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Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(1): 70-80, 4 de Abril 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427679


Introducción: El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides ha incrementado su incidencia en las últimas 3 décadas debido al sobrediagnóstico de tumores pequeños o microcarcinomas, las nuevas tendencias en su manejo hacen de la cirugía y la terapia con iodo radioactivo el tratamiento de elección para casos seleccionados. El manejo actual de microcarcinoma de tiroides se basa en el riesgo de recurrencia inicial y su seguimiento en el tiempo con el riesgo de recurrencia dinámico. Objetivo: El presente trabajo se enfocó en analizar el riesgo de recurrencia dinámico en pacientes con microcarcinoma de tiroides que recibieron o no terapia ablativa con Iodo 131 posterior a tratamiento quirúrgico en el Hospital Teodoro Maldonado Carbo durante los años 2016 ­ 2018. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio ambispectivo, no experimental, descriptivo, analítico, transversal y correlacional. Se analizaron 51 pacientes atendidos en la unidad técnica de endocrinología. Resultados: De un total de 51 casos de microcarcinoma, el 60% fue tratado con terapia ablativa, la respuesta inicial fue excelente en el 53.3% de pacientes ablacionados y en el 66.7% de los casos no ablacionados. El riesgo de recurrencia inicial fue significativamente más bajo en el grupo no tratado mediante ablación (100%), mientras que en el tratado con ablación fue bajo, intermedio y alto en 16 (53.3%), 7 (23.3) y 7 (23.3), respectivamente. Conclusiones: Existe un riesgo bajo de recurrencia dinámico, independientemente de la indicación de terapia ablativa con I131, la estratificación del riesgo de recurrencia constituye una herramienta útil para seleccionar aquellos pacientes que deben recibir iodo radioactivo.

Introduction: Differentiated thyroid cancer has increased its incidence in the last 3 decades due to overdiagnosis of small tumors or microcarcinomas; new trends in its management make surgery and radioactive iodine therapy the treatment of choice for selected cases. The current management of thyroid microcarcinoma is based on the initial risk of recurrence and its follow-up over time with the dynamic risk of recurrence. Objective: The present work focused on analyzing the risk of dynamic recurrence in patients with thyroid microcarcinoma who received or did not receive ablative therapy with Iodine 131 after surgical treatment at the Teodoro Maldonado Carbo Hospital during the years 2016 - 2018. Methods: An ambispective, non-experimental, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional, and correlational study was carried out. Fifty-one patients treated at the endocrinology technical unit were analyzed. Results: Of 51 cases of microcarcinoma, 60% were treated with ablative therapy, and the initial response was excellent in 53.3% of ablated patients and 66.7% of non-ablated cases. The initial recurrence risk was significantly lower in the group not treated by ablation (100%). In contrast, in the group treated with ablation, it was low, intermediate, and high in 16 (53.3%), 7 (23.3), and 7 (23.3), respectively. Conclusions: There is a low risk of dynamic recurrence, regardless of the indication for ablative therapy with I131; a recurrence risk stratification is a helpful tool for selecting those patients who should receive radioactive iodine.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms , Ablation Techniques , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Iodine Radioisotopes
The Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine ; : 32-43, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006160


Introduction@#No clear consensus exists as to the optimal timing for conducting whole body scintigraphy (WBS) after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. @*Objective@#This study aimed to compare the utility of early versus delayed post-therapy WBS in identifying residual lesions and metastases.@*Methods@#A systematic review of existing literature was done, yielding 6 observational studies relevant to the subject. Meta-analyses were done comparing lesion detecting rates of early (3-4 days post-RAI) and delayed (7-11 days post-RAI) post-therapy WBS for thyroid remnants and metastases in the lymph nodes, lungs, and bone using a random-effects model with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A subgroup analysis was also done relating to the type of collimator used in imaging.

Thyroid Neoplasms , Iodine Radioisotopes , Radionuclide Imaging
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 595-601, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981581


Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is an analog of norepinephrine that accumulates in sympathetic nerve endings soon after intravenous administration. The degree of accumulation reflects the uptake, storage and release of transmitters by noradrenergic neurons. Myocardial imaging with 123I labeled MIBG ( 123I-MIBG) can be used to estimate the extent of local myocardial sympathetic nerve damage, which has been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart diseases. In recent years, numerous studies have been carried out on the application of 123I-MIBG in the diagnosis of degenerative diseases of the nervous system (such as Parkinson's disease and dementia of Lewy body), and have made some achievements. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current clinical application of 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies, the problems in imaging technology and the possible research directions in the future, so as to provide valuable reference information for clinicians to reasonably and accurately apply this technology in the early diagnosis and discrimination of dementia.

