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1.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 103-107, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525664

ABSTRACT

Context: Malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Transfusion transmitted malaria contributes significantly to the burden of malaria in SSA. The safety of blood transfusion as it relates to frequency of blood donation and malaria occurrence on the part of donors is an aspect that has not been properly investigated hence this study. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the frequency of blood donation and occurrence of malaria among blood donors at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Ethical approval was obtained. One hundred and thirty-three consenting blood donors aged between 18-50 years were recruited for the study. Two milliliter's of blood were collected from each study participant and immediately transported to the laboratory for processing. Giemsa-stained films of the samples were viewed under the oil immersion objective of the microscope. Questionnaires were administered to the study participants to obtain relevant information. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS software version 20. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of malaria among the blood donors was 21.1% with the highest rate among commercial donors (33.3%) followed by family donors (12.9%) then voluntary donors (11.9%). Evaluation of the frequency of donation showed that malaria occurred more in recurring donors (77.78%) than first time donors (22.22%).


Subject(s)
Malaria , Therapeutics
2.
Bénin Médical ; 69: 44-51, 2024. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1554655

ABSTRACT

Introduction : la Chimioprévention du Paludisme Saisonnier (CPS) est une intervention pouvant réduire la survenue des cas de paludisme chez les enfants de 3 à 59 mois. L'objectif de cette étude était de mesurer la couverture de la CPS chez les enfants de 3 à 59 mois pendant la campagne (juillet à octobre 2023) vivant dans la zone d'intervention au Bénin. Matériels et méthodes : une étude enquête transversale descriptive et analytique a été conduite du 30 novembre au 14 décembre 2023. Un échantillonnage en grappe à trois degrés a permis de tiré au sort 3573 en milieux urbain et rural dans 172 Zones de Dénombrements (ZD) réparties dans les 15 communes d'intervention. Résultats : l'enquête a révélé que 87,3% des enfants ciblés ont été touchés par la campagne de CPS 2023. Sur les quatre passages, la couverture complète était respectivement de 84,4%, 81,7%, 77,7% et 62,2%. La couverture complète pour les douze doses était de 59,8%. Conclusion : la couverture en CPS a diminué au fur et à mesure des doses. Les refus persistent et proviennent des personnes clés des ménages qui décident de l'accès aux soins. Le plan de communication et les stratégies de déploiement de la CPS doit être investigué et renforcé en vue d'améliorer la couverture.


Introduction: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is an intervention that can reduce the occurrence of malaria in children aged 3-59 months. The study aimed to measure the coverage of SMC among children aged 3 to 59 months from July to October 2023 living in the intervention zone in Benin. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 30 November to 14 December 2023. Three-stage sampling was used to randomly select 3573 people in urban and rural areas in 172 enumeration zones (ED) in the 15 intervention municipalities. Results: Of the targeted children, 87.3% of had been reached by the 2023 CPS campaign Over the four rounds, full coverage was 84.4%, 81.7%, 77.7% and 62.2% respectively. Full coverage for the twelve doses was 59.8%. Conclusion: The SMC coverage decreased with each dose and varied across areas. The SMC communication plan and implementation needs to be strengthened to improve coverage


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Malaria , National Health Strategies , Health Services Coverage , Prevalence , Disease Prevention , National Health Programs
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(3): 352-359, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533946

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La resistencia de Plasmodium falciparum a diferentes fármacos antipalúdicos es un obstáculo para eliminar la enfermedad. El genotipo resistente de P. falciparum a la artemisinina puede evaluarse examinando los polimorfismos en el dominio de la hélice del gen Pfk13. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda utilizar estas mutaciones como marcadores moleculares para detectar la resistencia a la artemisinina en países donde la malaria por P. falciparum es endémica. Objetivo. Identificar mutaciones relacionadas con la resistencia a artemisinina presentes en el dominio de la hélice del gen k13 de P. falciparum. Materiales y métodos. Mediante la detección pasiva de casos, se recolectaron 51 muestras positivas por microscopía para Plasmodium, provenientes de seis comunidades del distrito de Río Santiago en Condorcanqui, Amazonas. Se realizó la confirmación molecular de la especie mediante PCR en tiempo real y el dominio de la hélice del gen Pfk13 se amplificó y secuenció por electroforesis capilar. Las secuencias obtenidas se compararon con la cepa de referencia 3D7 de fenotipo silvestre. Resultados. Se confirmó un total de 51 muestras positivas para P. falciparum, provenientes de las comunidades de Ayambis, Chapiza, Palometa, Muchinguis, Alianza Progreso y Caterpiza. Después del alineamiento de las secuencias de ADN, se determinó que las muestras no presentaron mutaciones asociadas con resistencia en el gen K13. Discusión. Los resultados obtenidos son coherentes con estudios similares realizados en otros países de Sudamérica, incluyendo Perú. Estos datos proporcionan una línea base para la vigilancia molecular de resistencia a artemisinina en la región Amazonas y refuerzan la eficacia de la terapia combinada con artemisinina en esta área.


