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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1512052

ABSTRACT

No período de pós Transplante Renal (TxR) o uso de imunossupressores é indicado. Seu uso crônico se associa a alterações endocrinometabólicas e do estado nutricional. Objetivo: Avaliar o estado nutricional de pacientes com Doenças Renais Crônicas (DRC) submetidos ao transplante renal. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com pessoas que vivem com a DRC, submetidas ao TxR, no período mínimo de 6 (seis) meses. Coletou-se dados socioeconômicos, demográficos, antecedentes clínicos e antropométricos. Feita análise estatística dos dados e determinada a média e desvio padrão das variáveis numéricas. Verificou-se a normalidade dos dados pelo teste de Shapiro Wilk. Para variáveis não-paramétricas, foi aplicado teste de U-Mann-Whitney. Para variáveis categóricas, foi realizada análise descritiva. A comparação foi feita por Qui-quadrado de Pearson ou teste Exato de Fisher. Foi adotado p<0,05. Resultados: Ao avaliar 52 pacientes observou-se interação significativa entre o sexo feminino e o ganho de peso (p=0,02). A eutrofia foi prevalente segundo o Índice de massa corporal IMC (48,08%), entretanto, a adequação da CB, CMB e AMBC apontou relevantes percentuais de desnutrição. Aumento da incidência de diabetes (5,77% vs 30,77%) e de dislipidemia (3,85% vs 17,31%) no período pós TxR. Conclusão: O ganho de peso se associou significativamente ao sexo feminino. Verificou-se que mesmo diante da prevalência de eutrofia ao avaliar o IMC, a desnutrição foi presente ao se classificar as adequações das circunferências corporais


In the period after Renal Transplantation (KTx) the use of immunosuppressants is indicated, their chronic use is associated with endocrine-metabolic alterations and nutritional status. Objective: Evaluate the nutritional status of patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD) after kidney transplantation. Method: This is a cross-sectional study, carried out with people living with CKD, submitted to KTx, for a minimum period of 6 (six) months. Data on socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and anthropometric background were collected. Statistical analysis of the data was performed and the mean and standard deviation of numerical variables were determined. Data normality was verified by the Shapiro Wilk test. For non-parametric variables, U-Mann-Whitney´s test was applied. For categorical variables, descriptive analysis was performed. Comparison was performed using Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's test. The results were discussed at the 5% level of significance. Results: When assessing 52 patients, a significant interaction was observed between female gender and weight gain. (p=0,02). Eutrophy was prevalent according to BMI(48,08%) However, the adequacy of the MAC, MAMC and AMA presented relevant percentages of malnutrition. Increased incidence of diabetes (5,77% vs 30,77%) and dyslipidemia (3,85% vs 17,31%) in the period after KTx. Conclusion: The weight gain was significantly associated with female gender. It was found that even in the face of the prevalence of eutrophy when assessing BMI, malnutrition was present when classifying the adequacy of body circumferences


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Kidney Transplantation , Postoperative Period , Weight Gain , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1511499

ABSTRACT

O desenvolvimento da síndrome metabólica após o transplante renal (TxR) é evidenciado na literatura e se caracteriza por alterações que conferem a redução da função do enxerto. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a prevalência da síndrome metabólica e identificar variáveis que se associam à síndrome metabólica em receptores de TxR tardio. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal analítico realizado com pacientes receptores de TxR. Foram incluídos participantes com idade superior ou igual a 18 anos, receptores de TxR tardio em acompanhamento superior a 6 meses. A análise descritiva dos dados foi expressa por médias, desvio padrão, medianas e percentuais. A normalidade dos dados foi verificada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk ao nível de 5% de significância. Aplicou-se o teste de comparação de médias para duas amostras independentes, teste t de Student. Foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Pearson para avaliar as possíveis relações existentes entre a variável tempo pós TxR com as outras variáveis de interesse. Resultados: Ao avaliar 43 pacientes com idade média de 50,9 ± 9,8 anos, notou-se que a síndrome metabólica esteve presente em 53,85% dos voluntários e que se associou ao peso prévio (p= 0,018), concentrações séricas de triglicerídeos (p= 0,001), menores médias de HDL (p= 0,053) e, também, foi verificada uma associação marginal com a circunferência da cintura (p= 0,051). A SM foi prevalente no período pós TxR. Ainda, as maiores médias de peso prévio ao TxR, de circunferência da cintura, de triglicerídeos e as menores médias de HDL se associaram à SM