Humans , Lewy Bodies , 3-Iodobenzylguanidine , Lewy Body Disease/diagnostic imaging , Iodine Radioisotopes
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(7): 855-860, jul. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424147


BACKGROUND: The measurement of plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) is widely used in the monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer (CDT). In recent years, its value as a prognostic marker prior to ablation with radioiodine has increased, demonstrating its high negative predictive value. Recent studies indicate that a wide variety of factors could potentially influence pre-ablative Tg values, including residual tumor burden and stimulation modality. Aim: To relate the value of pre-ablative Tg with the amount of preoperative disease burden, lymph node metastases, treatment, and presence of residual disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 70 patients with CDT treated between 2012 and 2018. The amount of disease burden was defined as the sum of largest diameter of individual tumors in each patient, and as the individually largest tumor per patient and number of metastatic lymph nodes. RESULTS: A smaller tumor size and absence of remnant tissue was associated with lower Tg values, although the association was not always significant. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between Tg levels measured within or more than 14 days after the surgical procedure. Thus, an early measurement of pTg after surgery would allow an initial therapeutic decision making. Conclusions: A statistical association between pre-ablative Tg levels and the amount of preoperative tumor tissue burden was found in some subgroups of patients.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Thyroglobulin/analysis , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes , Lymphatic Metastasis
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0033, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376776


RESUMO A obstrução de via lacrimal é uma possível complicação decorrente de tratamentos oncológicos sistêmicos e locais. A epífora crônica gera grande impacto na qualidade de vida desses pacientes, e, como a fibrose terminal da via lacrimal pode necessitar de procedimentos complexos para sua resolução, é importante estarmos atentos a esse efeito adverso, com o objetivo de reconhecê-lo e tratá-lo precocemente, ou mesmo preveni-lo. Nesta revisão da literatura, os autores analisam todos os agentes quimioterápicos e radioterápicos associados à obstrução lacrimal e descrevem os mecanismos, a frequência, os tratamentos e a profilaxia. Os tratamentos oncológicos associados à obstrução lacrimal foram: radioterapia em cabeça e pescoço (dosagem acima de 45 a 75Gy), radioiodoterapia (dosagem acima de 150mCi) e quimioterapia com 5-FU, S-1, capecitabine e docetaxel. A obstrução lacrimal pode ser irreversível, e a intubação profilática das vias lacrimais é uma possibilidade descrita de tratamento profilático em casos de radioterapia e uso do 5-FU, S-1 e docetaxel. O tratamento cirúrgico de todos os casos é a dacriocistorrinostomia.

ABSTRACT Lacrimal duct obstruction can be a side effect of systemic and/or local cancer treatments. Chronic epiphora has a great impact on the quality of life of oncological patients. Since terminal fibrosis of the lacrimal system may require complex procedures, it is important to be aware of this adverse effect in order to recognize and treat it, or even prevent it. A literature review was performed to identify all types of systemic cancer treatment associated with lacrimal obstruction and to describe the mechanisms, frequency, treatment, and prophylaxis. The oncological treatments associated with lacrimal obstruction were head and neck radiotherapy (dosage above 45-75 Gy), radioiodine therapy (dosage above 150 mCi), and chemotherapy with 5-FU, S-1, Capecitabine and Docetaxel. Depending on the dose, this complication may be irreversible. Prophylactic intubation of the lacrimal system is an option for prophylaxis in cases of radiotherapy, use of 5-FU, S-1, and Docetaxel. Final surgical treatment is dacryocystorhinostomy.

Humans , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Iodine Radioisotopes/adverse effects , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/etiology , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/chemically induced , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Dacryocystorhinostomy , Drainage , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases/prevention & control , Nasolacrimal Duct/drug effects , Nasolacrimal Duct/radiation effects
REVISA (Online) ; 11(4): 573-583, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416091


Objetivo: Associar a presença do SNP IL1B -511 (rs16944) à susceptibilidade ao CPT, bem como comparar níveis séricos da citocina antes e sete dias após a Iodoterapia, juntamente com outras características clínicas dos pacientes. Método: Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle, no qual foram obtidas amostras de sangue de 52 indivíduos (26 em cada grupo). A genotipagem foi realizada por meio da estratégia PCR-RFLP. Os níveis séricos de IL-1ß foi medido por meio de kit para ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). Testes para médias e estudos de associação foram executados considerando-se um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatística com relação a distribuição genotípica entre indivíduos caso e controle, e estes grupos não diferiram em relação às dosagens de citocina. Porém, os níveis de citocina aumentaram significativamente após a Iodoterapia, sendo que os portadores do genótipo CC apresentaram maior produção da proteína, mas este aumento não estava correlacionado com a dose de radiofármaco administrada. Conclusão: O polimorfismo IL1B -511 não foi associado à susceptibilidade ao CPT, porém os níveis séricos da citocina elevaram-se com o tratamento da iodoterapia, e esta elevação foi genótipo dependente

Objective: To associate the presence of SNP IL1B -511 (rs16944) with susceptibility to TLC, as well as to compare serum cytokine levels before and seven days after iodotherapy, along with other clinical characteristics of patients. Method: This is a case-control study, in which blood samples were obtained from 52 individuals (26 in each group). Genotyping was performed using the PCR-RFLP strategy. Serum IL-1ß levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay kit (ELISA). Tests for means and association studies were performed considering a significance level of 5%. Results: There was no statistical difference regarding genotypic distribution between case and control individuals, and these groups did not differ in relation to cytokine dosages. However, cytokine levels increased significantly after iodine therapy, and patients with the CC genotype showed higher protein production, but this increase was not correlated with the administered radiopharmaceutical dose. Conclusion: IL1B-511 polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to TLC, but serum cytokine levels increased with the treatment of iodotherapy, and this elevation was genotype dependent.

Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre el polimorfismo VNTR del gen IL4, localizado en la región intrón 3, en pacientes diagnosticados de accidente cerebrovascular hemorrágico (Stroke) o aneurisma intracerebral en una muestra del Distrito Federal. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, transversal, con 55 individuos, del cual se registraron las características clínicas de las historias clínicas y se realizó un análisis de genotipado mediante la estrategia de PCR. Las frecuencias genotípicas se estimaron mediante conteo directo. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue del 5% y la prueba estadística utilizada fue Chi-Cuadrado. Resultados: Se verificó que el genotipo más frecuente fue B1/B2 (50,9%; n=28), seguido del genotipo ancestral B1/B1 (27,3%, N=15), y el menos frecuente fue el genotipo B2/B2 (21,8%, N=12). No se encontró asociación estadística entre las variables hipertensión arterial sistémica, diabetes, tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol y la presencia de polimorfismo en el grupo estudiado. Conclusión: La presencia del polimorfismo IL4 INTRON 3 VNTR se asoció con la variable género, demostrando que en la muestra estudiada, AVEH es más frecuente en mujeres que en hombres, divergiendo de los estudios en los que los varones tienen más probabilidades de desarrollar una VENa.

Thyroid Neoplasms , Polymorphism, Genetic , Interleukin-12 , Iodine Radioisotopes
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 519-524, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364326


Resumo A hiperativação do sistema nervoso simpático desempenha um papel central na fisiopatologia da hipertensão. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade simpática cardíaca e investigar o papel da cintigrafia miocárdica com metaiodobenzilguanidina com 123I ([123I] MIBG) na estratificação de risco cardiovascular de pacientes com hipertensão resistente tratados com denervação renal (DR). Dezoito pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo (média de idade de 56 ± 10 anos, 27,8% mulheres). Ecocardiograma transtorácico, análise geral do sangue e cintilografia miocárdica com [(123I) MIBG] foram realizados antes e seis meses após a DR. Um paciente era considerado respondedor (R) se uma diminuição ≥ 5 mmHg na pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) média ambulatorial fosse observada no seguimento de seis meses. 66,7% dos pacientes foram R (diminuição na PAS de 20,6 ± 14,5 mmHg, vs. menos 8 ± 11,6 mmHg em não-respondedores (NR), p = 0,001). A relação coração-mediastino (RCM) inicial foi significativamente menor na linha basal no grupo R (1,6 ± 0,1 vs. 1,72 ± 0,1, p <0,02), mas semelhante em seis meses. Considerando os dois momentos no tempo, o grupo R teve valores iniciais de RCM mais baixos do que o grupo NR (p <0,05). Tanto o RCM tardio quanto a taxa de washout foram idênticos e nenhuma correlação significativa entre a resposta à DR ou qualquer índice de imagem com MIBG foi encontrada. A denervação renal efetivamente reduziu a pressão arterial na maioria dos pacientes, mas a imagem com [123I] MIBG não foi útil na previsão da resposta. Entretanto, houve evidência de overdrive do sistema nervoso simpático e, tanto a RCM inicial quanto tardia estavam reduzidas em geral, provavelmente colocando essa população em um risco maior de eventos adversos.

Abstract Hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system plays a central role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac sympathetic activity and investigate the role of myocardial123I-labelled meta-iodo benzyl guanidine ([123I] MIBG) scintigraphy in cardiovascular risk stratification of patients with resistant hypertension treated with renal denervation (RDN). Eighteen patients were included in this prospective study (mean age 56 ± 10 years old, 27.8% females). Transthoracic echocardiogram, general blood analysis and myocardial ([123I] MIBG scintigraphy were performed before and six-months after RDN. A patient was considered a responder (R) if a drop ≥ 5mmHg on mean systolic ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring was observed at the six-month follow-up. 66.7% of patients were R (drop in systolic BP of 20.6 ± 14.5mmHg, vs minus 8 ± 11.6mmHg in non-responders (NR), p=0.001). Early heart-mediastinum ratio (HMR) was significantly lower at baseline in the R group (1.6 ± 0.1 vs 1.72 ± 0.1, p<0.02) but similar at six months. Considering both instants in time, the R group had lower early HMR values than the NR group (p<0.05). Both the late HMR and the washout rate were identical and no significant correlation between response to RDN or any MIBG imaging index was found. Renal denervation effectively lowered blood pressure in the majority of patients but [123I] MIBG was not useful in predicting the response. However, there was evidence of sympathetic overdrive and, both early and late HMR were overall reduced, probably putting this population at a higher risk of adverse events.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , 3-Iodobenzylguanidine , Sympathetic Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Radiopharmaceuticals , Denervation , Heart/physiology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Iodine Radioisotopes , Middle Aged
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 13-17, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936106


