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1.
São Paulo; BIREME/OPAS/OMS;CABSIN; dez 2023. 35 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1151624

ABSTRACT

Este informe executivo apresenta os principais achados do mapa de evidências sobre os efeitos da Acupuntura para desfechos em saúde, que representa a evidência de 163 estudos de revisão que analisaram o efeito da acupuntura como intervenção para pelo menos um dos 96 desfechos de saúde organizados em 14 grupos: Câncer e Neoplasias; Dor; Doenças Cardiovasculares; Doenças Respiratórias; Doenças Reumáticas e Musculoesqueléticas; Doenças Nutricionais, Metabólicas e Endócrinas; Doenças do Sistema Nervoso; Dermatopatias; Gastroenteropatias; Indicadores Metabólicos e Fisiológicos; Oftalmopatias e Otorrinolaringopatias; Sinais e Sintomas; Transtornos Mentais; e Outros desfechos. No todo foram 201 associações entre acupuntura e os desfechos de saúde. Para cada associação intervenção-desfecho foi incluído o efeito reportado pelo estudo de revisão.


This executive report presents the main findings of the evidence map on the effects of acupuncture for health outcomes, representing evidence from 163 review studies that analyzed the effect of acupuncture as an intervention for at least one of the 96 health outcomes organized into 14 groups: Cancer and Neoplasms; Pain; Cardiovascular Diseases; Respiratory Diseases; Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases; Nutritional, Metabolic, and Endocrine Diseases; Diseases of the Nervous System; Dermatopathies; Gastroenteropathies; Metabolic and Physiological Indicators; Ophthalmopathies and Otorhinolaryngopathies; Signs and Symptoms; Mental Disorders; and Other outcomes. In total, there were 201 associations between acupuncture and health outcomes. For each intervention-outcome association, the reported effect by the review study was included.


Este informe ejecutivo presenta los principales hallazgos del mapa de evidencia sobre los efectos de la acupuntura en los resultados de salud, representando la evidencia de 163 estudios de revisión que analizaron el efecto de la acupuntura como intervención para al menos uno de los 96 resultados de salud organizados en 14 grupos: Cáncer y Neoplasias; Dolor; Enfermedades Cardiovasculares; Enfermedades Respiratorias; Enfermedades Reumáticas y Musculoesqueléticas; Enfermedades Nutricionales, Metabólicas y Endocrinas; Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso; Dermatopatías; Gastroenteropatías; Indicadores Metabólicos y Fisiológicos; Oftalmopatías y Otorrinolaringopatías; Signos y Síntomas; Trastornos Mentales; y Otros resultados. En total, hubo 201 asociaciones entre la acupuntura y los resultados de salud. Para cada asociación intervención-resultados se incluyó el efecto informado por el estudio de revisión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 17-25, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971640

ABSTRACT

The root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, also called Huangqin, is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine. In ancient China, S. baicalensis root was used to clear heat, protect the fetus, and avoid a miscarriage for thousands of years. In modern times, pregnancy-related diseases can seriously affect maternal and fetal health, but few systematic studies have explored the mechanisms and potential targets of S. baicalensis root in the treatment of pregnancy-related diseases. Flavonoids (baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A) and flavonoid glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) are the main chemical components in the root of S. baicalensis. This study presents the current understanding of the major chemical components in the root of S. baicalensis, focusing on their traditional uses, potential therapeutic effects and ethnopharmacological relevance to pregnancy-related disorders. The mechanisms, potential targets and experimental models of S. baicalensis root for ameliorating pregnancy-related diseases, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and gestational diabetes mellitus, are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Scutellaria baicalensis , Premature Birth/drug therapy , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Ethnopharmacology , China
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 280-288, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971331

