing also encephalopathy in several other animal species. After seventy years of investigation, the finding of the virus in human patients with psychiatric pathology in the eighties gave an incentive to work harder, and the genome structure of the so called Bornavirus was completely described. Recently, japanese investigators found that elements homologous to the nucleoprotein (N) gene of Bornavirus exist in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans, in which these sequences have been designated endogenous Borna-like N (EBLN) elements. And now the question is what they are doing there since their integration two million years ago.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Mononegavirales Infections/veterinary , Bornaviridae , Horse Diseases/history , Horses/virology , Mononegavirales Infections/history , Horse Diseases/virology
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 565-570, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749724

ABSTRACT

Partial nucleotide sequences of ORF72 (glycoprotein D, gD), ORF64 (infected cell protein 4, ICP4) and ORF30 (DNA polymerase) genes were compared with corresponding sequences of EHV-1 reference strains to characterize the molecular variability of Brazilian strains. Virus isolation assays were applied to 74 samples including visceral tissue, total blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nasal swabs of specimens from a total of 64 animals. Only one CSF sample (Iso07/05 strain) was positive by virus isolation in cell culture. EHV-1 Iso07/05 neurologic strain and two abortion visceral tissues samples (Iso11/06 and Iso33/06) were PCR-positive for ORF33 (glycoprotein B, gB) gene of EHV-1. A sequence analysis of the ORF72, ORF64 and ORF30 genes from three EHV-1 archival strains (A3/97, A4/72, A9/92) and three clinical samples (Iso07/05, Iso11/06 and Iso33/06) suggested that among Brazilian EHV-1 strains, the amplified region of the gD gene sequence is highly conserved. Additionally, the analysis of ICP4 gene showed high nucleotide and amino acid identities when compared with genotype P strains, suggesting that the EHV-1 Brazilian strains belonged to the same group. All the EHV-1 Brazilian strains were classified as non-neuropathogenic variants (N752) based on the ORF30 analysis. These findings indicate a high conservation of the gD-, ICP4- and ORF30-encoding sequences. Different pathotypes of the EHV-1 strain might share identical genes with no specific markers, and tissue tropism is not completely dependent on the gD envelope, immediate-early ICP4 and DNA polymerase proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesvirus 1, Equid/classification , Herpesvirus 1, Equid/genetics , Horse Diseases/virology , Brazil , Cluster Analysis , Conserved Sequence , DNA, Viral/chemistry , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Horses , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(3): 280-286, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716403

ABSTRACT

Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT). Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43), Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64), and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26) monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42) of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64) of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26) of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23) of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/immunology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Monkey Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/diagnosis , Encephalitis, St. Louis/epidemiology , Horses , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/virology , Monkey Diseases/diagnosis , Monkey Diseases/virology , Platyrrhini , Prevalence
7.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(3): 191-195, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710407

ABSTRACT

Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.


Os equinos são susceptíveis aos vírus respiratórios, como o vírus influenza, e também tem sido citado o vírus parainfluenza. Doenças respiratórias têm impactado a economia em todo mundo. Este estudo intencionou determinar a presença dos vírus influenza e parainfluenza em equinos não vacinados de certas regiões do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os soros coletados de 72 equinos, de diferentes cidades deste Estado, foram submetidos ao teste de Inibição da Hemaglutinação (IH) com objetivo de detectar anticorpos contra os referidos vírus, usando antígenos correspondentes. Cerca de 98,8% (72) e 97,2% (70) desses equinos responderam com títulos protetores (≥ 80 UIH/25µL) para os subtipos H7N7 e H3N8 de vírus influenza, respectivamente. Todos equinos (72) responderam com títulos protetores (≥ 80 UIH/25µL) contra o vírus parainfluenza 3. A diferença entre as médias de anticorpos contra o vírus influenza A não foi estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05). As médias de títulos dos vírus influenza e parainfluenza, por outro lado, demonstraram diferença estatisticamente significante (p < 0,001). Esses resultados indicam melhor resposta de anticorpos pelos equinos ao vírus parainfluenza 3 do que ao vírus da influenza equina. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada nas respostas contra os vírus da influenza equina A (H7N7 e H3N8) e parainfluenza 3, com relação ao gênero (fêmeas e machos) e grupo etário (≤ 2 até 20 anos) nos equinos avaliados. Este estudo fornece evidência da presença concomitante dos dois subtipos vírus influenza A (H7N7 e H3N8) e do parainfluenza 3 em cavalos no Brasil. Portanto, é aconselhável a vacinação dos cavalos contra esses vírus respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Horse Diseases/virology , /immunology , /immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Horses , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(4): 553-556, June 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626453

ABSTRACT

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) present ecological and antigenic similarities and are responsible for serious human diseases. In addition, WNV is a significant pathogen in terms of equine health. The purpose of our study was to analyse the seroprevalence of SLEV and WNV in equine sera collected in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. The seroprevalence determined using the plaque reduction neutralisation test was 12.2% for SLEV, 16.2% for WNV and 48.6% for a combination of both viruses. These results provide evidence of the co-circulation of SLEV and WNV in equines in Santa Fe.