Some kinds of chronic sialadenitis were recognized during the recent years. They have specific pathogenesis, clinical and histopathologic appearances, and require specific treatment. IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS) is one of the immune-mediated diseases, characterized by tumefactive lesions. The incidence of IgG4-RS obviously increased during the past 30 years. The study on the potential relationship between occupational exposure to chemical substances and the incidence of IgG4-RS showed that subjects with occupational exposure to agents known to cause IgG4-RD had an increased risk for IgG4-RS. Surgical excision of involved SMG could not control the disease progression, which is not recommended for treatment of IgG4-RS. The combination of glucocorticoid and steroid-sparing agents is effective for treating IgG4-RS, and restores salivary gland function. Radioiodine induced sialadenitis (RAIS) is one of the common complications of postoperative adjuvant treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer by 131I. The incidence of the disease is related to radiation dosage. Clinically, the patients suffered from swelling and tenderness in the buccal or submandibular regions, especially during the mealtime. Imaging appearances are similar to those of chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Conservative managements, such as gland massage, sialagogues, are the mainstream methods in the treatment of RAIS. Sialendoscopy is feasible for RAIS, but not as effective as conventional obstructive sialadenitis (COS). Therefore the prevention of RAIS is crucial. Eosinophilic sialodochitis (ES) is a new type of chronic inflammatory disease of the salivary gland related to allergy. It has characteristics of swelling of multiple major salivary glands, strip-like gelatinous plugs discharged from the duct orifice of the gland, elevated level of serum IgE and eosinophils in peripheral blood, infiltration of eosinophils and IgE positive plasma cells in the tissues, allergic history, increased expression of allergy-related cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin, which suggest allergic reactions as a potential pathogenesis of the disease. The clinical, laboratory, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of ES are significantly different from conventional obstructive sialadenitis (COS). Therefore, it is suitable to separate ES from COS. Conservative managements, such as self-maintenance therapy and anti- allergic modality are the choices of treatment for ES. Based on the results of our comprehensive studies a new classification of chronic sialadenitis is suggested.

Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Iodine Radioisotopes , Salivary Glands , Sialadenitis/etiology , Submandibular Gland
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 768-777, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349988


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of pregnancy on differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) behavior Subjects and methods: Retrospective study of patients diagnosed with DTC before or during pregnancy and treated with standard therapy. In women diagnosed with DTC before pregnancy, we evaluated the occurrence of progression according to categories of response to therapy based on imaging and non-stimulated thyroglobulin (TG) levels. Results: Of 96 analyzed patients, 76 became pregnant after DTC treatment and 20 were diagnosed with DTC during pregnancy. Among women who became pregnant after a DTC diagnosis, no difference was observed regarding response to therapy before and after pregnancy. Disease progression after pregnancy was documented in six of these patients, while seven of them presented progression before pregnancy but were only treated after delivery. Patients with DTC diagnosed during pregnancy had a higher rate of distant metastases at diagnosis (30%) compared with the patients who became pregnant after DTC diagnosis (9.2%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy had no impact on the natural course of DTC. Disease progression after pregnancy was limited and probably related to more aggressive disease and higher risk stratification at diagnosis. Still, mild disease progression may have occurred asymptomatically in some patients.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Thyroglobulin , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 1038-1044, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350025


Resumo A amiodarona é amplamente utilizada no tratamento de arritmias atriais e ventriculares, porém devido sua alta concentração de iodo, o uso crônico da droga pode induzir distúrbios tireoidianos. A tireotoxicose induzida pela amiodarona (TIA) pode descompensar e exacerbar anormalidades cardíacas subjacentes, provocando aumento da morbidade e mortalidade, principalmente em pacientes com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo <30%. Os casos de TIA são classificados em dois subtipos que direcionam a conduta terapêutica. Os riscos e benefícios de manter a amiodarona devem ser avaliados de maneira individualizada, e a decisão de continuar ou suspender a droga deve ser tomada conjuntamente por cardiologistas e endocrinologistas. O tratamento de TIA tipo 1 é semelhante ao do hipertireoidismo espontâneo, sendo indicado o uso de drogas antitireoidianas (metimazol e propiltiouracil) em doses elevadas. A TIA tipo 1 mostra-se mais complicada, pois apresenta proporcionalmente maiores números de recorrências ou até mesmo a não remissão do quadro, sendo recomendado o tratamento definitivo (tireoidectomia total ou radioiodo). TIA tipo 2 é geralmente autolimitada, mas devido a elevada mortalidade associada a tireotoxicose em pacientes cardiopatas, o tratamento deve ser instituído para que o eutireoidismo seja atingido mais rapidamente. Em casos bem definidos de TIA tipo 2, o tratamento com corticosteroides é mais efetivo do que o tratamento com drogas antitireoidianas. Em casos graves, independentemente do subtipo, a restauração imediata do eutiroidismo por meio da tireoidectomia total deve ser considerada antes que o paciente evolua com piora clínica excessiva, pois a demora na indicação da cirurgia está associada ao aumento da mortalidade.