The onset of metabolic syndrome (MS) after kidney transplantation (KTx) is evidenced in the literature and this is characterized by alterations that confer a reduction in the function of the transplantation. Objective: The aim of this research is to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and to identify the variables that are associated with the metabolic syndrome in recipients of belated KTx. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out with patients receiving KTx. Participants aged 18 years or older, recipients of late KTx with follow-up longer than 6 months, were included. The descriptive analysis of the data was expressed as means, standard deviation, medians and percentages. Data normality was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk test at a 5% significance level. The mean comparison test was applied for two independent samples, Student's t test. Pearson's correlation test was used to assess possible association between the variable time after KTx and the other variables of interest. Results: Forty-three patients with a mean age of 50.9 ± 9.8 years were evaluated and metabolic syndrome was present in 53.85% of the volunteers. There was an association with previous weight (p= 0.018), serum triglyceride concentrations (p= 0.001) and lower HDL means (p= 0.053) and and a marginal association with waist circumference (p=0,0051). MS was prevalent in the post-KTx period. Furthermore, the highest means of weight prior to KTx, waist circumference, TG and the lowest means of HDL were associated with MS


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Transplant Recipients , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1113-1117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the difference in the therapeutic effect of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or cyclophosphamide (CTX) in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) of different age groups.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 135 children with HSPN who were treated with MMF or CTX in the Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics, from October 2018 to October 2020. According to the immunosuppressant used, they were divided into two groups: MMF group and CTX group, and according to the age, each group was further divided into two subgroups: ≤12 years and >12 years, producing four groups, i.e, the ≤12 years MMF subgroup (n=30), the >12 years MMF subgroup (n=15), the ≤12 years CTX subgroup (n=71), and the >12 years CTX subgroup (n=19). All children were followed up for at least 12 months, and the above groups were compared in terms of clinical outcomes and the incidence rate of adverse reactions.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the complete response rate between the MMF group and the CTX group after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment (P>0.05). There were no significant difference in the complete response rate and the incidence rate of adverse reactions between the >12 years MMF subgroup and the ≤12 years MMF subgroup at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment (P>0.05). The >12 years CTX subgroup had a significantly lower complete response rate than the ≤12 years CTX subgroup at 6 and 12 months of treatment (P<0.05). The >12 years CTX subgroup had a significantly higher incidence rate of adverse reactions than the >12 years MMF subgroup (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The efficacy and adverse reactions of MMF are not associated with age, but the efficacy of CTX is affected by age, with a higher incidence rate of adverse reactions. CTX should be selected with caution for children with HSPN aged >12 years.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , IgA Vasculitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Vasculitis/drug therapy , Nephritis/complications
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1034-1039, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical effect of different immunosuppressive treatment regimens in children with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on 130 children with OMG who were treated in the Department of Neurology, Jiangxi Children's Hospital, from February 2018 to February 2023. According to the treatment regimen, they were divided into four groups: glucocorticoid (GC) group (n=29), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) group (GC+MMF; n=33), methotrexate (MTX) group (GC+MTX; n=30), and tacrolimus (FK506) group (GC+FK506; n=38). Treatment outcomes and adverse reactions were compared among the groups.@*RESULTS@#After 3 months of treatment, the FK506 group had significantly lower scores of Myasthenia Gravis Quantitative Scale and Myasthenia Gravis-Specific Activities of Daily Living than the other three groups (P<0.05). After 3 months of treatment, the FK506 group had a significantly lower dose of prednisone than the GC group, and after 6 and 9 months of treatment, the MMF, MTX, and FK506 groups had a significantly lower dose of prednisone than the GC group (P<0.05). After 12 months of treatment, the MMF, MTX, and FK506 groups had a significantly lower incidence rate of GC-related adverse reactions than the GC group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#For children with OMG, the addition of various immunosuppressants can reduce the dosage of GC and adverse reactions. Among them, FK506 shows superior efficacy compared to other immunosuppressants in the early treatment of OMG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Prednisone/adverse effects , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Activities of Daily Living , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects
5.
Clin. biomed. res ; 43(2): 116-135, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517476