Subject(s)
Animals , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/isolation & purification , Encephalitis, St. Louis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/virology , Horses/virology , West Nile Fever/veterinary , West Nile virus/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/immunology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/diagnosis , Encephalitis, St. Louis/epidemiology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/virology , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/virology , West Nile virus/immunology
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(4): 273-277, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634704

ABSTRACT

Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection has a signifcant economic impact on equine production, causing abortion, respiratory disease, neonatal death and neurological disorders. The identifcation of specifc EHV-1 genes related to virulence and pathogenicity has been the aim of several research groups. The purpose of the present study was to analyze different genomic regions of Argentinean EHV-1 strains and to determine their possible relationship with virulence or clinical signs. Twenty-fve EHV-1 Argentinean isolates recovered from different clinical cases between 1979 and 2007 and two reference strains were amplifed and sequenced. The sequence alignments were carried out using Clustal X version 1.92 and the putative amino acid sequences were deduced using Bio-Edit version 7.05. Minor changes were observed. No changes that could be involved in the different virulence in the mouse model of three EHV-1 Argentinean strains were found. No genetic variants were observed. The genomic regions analyzed are unsuitable for differentiation between abortigenic strains and those isolated from neonatal deaths.


La infección por Herpesvirus equino 1 (EHV-1) tiene un signifcativo impacto económico en la producción equina mundial al causar abortos, enfermedad respiratoria, muertes perinatales y desórdenes neurológicos. La identifcación de genes específcos relacionados con la virulencia y patogenicidad de este virus ha sido el propósito de varios grupos de investigación. En este trabajo se analizaron diferentes regiones genómicas de cepas argentinas de EHV-1 para determinar la posible relación entre la estructura genómica y la virulencia o los signos clínicos producidos. Veinticinco cepas aisladas de diferentes casos clínicos observados entre los años 1979 y 2007 y dos cepas de referencia fueron amplifcadas y secuenciadas. El alineamiento de las secuencias se realizó con el programa Clustal X versión 1.92; el programa Bio-Edit versión 7.05 permitió deducir la secuencia de aminoácidos. Solo se observaron cambios menores, no se encontraron variaciones que pudieran estar relacionadas con la diferencia de virulencia observada previamente en el modelo ratón. No se hallaron variantes genómicas. Las regiones genómicas analizadas no permitieron diferenciar cepas abortigénicas de aquellas aisladas de muertes neonatales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Genome, Viral , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesvirus 1, Equid/genetics , Horse Diseases/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Abortion, Veterinary/epidemiology , Abortion, Veterinary/virology , Argentina/epidemiology , Base Sequence , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genes, Viral , Horses , Herpesviridae Infections/epidemiology , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Equid/classification , Herpesvirus 1, Equid/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 1, Equid/pathogenicity , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Species Specificity , Virulence/genetics
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(8): 976-979, Dec. 2011. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610972

ABSTRACT

We prospectively sampled flavivirus-naïve horses in northern Colombia to detect West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) seroconversion events, which would indicate the current circulation of these viruses. Overall, 331 (34.1 percent) of the 971 horses screened were positive for past infection with flaviviruses upon initial sampling in July 2006. During the 12-month study from July 2006-June 2007, 33 WNV seroconversions and 14 SLEV seroconversions were detected, most of which occurred in the department of Bolivar. The seroconversion rates of horses in Bolivar for the period of March-June 2007 reached 12.4 percent for WNV and 6.7 percent for SLEV. These results comprise the first serologic evidence of SLEV circulation in Colombia. None of the horses sampled developed symptoms of encephalitis within three years of initial sampling. Using seroconversions in sentinel horses, we demonstrated an active circulation of WNV and SLEV in northern Colombia, particularly in the department of Bolivar. The absence of WNV-attributed equine or human disease in Colombia and elsewhere in the Caribbean Basin remains a topic of debate and speculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis/immunology , Encephalitis, St. Louis/veterinary , Horse Diseases/virology , Horses/virology , West Nile Fever/veterinary , West Nile virus/immunology , Colombia/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Encephalitis, St. Louis/diagnosis , Encephalitis, St. Louis/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/immunology , Horses/immunology , Prospective Studies , Population Surveillance/methods , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , West Nile Fever/epidemiology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(2): 116-120, Mar.-Apr. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545762