Abstract Amiodarone is widely used in treating atrial and ventricular arrhythmias; however, due to its high iodine concentration, the chronic use of the drug can induce thyroid disorders. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can decompensate and exacerbate underlying cardiac abnormalities, leading to increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <30%. AIT cases are classified into two subtypes that guide therapeutic management. The risks and benefits of maintaining the amiodarone must be evaluated individually, and the therapeutic decision should be taken jointly by cardiologists and endocrinologists. Type 1 AIT treatment is similar to that of spontaneous hyperthyroidism, using antithyroid drugs (methimazole and propylthiouracil) at high doses. Type 1 AIT is more complicated since it has proportionally higher recurrences or even non-remission, and definitive treatment is recommended (total thyroidectomy or radioiodine). Type 2 AIT is generally self-limited, yet due to the high mortality associated with thyrotoxicosis in cardiac patients, the treatment should be implemented for faster achievement of euthyroidism. Furthermore, in well-defined cases of type 2 AIT, the treatment with corticosteroids is more effective than treatment with antithyroid drugs. In severe cases, regardless of subtype, immediate restoration of euthyroidism through total thyroidectomy should be considered before the patient progresses to excessive clinical deterioration, as delayed surgery indication is associated with increased mortality.

Thyrotoxicosis/chemically induced , Thyrotoxicosis/drug therapy , Amiodarone/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Iodine Radioisotopes , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 31(2): 131-140, 31 de agosto 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284451


Introducción: La acromegalia se produce por un adenoma hipofisario somatotropo, que secreta una excesiva producción de GH e IGF1, se relaciona con mayor riesgo de tumores malignos, no guardando asociación con un patrón especifico de presentación y el objetivo de este estudio es analizar la evolución del cáncer papilar de tiroides en acromegalia. Casos: Se trata de tres pacientes diagnosticados de carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) con diferente pronóstico, con características faciales, y sintomatología como cefalea, alteraciones del campo visual, alteraciones menstruales, que condujeron a la realización de estudios bioquímicos, de imagen y al diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolución: La aparición de cáncer de tiroides varía en el tiempo de evolución de la acromegalia, en dos de los casos lo antecedió y en el tercero se presentó a la par con esta patología. La respuesta al tratamiento en el CPT es indeterminada en la primera paciente y \excelente en los otros casos; en una paciente se alcanzó remisión. Conclusiones: la coexistencia de acromegalia con cáncer tiroides es posible, que los cambios acrales, faciales y la sintomatología expansiva del tumor conducen al diagnóstico de acromegalia y que la identificación de malignidades no guarda relación con la evolución de la enfermedad.

Introduction: Acromegaly is produced by a somatotropic pituitary adenoma, which secretes an excessive production of GH and IGF1, it is related to a higher risk of malignant tumors, not being associated with a specific pattern of presentation and the objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of papillary thyroid cancer in acromegaly. Cases report: These were three patients diagnosed with CPT with different prognosis, with facial characteristics, and symptoms such as headache, visual field alterations, menstrual alterations, which led to biochemical and imaging studies and the diagnosis of acromegaly. Evolution: The appearance of thyroid cancer in the time of evolution of acromegaly is different, in two of the cases it preceded it and in the third it was presented alongside this pathology. The re-sponse to treatment in CPT is indeterminate in the first patient and excellent in the other cases; re-mission was achieved in one patient. Conclusions: It is concluded that the coexistence of acromegaly with thyroid cancer is possible, that the acral and facial changes and the expansive symptomatology of the tumor lead to the diag-nosis of acromegaly and that the identification of malignancies is not related to the evolution of the disease.

Introdução: A acromegalia é produzida por um adenoma hipofisário somatotrópico, que secreta uma produção excessiva de GH e IGF1, está relacionada a um maior risco de tumores malignos, não estando associada a um padrão específico de apresentação e o objetivo deste estudo é analisar a evolução de câncer papilar de tireoide na acromegalia. Casos: São três pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma papilífero de tireoide (CPT) de prognóstico diferente, com características faciais e sintomas como cefaleia, alterações do campo visual, alterações menstruais, que levaram à realização de estudos bioquímicos, de imagem e diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolução: O aparecimento do câncer de tireoide varia com o tempo de evolução da acromegalia, em dois dos casos ela o precedeu e no terceiro foi apresentado concomitantemente a esta patologia. A resposta ao tratamento no CPT é indeterminada no primeiro paciente e excelente nos demais casos; a remissão foi alcançada em um paciente. Conclusões: a coexistência de acromegalia com câncer de tireoide é possível, que as alterações acrais e faciais e a sintomatologia expansiva do tumor levam ao diagnóstico de acromegalia e que a identificação de neoplasias não está relacionada à evolução da doença.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Growth Hormone , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Iodine Radioisotopes , Thyroglobulin/classification , Thyrotropin , Suppression , Endothelial Growth Factors
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(4): 330-338, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285297


