Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.180
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246592, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339408

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for application in cell therapy and tissue engineering procedures because of their plasticity and capacity to differentiate into different cell types. Given the widespread use of MSCs, it is necessary to better understand some properties related to osteogenic differentiation, particularly those linked to biomaterials used in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to develop an analysis method using FT-Raman spectroscopy for the identification and quantification of biochemical components present in conditioned culture media derived from MSCs with or without induction of osteogenic differentiation. All experiments were performed between passages 3 and 5. For this analysis, MSCs were cultured on scaffolds composed of bioresorbable poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers. MSCs (GIBCO®) were inoculated onto the pure polymers and 75:25 PHBV/PCL blend (dense and porous samples). The plate itself was used as control. The cells were maintained in DMEM (with low glucose) containing GlutaMAX® and 10% FBS at 37oC with 5% CO2 for 21 days. The conditioned culture media were collected and analyzed to probe for functional groups, as well as possible molecular variations associated with cell differentiation and metabolism. The method permitted to identify functional groups of specific molecules in the conditioned medium such as cholesterol, phosphatidylinositol, triglycerides, beta-subunit polypeptides, amide regions and hydrogen bonds of proteins, in addition to DNA expression. In the present study, FT-Raman spectroscopy exhibited limited resolution since different molecules can express similar or even the same stretching vibrations, a fact that makes analysis difficult. There were no variations in the readings between the samples studied. In conclusion, FT-Raman spectroscopy did not meet expectations under the conditions studied.


Resumo As células-tronco mesenquimais (MSCs) possuem grande potencial para aplicação em procedimentos terapêuticos ligados a terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos, considerando-se a plasticidade e capacidade de formação em diferentes tipos celulares por elas. Dada a abrangência no emprego das MSCs, há necessidade de se compreender melhor algumas propriedades relacionadas à diferenciação osteogênica, particularmente liga à biomateriais usados em engenharia de tecidos. Este projeto objetiva o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de análise empregando-se a FT-Raman para identificação e quantificação de componentes bioquímicos presentes em meios de cultura condicionados por MSCs, com ou sem indução à diferenciação osteogênica. Todos os experimentos foram realizados entre as passagens 3 e 5. Para essas análises, as MSCs foram cultivadas sobre arcabouços de polímeros biorreabsorvíveis de poli (hidroxibutirato-co-hidroxivalerato) (PHBV) e o poli (ε-caprolactona) (PCL). As MSCs (GIBCO®) foram inoculadas nos polímeros puros e na mistura 75:25 de PHBV / PCL (amostras densas e porosas). As células foram mantidas em DMEM (com baixa glicose) contendo GlutaMAX® e 10% de SFB a 37oC com 5% de CO2 por 21 dias. A própria placa foi usada como controle. Os meios de cultura condicionados foram coletados e analisadas em FT-Raman para sondagem de grupos funcionais, bem como possíveis variações moleculares associadas com a diferenciação e metabolismo celular. Foi possível discernir grupos funcionais de moléculas específicas no meio condicionado, como colesterol, fosfatidilinositol, triglicerídeos, forma Beta de polipeptídeos, regiões de amida e ligações de hidrogênio de proteínas, além da expressão de DNA. Na presente avaliação, a FT-Raman apresentou como uma técnica de resolução limitada, uma vez que modos vibracionais de estiramento próximos ou mesmo iguais podem ser expressos por moléculas diferente, dificultando a análise. Não houve variações nas leituras entre as amostras estudadas, concluindo-se que a FT-Raman não atendeu às expectativas nas condições estudadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , Polyesters , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cell Proliferation , Tissue Scaffolds
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(5): 788-794, Sept.-Oct. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407691