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immunosuppressants (ISS) are the most crucial tools used in the therapeutic regimens of transplant recipients. Nevertheless, these drugs are not the only ones adopted by patients; therefore, knowing the possible drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between immunosuppressants and other drugs commonly used in kidney transplant recipients is essential to ensure the effectiveness and safety of treatments. In this way, the objective is analyzing the DDIs between the immunosuppressants and other commonly used medications on kidney transplant adult recipients with active medical records undergoing post-transplant follow-up for 4.4 years (mean). Methods: First, we performed a cross-sectional study based on patients' records, in which the patient's profile and drugs used were examined, and after we analyzed DDIs by the Micromedex Drug Interactions® database. Results: We analyzed 176 patients with a mean age of 47.6(± 12.5); most were male (67.7%), and the majority received a kidney from a deceased donor (81.4%). Patients were exposed to 15.0 (± 5.4) different medicines after the transplantation, and 7.4 (± 4.0) of these medicines were simultaneous. After analyzing the DDIs according to the severity of interaction, documentation quality interaction effect, clinical management and probable interaction mechanism, the most frequent interaction was with tacrolimus, classified as moderate, and the 3 major causes of interaction occurred with azathioprine according to the Micromedex database. The primary medicines involved with immunosuppressant interactions were proton pump inhibitors, ranitidine, domperidone, amlodipine, enalapril, allopurinol, cyclobenzaprine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, and ciprofloxacin. These DDIs' effects were related to, mainly, increase their immunosuppressant activity. Conclusion: Although the immunosuppressants analyzed lacked many clinical DDIs significance with other medicines, the healthcare team needs to monitor their DDIs' effects to prevent and minimize side effects in transplanted recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Kidney Transplantation , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Drug Monitoring/methods , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics
6.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(10): 1317-1324, oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a largely used immunosuppressive agent in the prevention of transplant rejection and lupus nephritis. Its use has been extended to other immune-mediated diseases (ID). AIM: To assess the off-label use of MMF, its performance as a glucocorticoid sparing agent, the therapeutic response, and its adverse effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. One hundred-seven patients aged 58 ± 16 years (83% females) who received MMF for ID in off label uses between 2016 and 2018 were included. The study variables were cause of MMF indication, sex, age, use as a first- or second-line treatment and maintenance dosing. The cumulative doses of glucocorticoids six months before and after MMF indication were compared. RESULTS: MMF was used as a second-line therapy in 66 patients (62%). The mean maintenance dose of MMF was 1,500 ± 540 mg/day. Prednisone cumulative doses were 3,908 ± 2,173 and 1,672 ± 1,083 milligrams six months before and six months after starting MMF, respectively (p < 0.01). Adverse effects were identified in 21 (20%) cases, none of them serious. CONCLUSIONS: Mycophenolate has a favorable response profile as a second line immunosuppressive agent. It is effective as a glucocorticoid sparing drug. The safety profile is also favorable as adverse effects were scanty and mild.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Off-Label Use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(11): 1012-1025, Nov. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350140

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT For patients with autoimmune diseases, the risks and benefits of immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory treatment are a matter of continual concern. Knowledge of the follow-up routine for each drug is crucial, in order to attain better outcomes and avoid new disease activity or occurrence of adverse effects. To achieve control of autoimmune diseases, immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory drugs act on different pathways of the immune response. Knowledge of the mechanisms of action of these drugs and their recommended doses, adverse reactions and risks of infection and malignancy is essential for safe treatment. Each drug has a specific safety profile, and management should be adapted for different circumstances during the treatment. Primary prophylaxis for opportunistic infections and vaccination are indispensable steps during the treatment plan, given that these prevent potential severe infectious complications. General neurologists frequently prescribe immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory drugs, and awareness of the characteristics of each drug is crucial for treatment success. Implementation of a routine before, during and after use of these drugs avoids treatment-related complications and enables superior disease control.


RESUMO Pacientes com doenças autoimunes exigem uma constante preocupação com os riscos e benefícios do tratamento imunossupressor ou imunomodulador. O conhecimento das rotinas no uso de cada uma dessas drogas é fundamental para o bom desfecho clínico, evitando a piora da doença ou efeitos colaterais. As drogas imunossupressoras e imunomoduladoras agem em diferentes pontos da resposta imunológica a fim de controlar a doença para qual são indicadas. O conhecimento do mecanismo de ação, principais posologias, efeitos adversos e os riscos de infecções e neoplasias relacionadas ao uso dessas medicações são fundamentais para um tratamento seguro. Cada uma delas apresenta um perfil específico de complicações e o manejo deve ser individualizado em diferentes cenários ao longo do seguimento do paciente. O uso de medicações para profilaxia primária de infecções e a vacinação são pontos essenciais no planejamento do tratamento, prevenindo potenciais complicações infecciosas ao longo do acompanhamento. O uso de imunossupressores e imunomoduladores é uma frequente realidade no dia-a-dia do neurologista, e o conhecimento das características de cada droga é crucial para o sucesso do tratamento. A realização de uma rotina antes, durante e depois do uso dessas medicações evita complicações relacionadas com o tratamento e alcança um melhor controle da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
8.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-9, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151628