ABSTRACT Purposes: We analyzed patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics of subjects in a Spanish population diagnosed with uveal melanoma treated with iodine 125 (I125) episcleral brachytherapy, who presented with post-treatment loss of useful visual acuity and global evolution of visual acuity. Methods: A single historic observational cohort study was undertaken. Patients with uveal melanoma were recruited between September 1995 and June 2015. Clinical, tumor and dosimetric data collection and visual acuity evaluations were performed under everyday practice conditions based on a useful visual acuity >0.1 on the decimal scale. The baseline analysis was performed using descriptive and survival analyses according to Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: A total of 286 of the 665 patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma received episcleral brachytherapy, and 198 were included in the study. The mean follow-up time was 75.3 months (95% CI = 68.0-82.6). Patients with post-treatment useful visual acuity loss (n=94, 47%) presented the following characteristics: visual symptoms (n=80, p-value = 0.001); iris color (brown n=33, hazel green n=49, p-value = 0.047); Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study size (medium n=80, p-value = 0.159); tumor, node, metastasis stage (T2: n=38, T3: n=38, p=0.012); shape (nodular n=67, mushroom-shaped n=26, p=0.001); posterior pole involvement (n=47, p=0.04); recurrence (n=10, p=0.001); and dose administered in the fovea, optic nerve and center of the eye (p<0.002). Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the mean overall survival of useful visual acuity was 90.19 months, and the probability of preserving useful visual acuity was 66% for one year, 45% for five years and 33% for ten years. Conclusion: Patients most likely to present with visual acuity loss were those with the following profile: elderly males with dark irises who were diagnosed with visual symptoms and exhibited a medium/large melanoma with a mushroom shape in the posterior pole (near the fovea and/or optic nerve). All patients treated with episcleral brachytherapy are likely to present with visual acuity loss, which is more pronounced in the first few years following treatment.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar características individuais, tu morais e dosimétricas de pacientes diagnosticados com melanoma uveal, tratados através de braquiterapia epiescleral com iodo-125 (I125), que apresentaram perda da acuidade visual útil após o tratamento e analisar a evolução global da acuidade visual em uma população da Espanha. Métodos: Este é um estudo observacional de coorte histórica considerando pacientes com melanoma uveal diagnosticados entre setembro de 1995 e junho de 2015. Foram coletados dados clínicos, tumorais e dosimétricos e medida a acuidade visual em condições de prática clínica diária, considerando uma acuidade visual útil superior a 0,1 na escala decimal. A análise de base foi efetuada por curvas Kaplan-Meier descritivas de sobrevivência Resultados: Um total de 286 dos 665 pacientes diagnosticados com melanoma uveal recebeu braquiterapia epiescleral e 198 deles foram incluídos no estudo. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 75,3 meses (IC 95%: 68,0-82,6). Os pacientes com perda da acuidade visual útil após o tratamento (n=94, 47%) apresentaram as seguintes características: sintomas visuais (n=80, p=0,001), cor da íris (castanha: n=33, castanho-esverdeada: n=49; p=0,047), tamanho de acordo com o Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (tamanho médio: n=80, p=0,159), tumor, nódulo, estágio de metástase (T2: n=38, T3: n=38, p=0,012), forma (nodular: n=67, em forma de cogumelo: n=26, p=0,001), envolvimento do polo posterior (n=47, p=0,04), recorrência (n=10, p=0,001) e dose administrada na fóvea, no nervo óptico e no centro do olho (p<0,002). Na análise de Kaplan-Meier, o tempo médio de sobrevivência geral da acuidade visual útil foi de 90,19 meses e a probabilidade de preservação da acuidade visual útil foi de 66% por um ano, 45% por 5 anos e 33% por 10 anos. Conclusão: O perfil de paciente com maior probabilidade de perda da acuidade visual útil é o de homem idoso com íris escura, diagnosticado com sintomas visuais e melanoma de tamanho médio a grande, em forma de cogumelo no polo posterior (próximo à fóvea, ao nervo óptico ou a ambos). Todos os pacientes tratados com braquiterapia epiescleral terão perda da acuidade visual, mais pronunciada nos primeiros anos após o tratamento.

Aged , Humans , Male , Uveal Neoplasms , Brachytherapy , Melanoma , Referral and Consultation , Uveal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Melanoma/radiotherapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 411-420, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339098


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the real-world experience multikinase inhibitors (MKI) in the treatment advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) refractory to radioactive iodine (RAIR) therapy. Subjects and methods: We reviewed the records of all patients with MKI-treated DTC from 2010 to 2018. Progression free survival (PFS), response rates (RR) and adverse events (AE) profiles were assessed. Clinical parameters were compared between groups with different outcomes (disease progression and death) to identify possible prognostic factors and benefit from treatment. Results: Forty-four patients received MKI for progressive RAIR DTC. Median PFS was 24 months (10.2-37.7) and median overall survival (OS) was 31 months. Best overall response was complete response in one patient (4.5%), partial response in nine (20.4%), stable disease in twenty-two (50%), and progressive disease (PD) in twelve (27.3%). Seventy-two point 7 percent patients had clinical benefit and AE were mild in most cases (82.7%). Progressive patients were more likely to have FDG positive target lesion than those who did not progress (p = 0.033) and higher maximum SUV on target lesions (p = 0.042). Presence of lung-only metastasis and lower thyroglobulin (Tg) during treatment was associated with stable disease (p = 0.015 and 0,049, respectively). Patients with shorter survival had larger primary tumor size (p = 0.015) and higher maximum SUV on target lesions (p = 0.023). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate safety and effectiveness of MKI in patients with advanced RAIR DTC. We were able to identify as possible prognostic markers of better outcomes: absence of FDG uptake on target lesions, lower maximum SUV on PET-CT, presence of lung-only metastasis and lower Tg during treatment.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Iodine Radioisotopes
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 455-461, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339108