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute disease of the central nervous system and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of humans, wild animals and livestock, particularly cattle, as well as causing major economic losses. This study describes the genetic characterization of rabies virus variants that circulate in Desmodus rotundus populations and are transmitted to herbivores. METHODS: Fifty rabies virus isolates from bovines and equines in the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, were genetically characterized and compared with sequences retrieved from GenBank. RESULTS: Two clusters (I and II) with mean nucleotide identities of 99.1 and 97.6 percent were found. The first of these contained nearly all the samples analyzed. Lineages from other Brazilian states grouped in cluster II. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the amino acid sequences of the N proteins revealed the existence of genetic markers that may indicate possible variations between geographic regions, although the biologically active regions are conserved within the species over space and time.


INTRODUÇÃO: A raiva é uma doença aguda do sistema nervoso central e é responsável por mortes de milhares de humanos, animais silvestres e animais de criação - especialmente bovinos - além de causar elevadas perdas econômicas. Este trabalho descreve a caracterização genética das variantes do vírus da raiva que circulam em populações de Desmodus rotundus e são transmitidas aos herbívoros. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta isolados de vírus da raiva de bovinos e equinos provenientes dos Estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram caracterizadas geneticamente e comparadas com sequências recuperadas do GenBank. RESULTADOS: Dois clusters, I e II, apresentando identidades médias de nucleotídeos de 99,1 e 97,6 por cento, foram obtidos, sendo o primeiro composto de quase a totalidade das amostras analisadas. Linhagens de outros estados do Brasil "clustered" no II. CONCLUSÕES: A análise das sequências de aminoácidos da proteína N revelou que existem marcadores genéticos que podem determinar uma possível regionalidade embora as regiões biologicamente ativas apresentem-se conservadas dentro das espécies ao longo do tempo e espaço.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Mice , Cattle Diseases/virology , Horse Diseases/virology , Rabies virus/genetics , Rabies/veterinary , Base Sequence , Brazil , Cluster Analysis , Chiroptera/virology , Horses/virology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Rabies virus/isolation & purification , Rabies/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary
12.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 42(1): 11-17, feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634646

ABSTRACT

Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease that frequently causes mild or subclinical infections in adult horses. Only one EAV serotype has been described. However, there are differences in antigenicity, pathogenicity and neutralization characteristics of virus field strains. The interaction of two viral proteins, GP5 and M, is critical for infectivity and amino acid changes in the GP5 sequences have an effect on the neutralizing phenotype, regardless the effects of other viral proteins. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neutralization phenotypes of the 5 unique Argentine EAV strains reported and to compare them with the neutralization phenotypes of the EAV-UCD reference strain, with special emphasis on the analysis of M and GP5 proteins. The strains had a similar neutralization phenotype pattern when anti-EAV serum, derived from EAV seropositive horses, was used in the analysis. Meanwhile, low titers were observed when equine polyclonal anti-EAV reference sera were used in the assay. Argentine strains have almost the same amino acid substitutions, with the exception of LP01 strain, that mainly involves the first variable region V1, especially in neutralization sites B and C. However, they are fairly different from the EAV-UCD strain. Nevertheless, the nucleotide and amino acid differences observed among the Argentine strains LP02/R, LP02/C, LP02/P and LP-LT-ARG did not show any variations in the neutralization phenotype.