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease and an important health concern. Western medicine and therapies are the main treatment strategies for psoriasis vulgaris (PV); however, the overall prognosis of patients with PV is still poor. Therefore, PV prevention is especially crucial. Chinese medicine (CM) has a long history of treating psoriasis, and it has unique wisdom in different cognitive angles and treatment modes from modern medicine. In this review, we first summarized the herbs and ancient CM formulas that have therapeutic effects on PV. Second, the research status and obstacles to the current development of CM in modern medicine were reviewed. Finally, the future of CM in the context of precision medicine and integrated medicine was discussed. After a detailed reading of the abundant literature, we believe that CM, through thousands of years of continuous development and clinical practice, has achieved high effectiveness and safety for PV treatment, despite its surrounding controversy. Moreover, precise analyses and systematic research methods have provided new approaches for the modernization of CM in the future. The treatment of PV with CM is worth popularizing, and we hope it can benefit more patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/therapy , Research Design , Drug Therapy, Combination
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 233-243, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the potential mechanism of Yishen Qutong Granules (YSQTG) for the treatment of esophageal cancer using network pharmacology and experimental research.@*METHODS@#The effective components and molecular mechanism of YSQTG in treating esophageal cancer were expounded based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. The key compound was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to verify the malignant phenotype of the key compounds in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Then, the interaction proteins of key compounds were screened by pull-down assay combined with mass spectrometry. RNA-seq was used to screen the differential genes in the treatment of esophageal cancer by key compounds, and the potential mechanism of key compounds on the main therapeutic targets was verified.@*RESULTS@#Totally 76 effective compounds of YSQTG were found, as well as 309 related targets, and 102 drug and disease interaction targets. The drug-compound-target network of YSQTG was constructed, suggesting that quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, kaempferol and baicalein may be the most important compounds, while quercetin had higher degree value and degree centrality, which might be the key compound in YSQTG. The HPLC-MS results also showed the stable presence of quercetin in YSQTG. By establishing a protein interaction network, the main therapeutic targets of YSQTG in treating esophageal cancer were Jun proto-oncogene, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and RELA proto-oncogene. The results of cell function experiments in vitro showed that quercetin could inhibit proliferation, invasion, and clonal formation of esophageal carcinoma cells. Quercetin mainly affected the biological processes of esophageal cancer cells, such as proliferation, cell cycle, and cell metastasis. A total of 357 quercetin interacting proteins were screened, and 531 genes were significantly changed. Further pathway enrichment analysis showed that quercetin mainly affects the metabolic pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κ B) signaling pathway, etc. Quercetin, the key compound of YSQTG, had stronger binding activity by molecular docking. Pull-down assay confirmed that NF- κ B was a quercetin-specific interaction protein, and quercetin could significantly reduce the protein level of NF- κ B, the main therapeutic target.@*CONCLUSION@#YSQTG can be multi-component, multi-target, multi-channel treatment of esophageal cancer, it is a potential drug for the treatment of esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Network Pharmacology , Quercetin , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Esophageal Neoplasms , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 89-92, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971310

ABSTRACT

This study briefly introduces the tongue diagnostic equipment of traditional Chinese medicine. It analyzes and discusses the key points of technical evaluation of tongue diagnostic equipment from the aspects of product name, performance parameters, image processing functions, product use methods, clinical evaluation, etc. It analyzes the safety risks and effectiveness indicators of tongue diagnostic equipment, hoping to bring some help to the gradual standardization of tongue diagnostic equipment and the registration of enterprises.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Tongue , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Diagnostic Equipment , Reference Standards
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 433-439, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986148

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced liver injury influencing factors are complex and have diverse clinical manifestations. Simple and reliable diagnostic methods are still deficient, and further classification of toxicological mechanisms is required. There are numerous pertinent discrepancies between domestic and international guidelines aimed at drug-induced liver injury diagnosis and treatment, with partial to no consensus on the content. The American Gastroenterological Association's 2021 Clinical Guidelines, the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver's 2021 Consensus Guidelines, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences' 2020 International Consensus, the European Society's Hepatology Committee's 2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the 2015 Chinese Medical Association Guidelines are five influential clinical guidelines on drug-induced liver injury at home and abroad. The epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis and evaluation, treatment management, and other contents, particularly traditional Chinese medicine, were compared and analyzed using other relevant consensus opinions or guidelines in order to improve understanding and provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced liver injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
7.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 157-164, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to explore the therapeutic targets of curcumin in periodontitis through network pharmacology and molecular docking technology.@*METHODS@#Targets of curcumin and periodontitis were predicted by different databases, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network constructed by String revealed the interaction between curcumin and periodontitis. The key target genes were screened for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Molecular docking was performed to analyze the binding potential of curcumin to periodontitis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 672 periodontitis-related disease targets and 107 curcumin-acting targets were obtained from the databases, and 20 key targets were screened. The GO and KEGG analyses of the 20 targets showed that curcumin might play a therapeutic role through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) signaling pathways. Molecular docking analysis showed that curcumin had good binding potential with multiple targets.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The potential key targets and molecular mechanisms of curcumin in treating periodontitis provide a theoretical basis for new drug development and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Network Pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
8.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 441-451, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981072