ABSTRACT

La terapia con fármacos antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa ha sido beneficiosa en el tratamiento de varias enfermedades como las del tejido conectivo e inflamatorias del intestino, pero no está exenta de riesgos. Las principales complicaciones de estas drogas inmunosupresoras son las infecciones, y la tuberculosis pulmonar es una de las principales afecciones, que se pueden observar en los pacientes con este tipo de tratamiento.Se presentó una mujer de 31 años, atendida en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana, Cuba, con antecedentes de colitis ulcerativa, que hace 3 meses recibe terapia con Infliximab. Acude al hospital por referir 4 días previos al ingreso, fiebre de 390 C dos veces al día, acompañándose de cefalea, pérdida del apetito y dolor en la región perineal. Se le realizó radiografía de tórax, donde se describe radiopacidad heterogénea que va desde el cuerno superior del hilio derecho hasta planos axilares, en la tomografía axial de tórax reportan consolidación en segmento anterior del lóbulo superior derecho con presencia de broncograma aéreo y en el lavado bronquial microbiológico para bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes se informó codificación 8, positivo a Mycobacterium tuberculosis. El diagnóstico preciso de tuberculosis relacionada con el uso de fármacos antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa requiere un alto índice de sospecha y una investigación detallada. Existe un alto grado de complejidad diagnóstica, por la existencia de un amplio espectro clínico y la necesidad de excluir otras enfermedades.


Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist drug therapy has been beneficial in the treatment of several diseases such as connective tissue and inflammatory bowel diseases, but it is not without risks. The main complications of these immunosuppressive drugs are infections, and pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the main conditions, which can be observed in patients with this type of treatment. A 31-year-old woman, treated at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital, Havana, Cuba, with a history of ulcerative colitis, who has been receiving Infliximab therapy for 3 months, presented. He went to the hospital for referring 4 days prior to admission, a fever of 390 C twice a day, accompanied by headache, loss of appetite and pain in the perineal region. A chest X-ray was performed, which described heterogeneous radiopacity that goes from the upper horn of the right hilum to axillary planes, in the chest axial tomography they report consolidation in the anterior segment of the right upper lobe with the presence of air bronchogram and in the bronchial lavage microbiological for acid-fast bacilli coding 8, positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis was reported. Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis related to the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist drugs requires a high index of suspicion and detailed investigation. There is a high degree of diagnostic complexity, due to the existence of a wide clinical spectrum and the need to exclude other diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Infliximab/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Infections/etiology
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 77-81, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The use of immunosuppressive drugs after liver transplantation (LT) is associated with the development of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), in addition to other comorbidities of metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the time after use immunosuppressive drugs the patient progresses to SAH, as well as to identify its prevalence and the factors that may be correlated to it. METHODS: A retrospective and longitudinal study was conducted, based on the analysis of medical records of 72 normotensive patients, attended in the transplant unit of a university hospital, between 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: It was observed, on average, 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive use, the patients were diagnosed with hypertension, and the prevalence of transplanted patients who evolved to SAH in this study was 59.64% (41 patients). In addition, there was a correlation between serum dosage of tacrolimus and the development of SAH (P=0.0067), which shows that tacrolimus has a significant role in the development of SAH. Finally, it was noticed that the development of post-transplantation hypertension indicates a higher risk of the patient presenting the other parameters of metabolic syndrome, as well as a higher impairment in its renal function (P=0.0061). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the patients evolved to SAH in an average of 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive drug use. We have also found high prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (59.64%) in patients after liver transplantation, who used calcineurin inhibitors, especially when associated with the use of tacrolimus.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O uso de imunossupressores pós-transplante de fígado (TF) está associado ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), além de outras alterações da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVO: Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a partir de quando tempo após o uso do imunossupressor o paciente evolui para HAS, assim como, identificar a sua prevalência e outros fatores que podem estar relacionados, como injuria renal. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal, baseado em análise de 72 prontuários de pacientes, atendidos na unidade de transplante de um hospital universitário, que não apresentavam hipertensão arterial prévia, entre período de 2016 a 2019. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que, em média, 9±6,98 meses após uso do imunossupressor, os pacientes foram diagnosticados com hipertensão arterial sistêmica, sendo que a prevalência de pacientes transplantados que evoluíram para HAS, neste estudo, foi de 59,64% (41 pacientes). Além disso, verificou-se uma correlação entre a dosagem sérica de tacrolimus e o desenvolvimento de HAS (P=0,0067), o que evidencia que o tacrolimus tem uma atuação significativa no desenvolvimento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Por fim, percebeu-se que o desenvolvimento de HAS pós-transplante indica um maior risco de paciente apresentar os outros parâmetros da síndrome metabólica, como também maior prejuízo na sua função renal (P=0,0061). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostra que os pacientes evoluíram para HAS em média 9±6,98 meses após o início do uso do imunossupressor. Verificou-se também alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (59,64%) em pacientes pós-transplante de fígado, que usavam inibidores de calcineurina, principalmente, quando associado ao uso de tacrolimus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hypertension , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 338-342, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus cyclophosphamide (CTX) in the treatment of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and nephrotic-range proteinuria.@*METHODS@#A prospective clinical trial was conducted in 68 pediatric patients who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics and who were diagnosed with HSPN and nephrotic-range proteinuria from August 2016 to November 2019. The patients were randomly divided into two groups:MMF treatment (@*RESULTS@#At months 3, 6, and 12 of treatment, there was no significant difference in the complete remission rate and the response rate between the MMF treament and CTX treatment groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#MMF and CTX have similar efficacy and safety in the treatment of HSPN children with nephrotic-range proteinuria.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Nephritis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Proteinuria/etiology , IgA Vasculitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
11.
Clinics ; 76: e2597, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153997