La arteritis viral equina (AVE) ocasiona infecciones, en su mayoría subclínicas, pero puede causar abortos y enfermedad respiratoria. Si bien se ha descrito un solo serotipo de AVE, existen diferencias en cuanto a la antigenicidad, patogenicidad y patrones de neutralización en las cepas de campo. Los ORF5 y ORF6 del virus codifican las proteínas de envoltura GP5 y M; la interacción entre estas proteínas es crítica para la infectividad. Los cambios en las secuencias de aminoácidos en la proteína GP5, especialmente en la región V1, afectan el fenotipo neutralizante, sin tener en cuenta variaciones aminoacídicas de otras proteínas virales. En este estudio evaluamos los fenotipos neutralizantes de las 5 únicas cepas de arteritis viral equina aisladas en Argentina y los comparamos con los de la cepa de referencia EAV-UCD por virus neutralización cruzada y análisis de secuencias aminoacídicas de las proteínas M y GP5. Las cepas argentinas presentaron un patrón de neutralización similar cuando se utilizaron sueros positivos del banco de sueros, mientras que fueron neutralizadas en menor medida por los sueros policlonales de referencia anti-AVE. A excepción de la cepa LP01, las cepas argentinas tienen casi las mismas sustituciones aminoacídicas en la primera región variable V1 de la proteína GP5, específicamente en los sitios neutralizantes B y C, pero difieren en gran medida respecto de la cepa de referencia EAV-UCD. Las diferencias encontradas en los aislamientos LP02/R, LP02/C, LP02/P y LT-LP-ARG no se reflejaron en variaciones en el fenotipo neutralizante.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Equartevirus/immunology , Arterivirus Infections/virology , Horse Diseases/virology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Argentina , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Equartevirus/classification , Equartevirus/genetics , Equartevirus/isolation & purification , DNA, Complementary/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genetic Variation , Horses , Molecular Sequence Data , Neutralization Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Species Specificity , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 19(2): 112-117, feb. 2006. mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-432291

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: El virus del Nilo occidental (VNO, familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus) se ha propagado rápidamente por toda la cuenca del Caribe desde que se detectó por primera vez en 2001. En este informe se resumen nuestros conocimientos actuales acerca de la transmisión del VNO en zonas tropicales del continente americano. MÉTODOS: Revisamos todo lo que se ha publicado sobre el tema y consultamos a autoridades de salud clave para obtener datos inéditos. RESULTADOS: Las infecciones por el virus del Nilo occidental aparecieron por primera vez en seres humanos residentes de las Islas Caimán y de los Cayos de la Florida en 2001, y en pájaros de aspecto sano de los cuales se obtuvieron muestras a principios de 2002. En 2002 se encontraron pruebas serológicas de infección por el VNO en caballos, pollos y aves de corral no estabuladas oriundas de Guadalupe, la República Dominicana y la parte oriental de México. En 2003, el VNO se diseminó dentro de México y por la parte norte de Centroamérica y se encontraron pruebas serológicas en las Bahamas, Puerto Rico y Cuba. En 2004, las primeras pruebas serológicas de actividad vírica en ecosistemas sudamericanos se detectaron en septiembre y octubre en Colombia y Trinidad, donde se observaron anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el VNO en animales domésticos. CONCLUSIONES: Estos informes esporádicos de enfermedad equina, humana y aviar en América Latina y el Caribe son desconcertantes. Es necesario aislar las cepas para determinar si la atenuación del virus u otro factor explica la carga de enfermedad reducida en ecosistemas tropicales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , West Nile virus , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Bird Diseases/virology , Birds/virology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Chickens/virology , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/virology , Horses/virology , Latin America/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , West Nile Fever/prevention & control , West Nile Fever/transmission , West Nile virus/immunology , West Nile virus/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 22(1): 47-50, mar. 2005. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-417242

ABSTRACT

La presentación de la influenza equina en Chile ha estado relacionada con verdaderas pandemias continentales. El primer brote ocurrió el año 1963, posteriormente se han reportado tres grandes brotes en 1977 (H7N7), 1985 (H3N5) y 1992 (H3N5). La sintomatología descrita corresponde en términos generales a la de influenza equina. El brote más grave fue el de 1977. Desde 1992 no se ha descrito la influenza equina en Chile. Un posible caso de transmisión de influenza equina desde caballos al hombre fue descrito en 1973. Evidencian serológicas hacen pensar en un caso de influenza equina en humanos; desafortunadamente el virus aislado desde caballos no fue tipificado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Horse Diseases/virology , /isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Chile/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Horses , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , /genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 27(6): 1317-1320, June 1994.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-319773

ABSTRACT

We report an outbreak of abortion due to equine herpesvirus (EHV) in 5 mares between 9 and 11 months of gestation, from a herd of 22 Thoroughbred mares. Equine herpesvirus was isolated from extracts of the liver, spleen and thymus but not from the lungs of a 9-month fetus grown in Rabbit Kidney (RK13) cells. The virus was identified by electron microscopy, where virus particles could be seen in the nucleus of infected cells, and by the fluorescent antibody technique with polyclonal antibodies against the whole virus. Anamnesis, necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology, and virology data suggest that the abortions reported in this paper were due to equine herpesvirus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Veterinary , Horse Diseases/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Equid , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Abortion, Veterinary , Antibodies, Viral , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Brazil , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Fetus , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Equid , Horses , Herpesviridae Infections/epidemiology , Herpesviridae Infections/prevention & control , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Microscopy, Electron , Thymus Gland
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