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Here, we explored molecular changes that could potentially mediate healing effects of Gua Sha - a method employed by the Chinese traditional medicine with proven track records of safe and efficient applications dating back to ancient times as well as support from randomized controlled trials performed by modern medical studies - yet remaining almost entirely unexplored by the modern-day high-throughput methods of the -omics sciences.@*METHODS@#We investigated transcriptome changes occurring shortly after Gua Sha treatment in the whole blood of healthy volunteers using bulk RNA-seq analysis. We applied various analytical tools to identify genes with consistent expression changes in multiple individuals in response to Gua Sha and their networks.@*RESULTS@#We found that while the changes were very subtle and individual-specific, we could identify consistent upregulation of three histone genes. Further analysis of the potential regulatory networks of these histone genes revealed the enrichment of functions involved in the immune response and inflammation.@*CONCLUSION@#The significance of these results in the context of potential effects of Gua Sha and the next steps in exploring the molecular mechanisms of action of this technique are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Histones , Gene Expression
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 555-559, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980759

ABSTRACT

By tracing to the origin of Tibetan medicine, it is known that Tibetan medicine absorbs a variety of medical ideas such as traditional Chinese medicine, Vedic medicine, Persian medicine and Byzantine medicine, and forms a unique theoretical system. The meridian-acupoint system and the characteristics and application of external therapies such as bloodletting and moxibustion in Tibetan medicine are analyzed by elaborating the relevant aspects of acupuncture and moxibustion involved in treatment of diseases listed in Medical Canon in Four Sections. The paper emphasizes the introduction of ironing moxibustion and huo'er moxibustion of fire moxibustion and the application of separation-action decoction and ghee therapy in bloodletting, as well as alternative therapy. Besides, by taking the external treatment of cirrhotic ascites and head trauma as an example, the idea of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in Tibetan medicine embodied in the Medical Canon in Four Sections is explained so as to benefit the development of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in Tibetan medicine.


Subject(s)
Moxibustion , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Acupuncture Therapy , Bloodletting , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 483-488, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980748

ABSTRACT

The paper reviews the inheritance, innovation and development of heat-sensitive moxibustion; and explores the path for the clinical development of moxibustion of traditional Chinese medicine moxibustion (TCM). Practice has shown that the laws of clinical research on TCM moxibustion refer to phenomenon discovery, exploration of rules, technological innovation, verification of curative effects, theory sublimation, returning to clinical practice, discipline construction, and experimental research. It is deeply realized that TCM research should be based on clinical practice, originated from classics, focused on theoretical innovation and in serve of clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Moxibustion , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Hot Temperature
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 395-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980734

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces professor SUN Shen-tian's clinical thoughts and his characteristics of acupuncture techniques for the treatment of depression based on "psychosomatic medicine". Professor SUN, the master of traditional Chinese medicine, believes that depression refers to comorbidity of "heart mind" and "body", resulting from the "body-mind" disharmony, specially dominated by the emotional disorder. This disease is located in the brain, with the injury of mind and closely related to the heart and liver dysfunction. In pathogenesis, the dysfunction of brain mind and the unhealthy conditions of body and mind are involved. The treatment should focus on "regulating the mind, improving the intelligence, co-modulating the abdominal and brain functions and treating the physical and mental disorders". Baihui (GV 20), Ningshen (Extra) and emotional area on the head are selected as the main points to benefit the intelligence and calming down the mind; the abdominal region 1 and region 8 of "Sun's abdominal acupuncture" are used as the main points of the abdomen to regulate the brain functions. The point prescription is modified according to the symptoms and etiologies. The repeated transcranial acupuncture stimulation and electroacupuncture at low frequency (2 Hz) are crucial to the therapeutic effect. Reliving anxious emotions is specially considered before acupuncture, and the mind is protected and deqi is consolidated during acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depression/therapy , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Acupuncture
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 390-394, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980733