ABSTRACT

A combination of immunosuppressants may improve outcomes due to the synergistic effect of their different action mechanisms. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the best immunosuppressive protocol after liver transplantation. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tacrolimus associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eight randomized trials were included. The proportion of patients with at least one adverse event related to the immunosuppression scheme with tacrolimus associated with MMF was 39.9%. The tacrolimus with MMF immunosuppression regimen was superior in preventing acute cellular rejection compared with that of tacrolimus alone (risk difference [RD]=-0.11; p =0.001). The tacrolimus plus MMF regimen showed no difference in the risk of adverse events compared to that of tacrolimus alone (RD=0.7; p=0.66) and cyclosporine plus MMF (RD=-0.7; p=0.37). Patients undergoing liver transplantation who received tacrolimus plus MMF had similar adverse events when compared to patients receiving other evaluated immunosuppressive regimens and had a lower risk of acute rejection than those receiving in the monodrug tacrolimus regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Immunosuppression Therapy , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects
12.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(3): e852, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149925

ABSTRACT

Al igual que en las enfermedades autoinmunes y reumáticas, las infecciones por virus pueden ser disparadores de mecanismos inmunopatogénicos. El SARSCoV-2 puede causar la liberación de citocinas y provocar un daño tisular grave, sobre todo pulmonar, con peligro para la vida. Se suma a ello el riesgo del uso de medicamentos inmunosupresores, empleados en los protocolos de tratamiento de las afecciones autoinmunes y también contra la infección viral de COVID-19. Hoy no contamos con conocimientos y evidencias científicas suficientemente sólidas para el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19, y cómo puede impactar entre los pacientes inmunodeprimidos por afecciones reumáticas. El Grupo Nacional de Atención y Enfrentamiento a la COVID-19 de la Sociedad Cubana de Reumatología se propuso elaborar un documento científico actualizado con las bases teórico-prácticas que permita acceder al conocimiento acerca de la infección por SARSCoV-2 y la COVID-19, y su repercusión sobre los pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes y reumáticas para esbozar una estrategia de trabajo y ofrecer recomendaciones para los reumatólogos y pacientes cubanos. Se realizó un estudio de revisión y actualización acerca de la asociación entre las enfermedades reumáticas y autoinmunes y la COVID-19. Se emplearon las palabras clave enfermedades reumáticas, lupus eritematoso sistémico, artritis reumatoide, virus SARSCoV-2 y COVID-19. Se realizó una amplia búsqueda en MEDLINE y LILACS, y se revisaron más de 150 artículos, boletines de actualización de los sitios Web, páginas de salud de Cuba, resúmenes seleccionados por su calidad metodológica, revisiones y metaanálisis sobre el tema. A partir de la información recogida, se estableció una discusión y análisis considerando las principales experiencias internacionales, criterios de expertos, experiencias previas con otros virus en el Sistema de Salud de Cuba, con la participación de su red de científicos liderados por la Sociedad Cubana de Reumatología y su Grupo Nacional y el apoyo de la comunidad de reumatólogos(AU)