Introduction. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to different antimalarial drugs is an obstacle to disease elimination. The artemisinin-resistant genotype of P. falciparum can be assessed by examining polymorphisms in the helix domain of the Pfk13 gene. The World Health Organization recommends these mutations as molecular markers to detect artemisinin-resistant in countries where P. falciparum malaria is endemic. Objective. To identify artemisinin resistance-related mutations present in the helix domain of the P. falciparum k13 gene. Materials and methods. We collected a total of 51 samples through passive case detection, positive for Plasmodium by microscopy, from six communities in the district of Río Santiago in Condorcanqui, Amazonas. Molecular species confirmation was performed by real-time PCR and Pfk13 helix domain was amplified and sequenced by capillary electrophoresis. The obtained sequences were compared with the wild type 3D7 reference strain. Results. A total of 51 positive samples were confirmed for P. falciparum from the communities of Ayambis, Chapiza, Palometa, Muchinguis, Alianza Progreso and Caterpiza. DNA sequences alignment showed the absence of resistance-associated mutations in the k13 gene of the collected samples. Discussion. The obtained results are consistent with similar studies conducted in other South American countries, including Perú, so these data provide a baseline for artemisinin- resistance molecular surveillance in the Amazon region and reinforce the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy in this area.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance , Malaria , Peru , Plasmodium falciparum , Amazonian Ecosystem
5.
J. Health NPEPS ; 8(1): e10861, jan - jun, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1512605

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar as notificações de malária em gestantes no município de Oiapoque. Método: estudo documental, descritivo, retrospectivo e com abordagem quantitativa, realizado a partir de dados secundários do Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Malária em Oiapoque-Amapá, Brasil, no período de 2013 a 2017. Abordam-se as seguintes variáveis de casos autóctones de malária em gestantes: ano, mês de ocorrência, idade gestacional, espécie infectante de Plasmodium e unidade de notificação. Os dados foram apresentados e analisados mediante estatística descritiva e formulação de mapas de distribuição espacial, gerados pelo software ArcGIS. Resultados: predominaram notificações em áreas urbanas, especialmente no bairro Paraíso (74%), sendo o Plasmodium vivax o principal agente (88%), e de maior incidência entre outubro a dezembro (33%), no terceiro trimestre gestacional (35%). Conclusão: o perfil de notificações de malária em gestante desse munícipio assemelha-se a estudos anteriores nessa região quanto ao local de concentração e período de maior ocorrência. No entanto, a introdução gradativa do protozoário Plasmodium falciparum traz um alerta para a mobilização de gestores e profissionais.


Objective: to characterize the notifications of malaria in pregnant women in the municipality of Oiapoque. Method: documentary, descriptive, retrospective and quantitative study, conducted from secondary data of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Malaria in Oiapoque-Amapá, Brazil, from 2013 to 2017. The following variables of autochthonous cases of malaria in pregnant women are addressed: year, month of occurrence, gestational age, Plasmodium infecting species and notification unit. Data were presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics and formulation of spatial distribution maps, generated by ArcGIS software. Results: notifications predominated in urban areas, especially in the Paraíso neighborhood (74%), with Plasmodium Vivax being the main agent (88%), and with a higher incidence between October and December (33%), in the third gestational quarter (35%). Conclusion: the profile of reports of malaria in pregnant women of this municipality resembles previous studies in this region, regarding the place of concentration and period of greater occurrence. However, the gradual introduction of the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum brings an alert to the mobilization of managers and professionals.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium , Border Health , Pregnant Women , Health Information Systems , Malaria
6.
Health sci. dis ; 24(2 Suppl 1): 26-30, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1416528

ABSTRACT

Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden in countries with already fragile health systems. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of COVID-19 in suspected malaria during the second wave in Yaounde. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Jordan Medical Services for 8 weeks from April 19 to June 13, 2021, i.e., during the second wave in Cameroon. For the 86 patients with suspected malaria, nasopharyngeal and blood samples were taken for SARS-CoV-2 antigen and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM using the STANDARD TM Q COVID-19 Ag kit from SD BIOSENSOR, Korea, 2020 and Standard TM Q COVID 19 Ac IgG/IgM kit from SD BIOSENSOR, Korea, 2020 respectively. Confirmation of malaria was done by microscopic examination of stained blood smears. Results. Malaria was confirmed in 20.9% (18) of cases. The prevalences of COVID-19 and COVID-19/malaria co-infection were 8.1% and 0.9% respectively. Of the 25.6% (54) of patients with anti-COVID-19 IgM, no positive microscopic cases were found. On the other hand, a little more than half of the patients had IgG antibodies against COVID-19 whether they had a positive thick drop or not (56.0% (42/75) and 52.2% (71/136) respectively). Conclusion. In case of suspicion of malaria in a malaria area, it seems important to consider COVID-19 as a differential diagnosis.


Introduction. La pandémie de la COVID-19 a ajouté un fardeau supplémentaire dans les pays aux systèmes de santé déjà fragiles. Objectif : déterminer la prévalence et la séroprévalence de la COVID-19 en cas de suspicion du paludisme au cours de la deuxième vagueà Yaoundé. Méthodologie. Une étude transversale descriptive a été menée au Centre Médical le Jourdain pendant 8 semaines du 19 Avril au 13 Juin 2021 soit durant la deuxième vague au Cameroun. Pour les 86 patients avec suspicion de paludisme, des prélèvements nasopharyngé et sanguins ont été réalisés pour la recherche d'antigène du SRAS- CoV 2 et des IgG et IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 grâce aux kits STANDARDTM Q COVID-19 Ag de SD BIOSENSOR, Corée, 2020 et StandardTM Q COVID 19 Ac IgG/IgM de SD BIOSENSOR, Corée, 2020 respectivement. La confirmation du paludisme a été faite grâce à l'examen microscopique des étalements de sang colorés. Résultats. Le paludisme était confirmé dans 20,9% (18) des cas. Les prévalences de la COVID-19 et de la coïnfection COVID19/Paludisme étaient de 8,1% et de 0,9% respectivement. Sur les 25,6% (54) des patients avec des IgM anti-COVID-19, aucun cas de microscopie positive n'a été retrouvé. Par ailleurs un peu plus de la moitié des patients avaient des anticorps IgG anti-COVID-19 qu'ils aient une goutte épaisse positive ou pas soit 56,0% (42/75) et 52,2% (71/136) respectivement. Conclusion. En cas de suspicion du paludisme en zone impaludée, il parait non négligeable de considérer la COVID-19 comme un diagnostic différentiel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Signs and Symptoms , COVID-19 , Malaria , Therapeutics , Prevalence , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(2): 1-8, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427757