ABSTRACT

The traditional life concept of "body-mind holism" in Chinese medicine has drawn a special attention with the development of modern psychosomatic medicine. The "body-mind holism" is valuable in the guidance for clinical acupuncture practice, but, it is only remained on the theoretical significance by the medical masters in the past dynasties. In the paper, based on the understanding of Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic), the similarities and differences are compared between the body-mind theory and psychosomatic medicine. In association with clinical observation, from three aspects, i.e. body-mind pathogenesis, acupoint detection and observing the mind, and body-mind treatment, the guidance of "body-mind holism" is explored for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of acupuncture and moxibustion; the referents of "body" and "mind" are clarified in views of disease, diagnosis and treatment; and the treatment strategies of acupuncture and moxibustion are discussed in the perspective of "body-mind holism".


Subject(s)
Moxibustion , Psychosomatic Medicine , Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3263-3268, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981463

ABSTRACT

Clinical efficacy is the basis for the development of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), and the evaluation of clinical efficacy of TCM has always been the focus of attention. The technical and methodological difficulties in the evaluation process often restrict the generation of high-level evidence. Therefore, methodological research should be deepened and innovative practice should be carried out to study the application of scientific research methods in the evaluation of the advantages of TCM. After more than ten years of development, the clinical efficacy evaluation of TCM, on the basis of the initially classic placebo randomized controlled trials, has successively carried out a series of meaningful attempts and explorations in N-of-1 trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, real world studies, narrative medicine studies, systematic evaluation, and other aspects, laying the foundation for the transformation of TCM from "experience" to "evidence". This paper focused on the clinical efficacy evaluation of TCM, summarized the main connotation and development status of efficacy evaluation indicators, standards, and methods, and put forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the problems of indicator selection, standard formulation, and methodology optimization in the research process. It is clear that scientific and objective evaluation of the efficacy of TCM is an urgent problem to be solved at present.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Case-Control Studies , Narrative Medicine
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3255-3262, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981462

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease(CAD) caused by atherosclerosis(AS) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The pathogenesis of CAD is complex, and the subset and function of cardiac macrophages are important factors affecting the occurrence and development of AS and the prognosis of CAD. Recent studies have shown that some traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) formulas and active ingredients can regulate macrophage subsets involved in the inflammation, injury, and repair process of CAD. This paper summarized the significant role of macrophages in AS and myocardial infarction. Based on the plasticity of macrophages, this paper elaborated that traditional Chinese medicine prevented and attenuated AS by regulating macrophage subsets, reducing the level of inflammatory factors, and promoting macrophage autophagy.Traditional Chinese medicine participated in the cardiac repair process after myocardial infarction by accelerating the recruitment of M2 macrophages, inhibiting the polarization of M1 macrophages mediated by glycolysis, inhibiting M1 macrophage-mediated cardiac nerve remodeling, and promoting M2 macrophage-mediated angiogenesis. In addition, in vitro studies on the regulation of macrophage subsets by the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine were also reviewed. It was pointed out that nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB), adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt), chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor type 2(CCL2/CCR2) were the key targets and pathways for the regulation of macrophages by TCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Artery Disease , Inflammation/drug therapy , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Macrophages , NF-kappa B
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3246-3254, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981461

ABSTRACT

As one of the main diseases leading to end-stage renal disease, steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome(SRNS) can cause serious complications such as infection. Without effective control, this disease can further lead to the malignant development of the renal function, bringing serious social and economic burdens. As previously reported, the formation of SRNS is mostly related to the podocyte injury in the body, i.e., the injury of glomerular visceral epithelial cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway, nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway, mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)/adenosine monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1/Smads, and other signaling pathways are classical signaling pathways related to podocyte injury. By regulating the expression of signaling pathways, podocyte injury can be intervened to improve the adhesion between podocyte foot processes and glomerular basement membrane and promote the function of podocytes, thereby alleviating the clinical symptoms of SRNS. Through the literature review, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has unique advantages and an important role in intervening in podocyte injury. In the intervention in podocyte injury, TCM, by virtue of multi-target and multi-pathway role, can regulate and intervene in podocyte injury in many ways, alleviate the clinical symptoms of SRNS, and interfere with the progress of SRNS, reflecting the unique advantages of TCM. On the other hand, TCM can directly or indirectly inhibit podocyte injury by regulating the above signaling pathways, which can not only promote the effect of hormones and immunosuppressants and shorten the course of treatment, but also reduce the toxic and side effects caused by various hormones and immunosuppressants to exert the advantages of small side effects and low price of TCM. This article reviewed TCM in the treatment of SRNS by interfering with podocyte injury-related signaling pathways and is expected to provide a reference for the in-depth study of TCM in the treatment of SRNS, as well as a theoretical basis and a new direction for the clinical application of TCM to shorten the course of treatment of SRNS and delay the progression to end-stage renal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Podocytes , Nephrotic Syndrome/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Hormones
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3235-3245, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981460