ABSTRACT Objective: Obesity and diabetes are the risk factors for cancer development including differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Contradictory accumulated data indicates the possible negative effects of obesity and hyperglyceamia as a factor for aggressiveness of DTC. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of high body mass index (BMI) and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the histological aggressiveness and clinical outcomes in DTC patients followed for over 4 years in a single center. Materials and methods: Consequative 526 DTC patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into groups based on their BMI: normal weight, overweight, obese and also were evalauted in 3 groups presence of diabetes, prediabetes and nomoglyceamia. Histological aggressiveness of DTC at the time of diagnosis and clinical response at the time of last clinical visit were reassessed according to the criteria suggested by ATA 2015 guideline. Results: No differences in histopathologic features, risk of recurrence, cumulative dose of RAI ablation and prevalence of 131I avid metastatic disease were demonstrated among the groups both classified according to BMI and hyperglycemia. Mean of 3.4 year follow-up also showed no differences in the clinial repsonse to therapy and percentage of nonthyroid primary cancer in DTC patients. Conclusion: In this retrospective study we demonstrated that obesity and T2DM have no additive effect on DTC aggressiveness and response to therapy. DTC patients with obesity and diabetes can be treated according to present guidelines without requirement for spesific attention.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Obesity/complications
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 495-499, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339109


SUMMARY Collision tumors are rare and may comprise components with different behavior, treatments, and prognosis. We report an unprecedented case of aggressive thyroid collision tumor containing widely invasive oncocytic carcinoma (OC), classical and hobnail (HPTC) variants of papillary carcinoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDTC). The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, and within months progressed with local recurrence, and pulmonary metastases requiring neck dissection, external radiotherapy and systemic treatment with sorafenib. The rapid progression, dedifferentiated metastatic lesions, and failure to treatments resulted in the patient´s death. The great variety of histological types and the evolution of this case were a challenge for the management of metastatic disease. Widely invasive OC, HPTC and PDTC are considered to have a worse prognosis. HPTC has never been reported as a component of a collision tumor. HPTC and PDTC should call attention to a possible higher-grade transformation.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Papillary , Iodine Radioisotopes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 315-321, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285151


ABSTRACT Objective: The treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was modified in the last decade towards a more individualized approach according to the risk of recurrence (RR). We compared the outcomes of patients with low and intermediate RR (LRR and IRR) who received or did not receive radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) after assessing the dynamic risk. Materials and methods: We included 307 DTC patients with LRR and IRR submitted to total thyroidectomy. All patients were reclassified according to the dynamic risk stratification (low or high). Patients with high dynamic risk received RRA (141 patients). Results: LRR patients who received RRA presented a frequency of structural incomplete response (SIR) of 5% at the end of the follow-up, compared to 2% in those who did not receive it (p=0.353). IRR patients treated with RRA had a frequency of SIR of 22%, compared to 5% in patients without RRA (p=0.008). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the usefulness of dynamic risk assessment to decide RRA in a cohort with a long-term follow-up. The lower prevalence of SIR at the end of the follow-up in patients who did not receive RRA highlights the adequate selection of those who would not benefit from RRA, even with an intermediate risk of recurrence.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 368-375, May-June 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285158


ABSTRACT This position statement was prepared to guide endocrinologists on the best approach to managing thyroid disorders during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The most frequent thyroid hormonal findings in patients with COVID-19, particularly in individuals with severe disease, are similar to those present in the non-thyroidal illness syndrome and require no intervention. Subacute thyroiditis has also been reported during COVID-19 infection. Diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism during the COVID-19 pandemic may follow usual practice; however, should avoid frequent laboratory tests in patients with previous controlled disease. Well-controlled hypo and hyperthyroidism are not associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 infection or severity. Newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism during the pandemic should be preferably treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), bearing in mind the possibility of rare side effects with these medications, particularly agranulocytosis, which requires immediate intervention. Definitive treatment of hyperthyroidism (radioiodine therapy or surgery) may be considered in those cases that protective protocols can be followed to avoid COVID-19 contamination or once the pandemic is over. In patients with moderate Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) not at risk of visual loss, glucocorticoids at immunosuppressive doses should be avoided, while in those with severe GO without COVID-19 and at risk of vision loss, intravenous glucocorticoid is the therapeutic choice. Considering that most of the thyroid cancer cases are low risk and associated with an excellent prognosis, surgical procedures could and should be postponed safely during the pandemic period. Additionally, when indicated, radioiodine therapy could also be safely postponed as long as it is possible.