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin drug resistance is one of the major reasons for malaria treatment failures in the sub-Saharan African countries where artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is found to correlate with antimalarial drug resistance. With artemisinin, the SNPs occurs at the Kelch 13-propeller gene locus on chromosome 13. The artemisinin drug resistance surveillance strategy involves continuous monitoring of Kelch 13-propeller biomarker to detect emergence of mutations which could herald drug resistance in the region. In this narrative review paper, we examined existing literature to bridge the knowledge gap and accentuate the importance of routine surveillance for artemisinin resistance in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted our search on PubMed database and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed articles, reports, and abstracts on artemisinin drug resistance using the following keywords; 'artemisinin drug resistance', 'antimalarial drug resistance', 'artemisinin-based combination therapy', 'Kelch 13-propeller', 'K13- propeller gene', and 'K13 molecular marker'. The review provided pertinent information on artemisinin derivatives, artemisinin-based combination therapy, molecular action of artemisinin, definition of artemisinin resistance, genetic basis of artemisinin drug resistance and discovery of Kelch 13, and the importance of artemisinin resistance surveillance. Molecular surveillance can provide healthcare policy makers a forecast of impending threats to malaria treatment. This is more so when drugs are in combination therapy, for instance, molecular surveillance can give a hint that one drug is failing despite the fact that in combination, it is still apparently clinically effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Malaria , Capillary Resistance , Artemisinins , Genes , Molecular Conformation
8.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(2): 112-119, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436066

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin drug resistance is one of the major reasons for malaria treatment failures in the sub-Saharan African countries where artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is found to correlate with antimalarial drug resistance. With artemisinin, the SNPs occurs at the Kelch 13-propeller gene locus on chromosome 13. The artemisinin drug resistance surveillance strategy involves continuous monitoring of Kelch 13-propeller biomarker to detect emergence of mutations which could herald drug resistance in the region. In this narrative review paper, we examined existing literature to bridge the knowledge gap and accentuate the importance of routine surveillance for artemisinin resistance in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted our search on PubMed database and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed articles, reports, and abstracts on artemisinin drug resistance using the following keywords; 'artemisinin drug resistance', 'antimalarial drug resistance', 'artemisinin-based combination therapy', 'Kelch 13-propeller', 'K13- propeller gene', and 'K13 molecular marker'. The review provided pertinent information on artemisinin derivatives, artemisinin-based combination therapy, molecular action of artemisinin, definition of artemisinin resistance, genetic basis of artemisinin drug resistance and discovery of Kelch 13, and the importance of artemisinin resistance surveillance. Molecular surveillance can provide healthcare policy makers a forecast of impending threats to malaria treatment. This is more so when drugs are in combination therapy, for instance, molecular surveillance can give a hint that one drug is failing despite the fact that in combination, it is still apparently clinically effective.


La résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine est l'une des principales raisons des échecs du traitement du paludisme dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne où la polythérapie à base d'artémisinine (ACT) est le traitement de première intention du paludisme simple. L'apparition de polymorphismes mononucléotidiques (SNP) est corrélée à la résistance aux médicaments antipaludiques. Avec l'artémisinine, les SNP se produisent au locus du gène Kelch 13- propeller sur le chromosome 13. La stratégie de surveillance de la résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine implique une surveillance continue du biomarqueur Kelch 13-propeller pour détecter l'émergence de mutations qui pourraient annoncer une résistance aux médicaments dans la région. Dans cet article de revue narrative, nous avons examiné la littérature existante pour combler le manque de connaissances et accentuer l'importance de la surveillance de routine de la résistance à l'artémisinine en Afrique subsaharienne. Nous avons effectué notre recherche sur la base de données PubMed et Google Scholar pour identifier des articles, des rapports et des résumés évalués par des pairs sur la résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine en utilisant les mots-clés suivants; «résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine¼, «résistance aux médicaments antipaludiques¼, «thérapie combinée à base d'artémisinine¼, «Kelch 13-propeller¼, «gène K13-propeller¼ et «marqueur moléculaire K13¼. L'examen a fourni des informations pertinentes sur les dérivés de l'artémisinine, la polythérapie à base d'artémisinine, l'action moléculaire de l'artémisinine, la définition de la résistance à l'artémisinine, la base génétique de la résistance aux médicaments à base d'artémisinine et la découverte de Kelch 13, ainsi que l'importance de la surveillance de la résistance à l'artémisinine. La surveillance moléculaire peut fournir aux responsables des politiques de santé une prévision des menaces imminentes pour le traitement du paludisme. C'est d'autant plus vrai lorsque les médicaments sont en thérapie combinée, par exemple, la surveillance moléculaire peut donner un indice qu'un médicament échoue malgré le fait qu'en combinaison, il est toujours apparemment cliniquement efficace.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Drug Resistance , Artemisinins , Drug Therapy, Combination , Malaria
9.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 101(6): 371-380 A, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436739

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine whether the positive results of a single-district pilot project focused on rectal artesunate administration at the community level in Zambia could be replicated on a larger scale. Methods In partnership with government, in 10 rural districts during 2018­2021 we: (i) trained community health volunteers to administer rectal artesunate to children with suspected severe malaria and refer them to a health facility; (ii) supported communities to establish emergency transport, food banks and emergency savings to reduce referral delays; (iii) ensured adequate drug supplies; (iv) trained health workers to treat severe malaria with injectable artesunate; and (v) monitored severe malaria cases and associated deaths via surveys, health facility data and a community monitoring system. Results Intervention communities accessed quality-assured rectal artesunate from trained community health volunteers, and follow-on treatment for severe malaria from health workers. Based on formal data from the health management information system, reported deaths from severe malaria reduced significantly from 3.1% (22/699; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.0­4.2) to 0.5% (2/365; 95% CI: 0.0­1.1) in two demonstration districts, and from 6.2% (14/225; 95% CI: 3.6­8.8) to 0.6% (2/321; 95% CI: 0.0­1.3) in eight scale-up districts. Conclusion Despite the effects of the coronavirus disease, our results confirmed that pre-referral rectal artesunate administered by community health volunteers can be an effective intervention for severe malaria among young children. Our results strengthen the case for wider expansion of the pre-referral treatment in Zambia and elsewhere when combined with supporting interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Administration, Rectal , Mortality , Artesunate , Health Services Research , Malaria
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 44 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511090