The outbreak of the infection by the new coronavirus SARSCoV-2, COVID-19, in December in Wuhan Province of China, has become a pandemic and health emergency given the deficiency of antiviral therapy for the acute respiratory syndrome that generates danger to life. The debut of the epidemic was in China, then the epicenter developed in Europe, northern Italy that suffered a severe blow. Worldwide, more than 10 million people are infected with the virus that has impacted on health systems until it practically collapsed, resulting in thousands of deaths. Today the epicenter of the pandemic has shifted to the Americas. Alarming figures highlight the United States of North America with some 2,737,600 infected and more than 128,471 deaths, followed by the South American giant Brazil with 1.3 million infections and 57,659 deaths. The Caribbean has a better setting. In Cuba, by the end of June, 2,340 cases of patients infected with deaths from COVID-19 were reported. We conducted a review, analysis and evaluation study of more than 150 articles from international journals, update bulletins of the WEB sites, health pages of the MINSAP of Cuba, and summaries selected for their methodological quality, and reviews, on the subject COVID-19 and autoimmune-rheumatic diseases by MEDLINE: database prepared by the National Library of Medicine of The USA contains bibliographic references and abstracts from more than 4,000 biomedical journals published in the United States and in 70 other countries, We also use Latin American and Caribbean Center for Information on Health Sciences: System, in Latin America and the Caribbean, since 1982. Our objective and results achieved have been to develop the theoretical-practical bases in an updated scientific document that allow access in an essential and summarized way to current knowledge about the infection by SACOV-2, COVID-19, and its repercussion and impact on patients suffering from rheumatic autoimmune diseases, and thus outline a coping and action strategy with recommendations for the Cuban rheumatologists in their health care work, and for patients as a guideline, given their well-founded concerns and fears given their underlying condition and the immunosuppressive drugs prescribed in an unfavorable context of a pandemic. The information is based on international experiences with the most published scientific evidence and those treasured national experiences in the face of similar situations of epidemics, faced by the vast health system and achievements of Cuban science(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(3): 165-170, mar 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361515

ABSTRACT

Este relato teve como objetivo apresentar um caso de hepatotoxicidade colestática induzida por azatioprina em portadora da síndrome de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada. À admissão, apresentava icterícia +3/+4, acolia fecal e colúria, além de aumento de marcadores hepáticos, sendo compatível com síndrome colestática, cuja etiologia foi confirmada após exclusão de outras causas possíveis e retirada da azatioprina. A paciente evoluiu, após 1 semana de retirada do fármaco, com diurese livre de coloração menos escura e evacuação presente, sem acolia. Além disso, houve melhora nos exames que precederam a alta hospitalar


This report aimed at presenting a case of azathioprine-induced cholestatic hepatotoxicity in a patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. On admission, she presented with jaundice +3/+4, acholic feces, and choluria, as well as increased hepatic markers, all consistent with cholestatic syndrome, the etiology of which was confirmed after other possible causes were ruled out and azathioprine was discontinued. After 1 week of the drug discontinuation, the patient progressed with free diuresis of lighter color and defecation, with no acholia. In addition, tests performed before discharge were improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Azathioprine/toxicity , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Immunosuppressive Agents/toxicity , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/diagnosis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/blood , Ultrasonography , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/blood , Goiter, Nodular/diagnostic imaging , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 77-93, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098342

ABSTRACT

Abstract Glomerulopathies are one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. In the last years, clinical research has made significant contributions to the understanding of such conditions. Recently, rituximab (RTX) has appeared as a reasonably safe treatment. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines (KDIGO) recommended RTX only as initial treatment in antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody associated vasculitis (AAV) and in non-responders patients with lupus nephritis (LN), but these guidelines have not been updated since 2012. Nowadays, RTX seems to be at least as effective as other immunosuppressive regimens in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). In minimal-change disease, (MCD) this drug might allow a long-lasting remission period in steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing patients. Preliminary results support the use of RTX in patients with pure membranous LN and immunoglobulin-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), but not in patients with class III/IV LN or complement-mediated MPGN. No conclusion can be drawn in idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) because studies are small, heterogeneous, and scarce. Lastly, immunosuppression including RTX is not particularly useful in IgA nephropathy. This review presents the general background, outcomes, and safety for RTX treatment in different glomerulopathies. In this regard, we describe randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed in adults, whenever possible. A literature search was performed using clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed.


Resumo As glomerulopatias figuram entre as principais causas de doença renal terminal. Nos últimos anos, a pesquisa clínica efetuou contribuições significativas para a compreensão desse grupo de patologias. Recentemente, o rituximabe (RTX) surgiu como um tratamento razoavelmente seguro. As diretrizes do Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recomendam o RTX apenas como tratamento inicial na vasculite associada ao ANCA (VAA) e em pacientes não respondedores com nefrite lúpica (NL), embora não sejam atualizadas desde 2012. Atualmente, o RTX parece ser pelo menos tão eficaz quanto outros esquemas imunossupressores na nefropatia membranosa idiopática (NMI). Na doença por lesão mínima (DLM), o medicamento pode proporcionar um período de remissão duradouro em pacientes córtico-dependentes ou com recidivas frequentes. Resultados preliminares corroboram o uso de RTX em pacientes com NL membranosa pura e glomerulonefrite membranoproliferativa (GNMP) mediada por imunoglobulina, mas não em pacientes com NL classe III/IV ou GNMP mediada por complemento. Os achados a respeito de glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (GESF) idiopática e doença por anticorpo antimembrana basal glomerular (anti-MBG) não são conclusivos em função do pequeno número, porte e heterogeneidade dos estudos publicados até o presente momento. Por fim, a imunossupressão com RTX não é particularmente útil na nefropatia por IgA. A presente revisão apresenta o racional da prescrição de RTX nas diferentes glomerulopatias, desfechos e segurança. Nesse sentido, foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) realizados em adultos, sempre que possível. Pesquisas bibliográficas foram realizadas nas bases de dados do clinictrials.gov e no PubMed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Rituximab/adverse effects , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Nephrosis, Lipoid/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 36(1): 10-16, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146598