Humans , Thyroid Diseases/therapy , COVID-19 , Thyroid Gland , Brazil , Graves Ophthalmopathy/therapy , Pandemics , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Iodine Radioisotopes
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 579-587, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345191


ABSTRACT Objective: Although thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC) usually has a favorable prognosis, some patients present a higher risk of disease recurrence or persistence. Thus, we aimed at identifying possible risk factors associated with an incomplete response to therapy in TMC. Subjects and methods: This was a retrospective study of 517 patients with TMC treated with total thyroidectomy, with or without radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, reclassified after 1.1 ± 0.4 years according to the response to treatment into "favorable" (excellent/indeterminate) or "unfavorable" (biochemical/structural incomplete) responses. We evaluated participants' age, sex, tumor size, histological variants, multifocality, presence of vascular/lymphatic/perineural invasion, extrathyroidal extension, metastatic lymph nodes (LN), and distant metastasis. The effect of RAI therapy on the response range was analyzed in a given subgroup. Results: The mean age observed was 46.4 ± 12.0 years, and 89.7% were female. We noted 97.5% with papillary carcinoma, 27.8% with multifocality and 11.2% with LN metastasis. Although the majority of patients had a low risk of recurrence/persistence (78%), 75% were submitted to RAI therapy. Incomplete response (20.7%) was associated with multifocality (p=0.041; OR=1.619) and metastatic LN (p=0.041; OR=1.868). These variables were strongly correlated (p=0.000; OR=3.283). No cut-off of tumor size was identified as a predictor of incomplete response by the receiver operating curve analysis. RAI treatment did not influence the response of patients with multifocality or LN metastasis. Conclusion: Multifocality and LN metastasis are independent risk factors for incomplete response in TMC patients and are strongly correlated. Additional RAI therapy was not associated with a more favorable response in these subgroups.

Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 764-771, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142213


ABSTRACT Objective: The intermediate-risk (IR) category includes tumors with different degrees of aggression. We aimed to identify the risk factors associated with unfavorable response to initial treatment and compare the effect of low/high radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. Subjects and methods: A total of 614 IR patients were selected from a database, during 1972-2015. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy and were reclassified after 12-18 months into the favorable (complete/indeterminate) response group and the unfavorable (biochemical/incomplete structural) response group. A total of 92 patients were assessed for late response (mean: 9.19 ± 5.73 years). Age, gender, tumor size, histology, multifocality, vascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, presence and number of lymph node metastasis, and stimulated thyroglobulin at ablation (sTg) were evaluated. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 41.47 ± 15.81 years, and 83.6% of the patients were female. Within 12-18 months after initial therapy, unfavorable response was detected in 41.2% of the patients and was associated, in multivariate analysis, with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.041; odds ratio [OR] = 1.9), presence of more than five metastatic lymph nodes (p = 0,017; OR = 2.6), and sTg > 10 ng/mL (p = 0.005; OR = 10.0). For patients with a longer follow-up, sTg >10 ng/mL was associated with unfavorable response (p = 0.002; OR = 6.8). A higher RAI dose was not related to better prognosis at the end of the follow-up. Conclusion: A sTg level of >10 ng/mL and lymph node metastasis were associated with an unfavorable response 12-18 months after initial treatment. A RAI dose below 150 mCi was proven sufficient to treat IR patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Thyroid Neoplasms/ultrastructure , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Thyroglobulin , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 824-832, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142195


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to explore the patterns of radioactive iodine (RAI) use for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in Brazil over the past 20 years. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the DTC-related RAI prescriptions, from 2000 to 2018, retrieved from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (Datasus) and National Supplementary Health Agency (ANS) database was performed. RAI activities prescriptions were re-classified as low (30-50 mCi), intermediate (100 mCi), or high activities (>100 mCi). Results: The number of DTC-related RAI prescriptions increased from 0.45 to 2.28/100,000 inhabitants from 2000 to 2015, declining onwards, closing 2018 at 1.87/100,000. In 2018, population-adjusted RAI prescriptions by state ranged from 0.07 to 4.74/100,000 inhabitants. Regarding RAI activities, in the 2000 to 2008 period, the proportion of high-activities among all RAI prescriptions increased from 51.2% to 74.1%. From 2009 onwards, there was a progressive reduction in high-activity prescriptions in the country, closing 2018 at 50.1%. In 2018, the practice of requesting high-activities varied from 16% to 82% between Brazilian states. Interestingly, variability of RAI use do not seem to be related to RAI referral center volume nor state socio-economic indicators. Conclusion: In recent years, there has been a trend towards the lower prescription of RAI, and a reduction of high-activity RAI prescriptions for DTC in Brazil. Also, significative inter-state and inter-institutional variability on RAI use was documented. These results suggest that actions to advance DTC healthcare quality surveillance should be prioritized.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adenocarcinoma , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use