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Identificar espécies de anofelinos presentes na região do Vale do Ribeira, Sudeste de São Paulo, e a circulação de plasmódios por estes anofelinos. Método: Foram utilizadas armadilhas CDC com atração luminosa e armadilhas de Shannon no período que compreende das 17:00 às 22:00 horas e atração por humano protegido realizadas das 9:00 às 12:00 horas durante três dias consecutivos em seis campanhas, realizadas de setembro de 2021 a novembro de 2022. Os espécimes capturados foram identificados morfologicamente, separados por espécie e tiveram seu DNA genômico extraído em grupos de até 10 mosquitos, considerando os métodos de captura, locais, datas e horas. Os grupos de DNA genômico foram analisados utilizando tecnologia de PCR em tempo real para amplificar fragmento de 157 a 165 pares de bases da unidade 18S do DNA ribossômico, que permite identificar a presença de plasmódios. As amostras positivas foram submetidas a técnicas de PCR aninhado de fragmento do gene citocromo b do genoma mitocondrial. De oito amostras analisadas, duas foram positivas e tiveram seus amplicons sequenciados empregando tecnologia de Sanger. Resultados: Foram coletados 5.577 mosquitos classificados no gênero Kerteszia (99,62%) e gênero Anopheles (0,38%), agrupados em 811 grupos. Foram identificados oito grupos positivos para plasmódios, sendo um para Plasmodium vivax / Plasmodium simium, um para Plasmodium malariae / Plasmodium brasilianum, dois para Plasmodium falciparum e quatro grupos positivos apenas para Plasmodium spp. O sequenciamento Sanger confirmou a infecção por P. vivax / P. simium em uma amostra, e P. malariae / P. brasilianum em outra. A proporção total de anofelinos infectados por Plasmodium spp. foi 0,5% (4/811), 0,2% dos anofelinos coletados apresentavam infecção por P. falciparum (2/811), 0,1% apresentavam infecção por P. vivax (1/811) e a mesma proporção de infectados por P. malariae (1/811). A razão mínima de infecção (RMI) para Plasmodium spp. nos anofelinos coletados foi 0,125, para P. vivax foi 0,02, assim como para P. malariae e, para P. falciparum foi 0,035. As estimativas de razão entre mosquitos infectados e mosquitos coletados foram 0,007 para Plasmodium spp., 0,0002 para P. vivax, 0,0005 para P. falciparum e 0,0005 para P. malariae. A razão de infecção absoluta por P. vivax foi 0,02 em março de 2022 e 0,01 por P. falciparum em novembro de 2022 no mesmo ponto de coleta. Conclusão: Foi identificada a presença de plasmódios zoonóticos em área de reserva da Mata Atlântica do sudeste brasileiro, onde a presença de hospedeiros humanos é restrita aos moradores, turistas, trabalhadores da reserva e pesquisadores. A densidade de mosquitos infectados por P. falciparum foi maior do que a de P. vivax e P. malariae. O encontro de mosquitos, naturalmente, infectados por estas espécies de plasmódios indica a necessidade de programas de educação ambiental delineados aos frequentadores e moradores da região da reserva e do entorno. Acresce considerar a necessidade de pesquisas detalhadas sobre as taxas de Plasmodium ocorrendo na área estudada e na Mata Atlântica, com sequenciamentos dos genomas das espécies que são encontradas em localidades diversas do Brasil e América Latina.