ABSTRACT

Desde fines del 2019 enfrentamos el brote de una nueva infección por coronavirus llamada COVID-19, que rápidamente se transformó en una pandemia y llegó a nuestro país a principios del 2020. Esto ha traído muchas preguntas y desafíos, específicamente en nuestros pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes, que tienen tradicionalmente mayor riesgo de contraer infecciones y de complicarse por estas. Por otra parte, en el tratamiento actual del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo causado por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 se están usando e investigando varios medicamentos inmunosupresores e inmunomoduladores del arsenal reumatológico para controlar la respuesta inmune exagerada que se produce en el huésped en el COVID-19 grave. En esta revisión analizamos la literatura existente hasta el momento sobre pacientes reumatológicos y COVID-19, medicamentos reumatológicos en investigación y en uso para el manejo de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, y resumimos ciertas recomendaciones de manejo específicas para nuestros pacientes.


Since the end of 2019 we have been facing the outbreak of a new coronavirus infection called COVID-19, which quickly turned into a pandemic arriving in Chile in early 2020. This has brought with it many questions and challenges, specifically for our patients with autoimmune diseases, which have an increased risk of infections due to their disease and the use of immunosuppresant and corticosteroid drugs. On the other hand, in the current treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, several immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory drugs in the rheumatologic arsenal are being used and investigated to control the exaggerated immune response that occurs in the host in serious COVID -19 cases. In this review we investigated the literature to date on rheumatology patients and COVID-19, rheumatology drugs under investigation and in use for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and have summarized certain specific management recommendations for our patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Autoimmune Diseases , Biological Therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019112, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024207

ABSTRACT

Renal transplant patients are treated with immunosuppressive drugs that decrease the effectiveness of the immune system, making them more prone to developing cancer. Skin and lip carcinomas are common malignancies encountered after transplantation, whereas oral carcinomas are rare. We report the case of a 51-year-old female Caucasian patient, with no history of smoking, who presented white lesions on the tongue and an ulcerated lesion on the lower lip beginning 4 months prior. Diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma for both lesions was made following incisional biopsies. Interestingly, the patient reported a renal transplantation 23 years prior, and was maintained on a combination of cyclosporine, mycophenolate sodium and prednisone. The patient also presented a history of several basal and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Both lesions were surgically excised. No sign of recurrence or new lesions in the oral cavity have been observed; however, new skin lesions are frequently diagnosed. This case report highlights that oral cancers may occur in transplant patients in the absence of classical risk factors. Thus, clinicians must be aware of the importance of thorough oral examination in transplant patients in routine follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 526-533, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Children with nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of infections because of disease status itself and use of various immunosuppressive agents. In majority, infections trigger relapses requiring hospitalization with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the incidence, spectrum, and risk factors for major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome. Methods: All consecutive hospitalized children between 1-12 years of age with nephrotic syndrome were enrolled in the study. Children with acute nephritis, secondary nephrotic syndrome as well as those admitted for diagnostic renal biopsy and intravenous cyclophosphamide or rituximab infusion were excluded. Results: A total of 148 children with 162 admissions were enrolled. Incidence of major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome was 43.8%. Peritonitis was the commonest infection (24%), followed by pneumonia (18%), urinary tract infection (15%), and cellulitis (14%), contributing with two thirds of major infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) was the predominant organism isolated in children with peritonitis and pneumonia. On logistic regression analysis, serum albumin < 1.5gm/dL was the only independent risk factor for all infections (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-6; p = 0.01), especially for peritonitis (OR 29; 95% CI, 3-270; p = 0.003). There were four deaths (2.5%) in our study, all due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with nephrotic syndrome. As Pneumococcus was the most prevalent cause of infection in those children, attention should be paid to the pneumococcal immunization in children with nephrotic syndrome.