ABSTRACT

Sj9gren's syndrome(SS) is an autoimmune disease with glandular dysfunction caused by the massive infiltration of the exocrine glands by lymphocytes. The pathogenesis of this disease is related to the chronic inflammatory response of the exocrine glands due to excessive activation of B cells and T cells. In addition to dry mouth and eyes, SS can also cause damage to other organs and systems in the human body, seriously affecting the quality of life of patients. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has definite clinical efficacy in the treatment of SS as it can alleviate symptoms and regulate immune disorders without causing adverse reactions, demonstrating high safety. This paper reviews the current status of preclinical and clinical trials about the TCM treatment of SS in the past decade. TCM mainly mitigates SS symptoms such as dry mouth, dry eyes, dry skin, and joint pain and improves the prognosis and quality of life of patients by regulating the abnormally activated B cells and T cells, inhibiting the autoimmune response, restoring the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reducing the pathological damage caused by immune complexes to exocrine glands and joints in SS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sjogren's Syndrome/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality of Life , Xerostomia , Autoimmune Diseases
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3190-3198, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981455

ABSTRACT

In the new stage for intelligent manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) from pilot demonstration to in-depth application and comprehensive promotion, how to raise the degree of intelligence for the process quality control system has become the bottleneck of the development of TCM production process control technology. This article has sorted out 226 TCM intelligent manufacturing projects that have been approved by the national and provincial governments since the implementation of the "Made in China 2025" plan and 145 related pharmaceutical enterprises. Then, the patents applied by these pharmaceutical enterprises were thoroughly retrieved, and 135 patents in terms of intelligent quality control technology in the production process were found. The technical details about intelligent quality control at both the unit levels such as cultivation, processing of crude herbs, preparation pretreatment, pharmaceutical preparations, and the production workshop level were reviewed from three aspects, i.e., intelligent quality sensing, intelligent process cognition, and intelligent process control. The results showed that intelligent quality control technologies have been preliminarily applied to the whole process of TCM production. The intelligence control of the extraction and concentration processes and the intelligent sensing of critical quality attributes are currently the focus of pharmaceutical enterprises. However, there is a lack of process cognitive patent technology for the TCM manufacturing process, which fails to meet the requirements of closed-loop integration of intelligent sensing and intelligent control technologies. It is suggested that in the future, with the help of artificial intelligence and machine learning methods, the process cognitive bottleneck of TCM production can be overcome, and the holistic quality formation mechanisms of TCM products can be elucidated. Moreover, key technologies for system integration and intelligent equipment are expected to be innovated and accelerated to enhance the quality uniformity and manufacturing reliability of TCM.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reproducibility of Results , Quality Control , Intelligence , Pharmaceutical Preparations
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3180-3189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981454