Objectives: Identify species of anophelines present in the Vale do Ribeira region, Southeast of São Paulo, and the circulation of plasmodia by these anophelines. Method: CDC light traps and Shannon traps were used in the period from 5:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. and attraction by protected human carried out from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. for three consecutive days in 6 campaigns, carried out from September 2021 to November 2022. The captured specimens were morphologically identified, separated by species, and had their genomic DNA extracted in pools of up to 10 mosquitoes, considering capture methods, locations, dates and time. By utilizing real-time PCR technology, a 157 to 165 base pairs segment of the 18S ribosomal DNA unit was amplified to identify plasmodia within the genomic DNA pools. The positive samples were submitted to nested PCR techniques of cytochrome b gene fragment of the mitochondrial genome. Of 8 samples analyzed, two were positive and had their amplicons sequenced using Sanger technology. Results: A total of 5,577 mosquitoes belonging to the genus Kerteszia (99.62%) and to the genus Anopheles (0.38%) were collected, grouped into 811 pools. Eight positive pools for plasmodia were identified, one for Plasmodium vivax / Plasmodium simium, one for Plasmodium malariae / Plasmodium. brasilianum, two for Plasmodium falciparum and four pools positive only for Plasmodium spp. Sanger sequencing confirmed P. vivax / P. simium infection in one sample, and P. malariae / P. brasilianum in the other. The total proportion of anophelines infected with Plasmodium spp. was 0.5% (4/811), 0.2% of the collected anophelines had P. falciparum infection (2/811), 0.1% had P. vivax infection (1/811) and the same proportion of infected with P. malariae (1/811). The minimum infection rate (MIR) for Plasmodium spp. in anophelines collected was 0.125, for P. vivax was 0.02, as well as for P. malariae, and for P. falciparum it was 0.035. The ratio estimates between infected and collected mosquitoes were 0.007 for Plasmodium spp., 0.0002 for P. vivax, 0.0005 for P. falciparum, and 0.0005 for P. malariae. The absolute infection ratio for P. vivax was 0.02 in March 2022 and 0.01 for P. falciparum infection in November 2022 at the same collection point. Conclusion: The presence of zoonotic plasmodia was identified in a reserve area of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, where the presence of human hosts is restricted to residents, tourists, reserve workers and researchers. The density of mosquitoes infected with P. falciparum was higher than that of P. vivax and P. malariae. The finding of mosquitoes naturally infected by these species of plasmodia shows the need for environmental education programs designed for visitors and residents of the reserve region and surroundings. In addition, consider the need for detailed research on the rates of Plasmodium occurring in the studied area and in the Atlantic Forest, with sequencing of the genomes of the species that are found in different locations in Brazil and Latin America.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium , Malaria , Anopheles
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57(supl.2): 6s, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and predictors of childhood anemia in an Amazonian population-based birth cohort study. METHODS: Prevalence of maternal anemia was estimated at delivery (hemoglobin [Hb] concentration < 110 g/L) in women participating in the MINA-Brazil birth cohort study and in their children, examined at ages one, two (Hb < 110 g/L), and five (Hb < 115 g/L). Moreover, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured in mothers at delivery and in their 1- and 2-year-old children to estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency and its contribution to anemia, while adjusting for potential confounders by multiple Poisson regression analysis (adjusted relative risk [RRa]). RESULTS: The prevalence 95% confidence interval (CI) of maternal anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia at delivery were 17.3% (14.0-21.0%), 42.6% (38.0-47.2%), and 8.7% (6.3-11.6)%, respectively (n = 462). At one year of age (n = 646), 42.2% (38.7-45.8%) of the study children were anemic, 38.4% (34.6-42.3%) were iron-deficient, and 26.3 (23.0-29.9) had iron-deficiency anemia. At two years of age (n = 761), these values decreased to 12.8% (10.6-15.2%), 18.1% (15.5-21.1%), and 4.1% (2.8-5.7%), respectively; at five years of age (n = 655), 5.2% (3.6-7.2%) were anemic. Iron deficiency (RRa = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.84-2.60) and consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) (RRa = 1.56; 95%CI: 1.14-2.13) were significant contributors to anemia at 1 year, after adjusting for maternal schooling. At 2 years, anemia was significantly associated with maternal anemia at delivery (RRa: 1.67; 95%CI: 1.17-2.39), malaria since birth (2.25; 1.30-3.87), and iron deficiency (2.15; 1.47-3.15), after adjusting for children's age and household wealth index. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia continues to be highly prevalent during pregnancy and early childhood in the Amazon. Public health policies should address iron deficiency, UPF intake, maternal anemia, and malaria to prevent and treat anemia in Amazonian children.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a prevalência e os preditores de anemia na infância em um estudo de coorte de nascimentos de base populacional amazônica. MÉTODOS: Estimou-se a prevalência de anemia materna no parto (concentração de hemoglobina [Hb] < 110 g/L) em mulheres participantes do estudo de coorte de nascimentos MINA-Brasil e em seus filhos, examinados nas idades um, dois (Hb < 110 g/L) e cinco anos (Hb < 115 g/L). Além disso, as concentrações de ferritina, receptor solúvel de transferrina e proteína C reativa foram medidas em mães no parto e em seus filhos de 1 e 2 anos de idade para estimar a prevalência de deficiência de ferro e sua contribuição para anemia, ajustando para potenciais fatores de confusão por análise de regressão múltipla de Poisson (risco relativo ajustado [RRa]). RESULTADOS: As prevalências com intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95% de anemia materna, deficiência de ferro e anemia ferropriva no parto foram de 17,3% (14,0-21,0%), 42,6% (38,0-47,2%) e 8,7% (6,3-11,6%), respectivamente (n = 462). No primeiro ano de idade (n = 646), 42,2% (38,7-45,8%) das crianças estudadas eram anêmicas, 38,4% (34,6-42,3%) eram deficientes em ferro e 26,3 (23,0-29,9%) tinham anemia ferropriva. Aos dois anos de idade (n = 761), esses valores diminuíram para 12,8% (10,6-15,2%), 18,1% (15,5-21,1%) e 4,1% (2,8-5,7%), respectivamente; aos cinco anos de idade (n = 655), 5,2% (3,6-7,2%) eram anêmicos. A deficiência de ferro (RRa = 2,19, IC95%: 1,84-2,60) e consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados (AUP) (RRa = 1,56, IC95%: 1,14-2,13) foram contribuintes significantes para anemia no 1° ano de idade, após ajuste para escolaridade materna. Aos 2 anos, a anemia associou-se significativamente à anemia materna no parto (RRa = 1,67; IC95%: 1,17-2,39), malária desde o nascimento (2,25; 1,30-3,87) e deficiência de ferro (2,15; 1,47-3,15), após ajuste para idade das crianças e índice de riqueza familiar. CONCLUSÕES: A anemia continua sendo altamente prevalente durante a gravidez e a primeira infância na Amazônia. Políticas públicas de saúde devem abordar a deficiência de ferro, o consumo de AUP, a anemia materna e a malária para prevenir e tratar a anemia em crianças amazônicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Malaria
12.
REVISA (Online) ; 12(4): 914-924, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531329

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o núcleo central da representação social acerca da malária na ótica dos garimpeiros e dos indivíduos que exercem atividades laborais em região de garimpo que buscam atendimento no Pronto Atendimento Cosme e Silva em Boa Vista/RR. Método:estudo descritivo exploratório de carácter qualitativo delineado por meio da Teoria das Representações Sociais, formulada por Serge Moscovici em 1961. Foram realizadas 72 entrevistas semiestruturadas com garimpeiros. A análise dos dados ocorreu com o auxílio do software OpenEvoc 0.92 desenvolvido pelo Prof. Dr. Hugo Cristo em 2012. Resultados: foi constatado que as percepções dos garimpeiros acerca da malária está diretamente relacionada com a sintomatologia da doença, principalmente pelos traumas vivenciados devidoa ausência de serviço de saúde disponível no local de trabalho. Enquanto que, as percepções dos garimpeiros sobre o garimpo estão vinculadas a condição econômica deste grupo. Conclusão:observa-se que a busca pelo bem-estar financeiro, faz o garimpeiro se submeter às relações extremamente precárias de trabalho, incluindo a exposição ao vetor da malária.