RESUMO Introdução: Crianças com síndrome nefrótica apresentam maior risco de infecções devido ao próprio status da doença e ao uso de vários agentes imunossupressores. Em grande parte, as infecções desencadeiam recidivas que exigem hospitalização, com risco aumentado de morbidade e mortalidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a incidência, o espectro e os fatores de risco para infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica. Métodos: Todas as crianças hospitalizadas consecutivamente entre 1 e 12 anos de idade com síndrome nefrótica foram incluídas no estudo. Crianças com nefrite aguda, síndrome nefrótica secundária, bem como aquelas admitidas para biópsia renal diagnóstica e infusão intravenosa de ciclofosfamida ou rituximabe foram excluídas. Resultados: Foram cadastradas 148 crianças com 162 internações. A incidência de infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica foi de 43,8%. A peritonite foi a infecção mais comum (24%), seguida por pneumonia (18%), infecção do trato urinário (15%) e celulite (14%), contribuindo com dois terços das principais infecções. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) foi o organismo predominantemente isolado em crianças com peritonite e pneumonia. Na análise de regressão logística, a albumina sérica < 1,5gm / dL foi o único fator de risco independente para todas as infecções (OR 2,6; 95% CI, 1,2-6; p = 0,01), especialmente para peritonite (OR 29; IC95% 3 -270, p = 0,003). Houve quatro mortes (2,5%) em nosso estudo, todas devido a sepse e falência de múltiplos órgãos. Conclusões: A infecção continua sendo uma importante causa de morbimortalidade em crianças com síndrome nefrótica. Como o Pneumococo foi a causa mais prevalente de infecção nessas crianças, deve-se atentar para a imunização pneumocócica em crianças com síndrome nefrótica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infections/mortality , Infections/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Peritonitis/blood , Cellulitis/complications , Cellulitis/microbiology , Cellulitis/epidemiology , Incidence , Albumins/analysis , Hospitalization/trends , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , India/epidemiology , Infections/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 20-25, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038824

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las feohifomicosis cerebrales son infecciones graves causadas por mohos dematiáceos, entre los cuales Cladophialophora bantiana es una de las especies más comúnmente aislada. Esta tiene tropismo por el sistema nervioso central y frecuentemente produce abscesos cerebrales en pacientes inmunocompetentes; además, en los inmunocomprometidos también puede ocasionar infección diseminada. Pese a la disponibilidad de medicamentos antifúngicos de amplio espectro, a menudo se requiere también la intervención quirúrgica; de todas maneras, la mortalidad es elevada. El diagnóstico debe hacerse interviniendo para tomar la muestra y hacer el cultivo y las pruebas de sensibilidad. Se presenta aquí el caso de un paciente con trasplante renal que presentó un absceso cerebral por C. bantiana, el cual se extrajo mediante resección quirúrgica. El paciente recibió tratamiento con voriconazol, con adecuada respuesta, mejoría y sin secuelas neurológicas.


Abstract Cerebral feohifomycosis are severe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. Cladophialophora bantiana is one of the most commonly isolated species; it has central nervous system tropism and it often manifests as a brain abscess in immunocompetent patients. In immunocompromised patients, it can lead to brain abscesses and disseminated infections. Despite the availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs, it is a must to perform surgical management, in addition to drug therapy. However, mortality is high. The diagnostic approach must be invasive to establish a timely diagnosis and direct treatment based on culture and susceptibility tests. We report a case of brain abscess caused by C. bantiana in an immunosuppressed patient who was treated with surgical resection and voriconazole with an adequate response to therapy and without neurological sequels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Kidney Transplantation , Saccharomycetales/isolation & purification , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Recurrence , Hyperoxaluria, Primary/complications , Hyperoxaluria, Primary/diagnosis , Hyperoxaluria, Primary/genetics , Brain Abscess/surgery , Brain Abscess/etiology , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Immunocompromised Host , Combined Modality Therapy , Craniotomy , Nephrolithiasis/etiology , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/surgery , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/etiology , Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(4): 530-534, Apr. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003055

ABSTRACT

The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Psoriasis/pathology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Acitretin/administration & dosage , Acitretin/adverse effects , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180386, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990436

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis B infection is a global health issue. When considering patients with rheumatic diseases, this is no different. By using immunosuppressant drugs, such as DMARDs and biologics, viral reactivation is possible, leading to serious consequences on the patient. We report 3 cases of association between ankylosing spondylitis and hepatitis B with the use of immunosuppressant drugs. Case 1 was a patient with previous HBV infection using DMARD. Cases 2 and 3 were patients chronically infected by HBV during immunosuppressant therapy. The management of HBV infection during immunosuppressant therapy is challenging and needs multidisciplinary support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Virus Activation/drug effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Hepatitis B/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Immunosuppressive Agents
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