ABSTRACT

In this paper, 50 batches of representative traditional Chinese medicine tablets were selected and the disintegration time was examined with the method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The disintegration time and disintegration phenomenon were recorded, and the dissolution behaviors of water-soluble and ultraviolet-absorbent components during the disintegration process of tablets were characterized by self-control method. The results revealed that coating type and raw material type influenced the disintegration time of tablets. It was found that only 4% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets had obvious fragmentation during the disintegration process, while 96% of traditional Chinese medicine tablets showed gradual dissolution or dispersion. Furthermore, according to the disintegration speed, disintegration phenomenon, and whether the cumulative dissolution of measured components was > 90% at complete disintegration, a disintegration behavior classification system(DBCS) was created for the regular-release traditional Chinese medicine tablets. As a result, the disintegration behaviors of 50 batches of traditional Chinese medicine tablets were classified into four categories, i.e. ⅠA_2, ⅠB_1, ⅡB_1, and ⅡB_2. traditional Chinese medicine tablets(Class I) with disintegration time ≤ 30 min were defined to be rapid in disintegration, which can be the objective of optimization or improvement of Chinese herbal extract(semi extract) tablets. Different drug release models were used to fit the dissolution curve of traditional Chinese medicine tablets with gradual dissolution or dispersion phenomenon(i.e. Type B tablets). The results showed that the dissolution curves of water-soluble components in the disintegration process conformed to the zero order kinetics and the Ritger-Peppas model. It could be inferred that the disintegration mechanisms of type B tablets were a combination of dissolution controlled and swelling controlled mechanisms. This study contributes to understanding the disintegration behavior of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, and provides a reference for the design and improvement of disintegration performance of traditional Chinese medicine tablets.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets , Water , Drug Compounding
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3169-3179, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981453

ABSTRACT

Oral solid dosage(OSD) occupies a key position in the market of Chinese patent medicines and new traditional Chinese medicines. Processing route is the foundation for the research and development of traditional Chinese medicine OSDs. On the basis of prescriptions and preparation methods of 1 308 traditional Chinese medicine OSDs recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, we summarized the patterns of processing routes of both modern dosage forms(tablets, granules, and capsules) and traditional dosage forms(pills and powder) and constructed a manufacturing classification system(MCS) based on the processing routes. Based on the MCS, statistical analyses were conducted respectively on medicinal materials, pharmaceutical excipients, extraction solvents in the pretreatment process, crushed medicinal materials, methods of concentration and purification, and methods of drying and granulation, aiming to uncover the process features. The results showed that each dosage form can be prepared via different routes with different processing methods of decoction pieces and raw materials for dosage preparation. The raw materials for dosage form preparation of traditional Chinese medicine OSDs included total extract, semi-extract, and total crushed powder, which accounted for different proportions. The raw materials for traditional dosage forms are mainly decoction pieces powder. Semi-extracts are the main raw materials for tablets and capsules, which account for 64.8% and 56.3%, respectively. Total extracts are the main raw materials for granules, with a proportion of 77.8%. Compared with tablets and capsules, traditional Chinese medicine granules with dissolubility requirements had a larger proportion of water extraction process, a higher proportion of refining process(34.7%), and a lower proportion of crushed medicinal mate-rials in semi-extract granules. There are four ways to add volatile oil to the modern dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. In addition, some new technologies and processes have been used in concentration, filtration, and granulation processes of traditional Chinese medicine OSDs, and the application of pharmaceutical excipients is diversified. The results of this study are expected to provide reference for the processing route design and upgrading of OSDs for new traditional Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3162-3168, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981452

ABSTRACT

The pharmaceutical manufacturing model is gradually changing from intermittent manufacturing to continuous manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing. This paper briefly reviewed the supervision and research progress in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing in China and abroad and described the definition and advantages of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. The continuous manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) at the current stage was summarized in the following three terms: the enhancement of the continuity of intermittent manufacturing operations, the integration of continuous equipment to improve physical continuity between units, and the application of advanced process control strategies to improve process continuity. To achieve continuous manufacturing of TCM, the corresponding key technologies, such as material property characterization, process modeling and simulation, process analysis technology, and system integration, were analyzed from the process and equipment, respectively. It was proposed that the continuous manufacturing equipment system should have the characteristics of high speed, high response, and high reliability, "three high(H~3)" for short. Considering the characteristics and current situation of TCM manufacturing, based on the two dimensions of product quality control and production efficiency, a maturity assessment model for continuous manufacturing of TCM, consisting of operation continuity, equipment continuity, process continuity, and quality control continuity, was proposed to provide references for the application of continuous manufacturing technology for TCM. The implementation of continuous manufacturing or the application of key continuous manufacturing technologies in TCM can help to systematically integrate advanced pharmaceutical technology elements and promote the uniformity of TCM quality and the improvement of production efficiency.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reproducibility of Results , China , Quality Control , Pharmaceutical Preparations
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