Objective: to analyze the central nucleus of the social representation about malaria from the perspective of miners and individuals who carry out work activities in a mining region who seek care at the Cosme e Silva Emergency Room in Boa Vista/RR. Method:descriptiveexploratory study of a qualitative nature outlined through the Theory of Social Representations, formulated by Serge Moscovici in 1961. 72 semi-structured interviews were carried out with miners. Data analysis took place with the aid of the OpenEvoc 0.92 software developed by Prof. Dr. Hugo Cristo in 2012. Results:it was found that the prospectors' perceptions about malaria are directly related to the symptoms of the disease, mainly due to the traumas experienced due to the lack of health services available in the workplace. Meanwhile, the prospectors' perceptions about mining are linked to the economic condition of this group. Conclusion:it is observed that the search for financial well-being makes the prospector submit to extremely precarious work relationships, including exposure to the malaria vector.


Objetivo: analizar el núcleo central de la representación social sobre la malaria en la perspectiva de mineros y personas que ejercen actividades laborales en una región minera que buscan atención en el Servicio de Emergencia Cosme e Silva de Boa Vista/RR. Método:estudio descriptivo exploratorio de carácter cualitativo esbozado a través de la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales, formulada por Serge Moscovici en 1961. Se realizaron 72 entrevistas semiestructuradas con mineros. El análisis de datos se llevó a cabocon la ayuda del software OpenEvoc 0.92 desarrollado por el Prof. Dr. Hugo Cristo en 2012. Resultados:se encontró que las percepciones de los prospectores sobre la malaria están directamente relacionadas con los síntomas de la enfermedad, principalmente debido a los traumas experimentados por la falta de servicios de salud disponibles en el lugar de trabajo. Por su parte, las percepciones de los buscadores sobre la minería están ligadas a la condición económica de este grupo. Conclusión: se observa que labúsqueda de bienestar económico hace que el prospector se someta a relaciones de trabajo extremadamente precarias, incluida la exposición al vector de la malaria.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Social Representation , Mining
13.
REVISA (Online) ; 12(4): 937-947, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531335

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:analisar a evolução dos casos de malária em Roraima, principalmente no município de Alto Alegre, estratificado por aglomerações por área geográfica habitada -rural, urbana e área indígena no período de 2013 a 2022. Método:Estudo ecológico do tipo série temporal baseado em dados secundários dos casos confirmados de malária em Roraima, no período de 2013 a 2022. Resultados:nesse período foram confirmados 72.828 casos de malária em Roraima, dos quais 78,0% foram por Plasmodium vivax. Além disso, a maior parte dos casos se concentrou no município de Alto Alegre, correspondendo a 41,1%. Portanto, este foi o município que mais produziu malária procedente de garimpo, apesar de existirem outros que registraram aumento da doença nesse período. Conclusão:assim, osmunicípios de Alto Alegre, Amajari, Caracaraí, Iracema e Mucajaí, juntos respondem por 77.8% de toda malária produzida em Roraima. Estes municípios fazem parte da rota do garimpo ilegal na terra indígena Yanomami.


Objective: analyze the evolution of malaria cases in Roraima, especially in the municipality of Alto Alegre, stratified by geographical areas of habitation -rural, urban, and indigenous areas, from 2013 to 2022. Method: A time series ecological study based on secondary data of confirmed malaria cases in Roraima from 2013 to 2022. Results:During this period, 72,828 cases of malaria were confirmed in Roraima, of which 78.0% were due to Plasmodium vivax. Furthermore, the majority of cases were concentrated in the municipality of Alto Alegre, accounting for 41.1%. Therefore, this was the municipality that produced the most malariafrom mining activities, despite others experiencing an increase in the disease during this period. Conclusion: Thus, the municipalities of Alto Alegre, Amajari, Caracaraí, Iracema, and Mucajaí together accounted for 77.8% of all malaria cases produced in Roraima. These municipalities are part of the illegal mining route within the Yanomami indigenous land.


Objetivo: analizar la evolución de los casos de malaria en Roraima, principalmente en el municipio de Alto Alegre, marcado por aglomeraciones por área geográfica habitada -rural, urbana, en el área indígena en el período comprendido desde 2013 hasta 2022. Método: Estudio ecológico de tipo serie temporal basado en datos secundarios de los casos confirmados de malaria en Roraima, en el periodo de 2013 hasta 2022. Resultados: Durante este periodo fueron confirmados 72.828 casos de malaria en Roraima, de los cuales 78,0% correspondieron a Plasmodium Vivax. Además, la mayor parte de los casos estaban concentrados en el municipio de Alto Alegre, correspondiendo a 41,1%. Por lo tanto, este fue el condado que más produjo malaria proveniente de la minería, a pesar de existir otros que registraron aumentos de la enfermedad durante este periodo. Conclusión: Siendo así, los condados de Alto Alegre, Amajari, Caracaraí, Iracema y Mucajaí, juntos representan el 77.8% de toda la malaria existente en Roraima. Estos condados hacen parte de la ruta de minería ilegal en tierras indígenas Yanomam.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Indigenous Culture , Mining
14.
Horiz. enferm ; 34(2): 176-189, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509281

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: El objetivo del estudio fue describir las dinámicas comunitarias y gubernamentales en torno a la malaria, su control y prevención en el Municipio de San José del Guaviare, en el departamento de Guaviare (Colombia). MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de métodos mixtos utilizando una encuesta que constaba de 45 preguntas sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas y entrevistas semiestructuradas con personal médico y trabajadores del gobierno. RESULTADOS: Aceptaron realizar la encuesta 103 personas, el 72% fueron mujeres, edad promedio de 40,8 años, tiene acueducto el 60% y alcantarillado 53,4%. El 59% reportó haber tenido malaria, 76% reconoció un mosquito como el vector de la enfermedad, 6% reconoce al Anopheles como el vector. El 16,5% de los encuestados asegura que la malaria no es un problema de salud para ellos y sus familias. El uso de toldillos (74%) es considerado una eficaz protección. CONCLUSIONES: Se evidencia un buen conocimiento de la malaria después de los acuerdos de paz, sin embargo, los determinantes relacionados con suministro de agua, alcantarillado, difícil atención en zona rural y las escasas acciones interdisciplinarias son posibles elementos de riesgo para esta población.


The objective of the study was to describe the community and government dynamics around malaria, especially its control and prevention, in the Municipality of San José del Guaviare, in the sector of Guaviare (Colombia). METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study using a survey consisting of 45 questions on knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and semi-structured interviews with medical personnel and government workers. RESULTS: 103 people responded to the survey. 72% were women, and the average age was 40.8 years. 60% had an aqueduct and 53.4% had sewers. 59% reported having had malaria, 76% recognized a mosquito as the vector of the disease, and 6% recognized Anopheles as the vector. 16.5% of those surveyed said that malaria was not a health problem for them and their families. 74% considered the use of mosquito nets an effective protection. CONCLUSIONS: While there is a good knowledge of malaria, difficulties related to water supply, sewage, care in rural areas and lack of interdisciplinary solutions pose possible risk factors for this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Knowledge , Malaria/prevention & control , Colombia/epidemiology
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20229, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Malaria, a disease of public health concern is a known cause of kidney failure, and dependence on herbal medicines for its treatment is increasing due to the high cost of drugs. So this study is designed to evaluate the ameliorating effect of ethanol extract from Salacia nitida root bark on electrolyte and renal perturbations in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Thirty malariainfected mice divided into five groups of six mice each and another group of six uninfected mice were used for the study. 280, 430, and 580 mg/kg of extract were given to infected mice in groups B, C, and D, 4 mg/kg of artesunate given to group E mice, and 4 ml/kg of physiological saline given to group A and uninfected group F mice for five days. Serum Na+, K+, HCO3, Cl-, TB, urea, creatinine, BUN concentrations, and BUN/creatinine ratio were determined using standard methods. Results showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in Na+, K+, and HCO3 and decreases in Cl-, TB, urea, creatinine, BUN, and BUN/creatinine ratio in the infected treated mice in groups B - E. This study showed that ethanol extract of S. nitida root bark is efficient in the treatment of renal disorders and blood electrolyte perturbations


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Plant Roots/adverse effects , Salacia/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Malaria/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Costs and Cost Analysis/classification , Electrolytes/agonists , Artesunate/antagonists & inhibitors
16.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 16(4): 5333-5343, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1512508

ABSTRACT

La mort fœtale tardive fait référence à la mort in utéro (MIU) de survenue spontanée à partir de 22 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA), mais avant tout début du travail d'accouchement, ce qui constitue une tragédie pour la mère, les membres de la famille et du personnel soignant. La présente étude a déterminé l'ampleur, les facteurs associés et les méthodes de déclenchement artificiel du travail d'accouchement sur MIU. Méthodes : Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive, multicentrique menée dans 3 hôpitaux de Kisangani, pendant une période de 3 ans. La collecte des données était rétrospective, des cas de MIU à partir de 28 SA. Résultats : La fréquence de MIU tardive était de 6,48%. Les principaux facteurs associés étaient l'infection urinaire (35,4%), le paludisme sur grossesse (27,5%) et l'hypertension artérielle gravidique (27,5%). Le taux de participation aux consultations prénatales (CPN) n'était que de 63,5 %. Les méthodes de déclenchement artificiel du travail d'accouchement utilisées étaient le Misoprostol (42,7%), l'ocytocine (17,7%) soit les deux combinées (25%). La césarienne était indiquée à un taux de 26,4%. Conclusion : la fréquence de MIU tardive est élevée à Kisangani. L'infection urinaire, le paludisme et l'hypertension artérielle en constituaient les principaux facteurs associés. Le Misoprostol était la méthode de déclenchement du travail les plus utilisées. Un suivi régulier des CPN pourrait réduire le taux de MIU.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Fetal Mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hypertension , Malaria , Mothers
17.
Rev. int. sci. méd. (Abidj.) ; 5(2): 114-121, 2023.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1516844

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Au Mali, la prise en charge du paludisme se fait à travers la médecine conventionnelle et la médecine traditionnelle, mais peu d'évaluation existe sur les implications fi nancières de ces approches qui coexistent et qui sont pratiqués parfois de manière concomitante. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer les coûts fi nanciers de ces deux approches du point de vue des patients. Méthodes. Ainsi, une étude transversale descriptive impliquant des patients ont été sélectionnés dans trois aires de santé et plus précisément dans des ménages, structures de santé conventionnelle et chez les praticiens de la médecine traditionnelle de Niono, Sirabala et N'Debougou. Des questionnaires structurés ont été utilisés pour collecter des informations. Le calcul du coût de traitement a été utilisé pour comparer le coût moyen de traitement du paludisme en médecine conventionnelle et traditionnelle. Résultats. Au total, 300 patients ont été sélectionnés. 52,7% des patients avaient recouru à la médecine conventionnelle, contre 32% pour l'automédication et 15,3% pour la médecine traditionnelle. Les patients avaient utilisé les ressources de ces trois systèmes de santé pour quatre principaux motifs. Le coût moyen du traitement par épisode de paludisme était estimé à 12,97 Euro en médecine conventionnelle contre 6,24 Euros en médecine traditionnelle. Le coût moyen du traitement de paludisme en automédication à base de médicaments conventionnels ou traditionnels était de 0,82 Euros. Conclusion. Dans notre étude, même si le coût du traitement du paludisme en médecine conventionnelle reste plus élevé que celui en médecine traditionnelle, contrairement aux idées reçues, les coûts des ressources de la médecine traditionnelle ne sont pas aussi bas qu'on le croit.


Introduction. In Mali, malaria management is done through conventional and traditional medicine, but little evaluation exists on the fi nancial implications of these approaches which coexist and are sometimes practiced concomitantly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fi nancial costs of these two approaches from the patients' point of view. Methods. Thus, a descriptive cross-sectional study involving patients selected in three health areas and more precisely in households, conventional health structures and traditional medicine practitioners in Niono, Sirabala and N'Debougou. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information. The calculation of the cost of treatment was used to compare the average cost of treating malaria in conventional and traditional medicine. Results. Finally, 300 patients were selectionned and 52.7% of patients had used conventional medicine, compared to 32% for self-medication and 15.3% for traditional medicine. Patients had used the resources of these three health systems for four main reasons. The average cost of treatment per malaria episode was estimated at 12.97 Euros for conventional medicine versus 6.24 Euros for traditional medicine. The average cost of treatment of malaria by self-medication with conventional or traditional medicines was 0.82 Euros. Conclusion. In our study, even if the cost of treating malaria with conventional medicine remains higher than with traditional medicine, contrary to popular belief, the resource costs of traditional medicine are not as low as one might think


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Malaria
18.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(5): 1-21, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1435814

ABSTRACT

To date, malaria is still a major public health issue in the world. Africa remains the most affected continent with the highest malaria cases and deaths. Since more than one thousand Chinese citizens are living in Nigeria, examination of their knowledge, attitude, and practice compared with those of the local people may be essential towards malaria prevention. This study adopted cross-sectional research. A total of 137 Chinese people and 299 local people residing in Kano State, Nigeria constituted the study subjects. A questionnaire was used for the collection of data on socio-demography and predictors of attitudes. The Cronbach alpha statistic was used to analyze these data. Insecticide spraying, mosquito repellents, wearing protective clothing at night are the malaria preventive measures by both the local and Chinese people living in Kano state, Nigeria. However, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups, with a duration of stay in Nigeria, the use of mosquito, attitude, and practices playing impactful roles among the Chinese people. Hence, Chinese people demonstrated better knowledge and control of malaria transmission and prevention than the local people living in Kano state. In conclusion, attitudes and practices toward malaria diseases are the major causes of a high rate of malaria in Nigeria, particularly in Kano State.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Disease Prevention , Malaria
19.
Afr. j. disabil. (Online) ; 12: 1-13, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1518770

ABSTRACT

Background: Persons with disabilities generally face greater challenges in accessing healthcare and interventions compared with the general population. Malaria is one of the diseases that can seriously affect individuals with disabilities, as it requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Objective: This study explores the extent to which locally available malaria services and interventions are inclusive of persons with disabilities and identifies associated access barriers. Method: A qualitative case study focusing on social, cultural and health system factors associated with the inclusion of persons with disabilities in malaria services was conducted in Kigoma Region, western Tanzania. Thematic analysis of emerging themes identified barriers affecting access to locally available malaria services and interventions. Results: Inclusion of persons with disabilities in planning, implementation and reporting of health issues in different malaria programmes was reported to be limited. Persons with disabilities were unable to access malaria services because of different barriers such as the distance of the service provision sites, communication and information issues and a lack of financial resources. Conclusion: Persons with disabilities are widely excluded from malaria care provision across the entire health services paradigm, impacting access and utilisation to this vulnerable population. Barriers to malaria service access among persons with disabilities were physical, attitudinal, financial and informational. Contribution: The findings of this study identify that malaria intervention stakeholders need to take a holistic approach and fully involve individuals with disabilities at all levels and scope of malaria service planning and provision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Malaria , Therapeutics , Health Services
20.
Ann. afr. med ; 22(4): 470-460, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1537705

ABSTRACT

Context and Aim: Given the challenges of microscopy, we compared its performance with SD Bioline malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and evaluated the time it took for positive results to become negative after treatment of children with acute uncomplicated malaria. Subjects and Methods: We present the report of 485 participants with complete MRDT, microscopy, and PCR data out of 511 febrile children aged 3­59 months who participated in a cohort study over a 12 month period in rural and urban areas of Ibadan, Nigeria. MRDT positive children received antimalaria and tested at every visit over 28 days. Speciation was also carried out by PCR. Results: With microscopy as the gold standard, SD-Bioline™ had 95.2% sensitivity, 66.4% specificity, 67.5% positive predictive value (PPV), and 94.9 negative predictive value (NPV), while with PCR the findings were 84.3% sensitivity, 66.5% specificity, 72.7% PPV, and 80.1% NPV. PCR speciation of malaria parasites revealed 91.6% Plasmodium falciparum, 18.9% Plasmodium malariae, and 4.4% Plasmodium ovale. Among the 47 children with P. malariae infections, 66.0% were coinfected with P. falciparum, while 54.6% cases of P. ovale occurred as coinfections with P. falciparum. The median time to a negative MRDT was 23.2 days, while the median time to a negative malaria microscopy was 3.8 days. The two survival curves were significantly different. Conclusions: The SD BiolineTM MRDT performed well, with remarkable persistence of rapid test-positive for an average of 23 days post treatment. The prevalence of P. malaria is somewhat greater than expected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Sensitivity and Specificity , Malaria
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