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Histological and macroscopic evaluation of the healing process of acute lesions of the femoral rectus muscle using stem cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Method An experimental study was conducted with 18 hind legs of New Zealand rabbits, which were divided into three study groups according to the intervention to be performed. In group I, no surgical procedure was performed; in group II—SHAN, the experimental lesion was performed without any additional intervention protocol; in group III—Intervention, the addition of ADSCs was performed in the same topography of the experimental lesion. After the proposed period, 2 weeks, the material was collected and submitted to macroscopic and histological evaluation. Results The quantitative analysis showed that the addition of ADSCs is related to the reduction of inflammatory cells in the 2-week evaluation (164.2 cells in group II - SHAN to 89.62 cells in group III - ADSC). The qualitative analysis of the slides with Picrosirius red, noticed an increase in orange/yellow fibers in group III - ADSC, which evidences a final healing process. The macroscopic evaluation found no difference between the groups. Conclusion The use of ADSCs in the treatment of acute muscle injury presented histological advantages when compared to their non-use.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliação histológica e macroscópica do processo de cicatrização das lesões agudas do músculo reto femoral, com utilização de células-tronco derivadas de tecido adiposo (ADSCs, na sigla em inglês). Método Foi realizado um estudo experimental com 18 patas traseiras de coelhos Nova Zelândia, que foram divididos em três nos grupos de estudo de acordo com a intervenção a ser realizada. No grupo I não foi realizado procedimento cirúrgico; no grupo II - SHAN foi realizado a lesão experimental sem nenhum protocolo de intervenção adicional; e no grupo III - Intervenção foi realizado a adição de ADSCs na mesma topografia onde foi realizada a lesão experimental. Após o período proposto, 2 semanas, o material foi coletado, submetido a avaliação macroscópica e histológica. Resultados A análise quantitativa demonstrou que a adição de ADSCs está relacionada com a diminuição de células inflamatórias na avaliação com 2 semanas (164,2 células no grupo II - SHAN para 89,62 células no grupo III - ADSC). A análise qualitativa das lâminas coradas com Picrosírius red demonstrou um aumento das fibras de cor laranja/amarela no grupo III - ADSC, o que evidencia um processo final de cicatrização. A avaliação macroscópica não encontrou diferença entre os grupos. Conclusão A utilização de ADSCs no tratamento de lesão muscular aguda apresentou vantagens histológicas quando comparada a sua não utilização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscles , Muscular Diseases
3.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 80(231): 19-23, jul. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392286

ABSTRACT

En el campo de la odontología, prevalecen actualmente alternativas terapéuticas con una filosofía conservadora. Sin embargo, con el advenimiento de los tratamientos con células madre (CM), se amplían las posibilidades terapéuticas, que buscan la combinación y el equilibrio entre la intervención tradicional y las posibilidades de reposición de estructuras anatómicas dañadas, a través de la regeneración de tejidos utilizando células madre o sus derivados (AU)


In the dentistry field, therapeutic alternatives with a conservative philosophy currently prevail. However, with the advent of stem cell (SC) treatments, therapeutic possibilities are expanding, seeking a combination and balance between traditional intervention and the pos- sibility of replacing damaged anatomical structures through tissue regeneration, using stem cells or their derivatives (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Periodontal Ligament/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Tooth/cytology , Tooth Germ/physiology , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Dental Pulp/physiology , Tissue Scaffolds , COVID-19/therapy
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 314-320, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388003

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Our goal was to evaluate the modulation of the synovial fluid cells (SFC) from patients with and without osteoarthritis (OA) by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), Smad-3 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Methods Synovial fluid was collected from patients submitted to knee arthroscopy or replacement and were centrifuged to isolate cells from the fluid. Cells were cultured for 21 days and characterized as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) according to the criteria of the International Society of Cell Therapy. Then, we performed an [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay (MTT) assay after exposing cells with and without OA to TGF-β, Smad3 and BMP-4 pathway inhibitors and to different concentrations of BMP4. Results Exposure to the TGF-β, Smad3 and BMP-4 inhibitors modifies the mitochondrial activity of the SFCs. The activity of the SFCs is modified by influences of increasing concentrations of BMP4, but there is no difference in cellular activity between patients with and without OA. Conclusion TGF-β, Smad3 and BMP-4 modulate the activity of SFCs from patients with and without knee OA.


Resumo Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a modulação das células do líquido sinovial (SFCs, na sigla em inglês) de pacientes com e sem osteoartrite (OA) por proteína morfogenética óssea 4 (BMP-4), Smad3 e transformador do fator de crescimento β (TGF-β). Métodos O do líquido sinovial foi coletado de pacientes submetidos a artroscopia ou artroplastia do joelho, e centrifugados para isolar as células do liquido sinovial. As células foram cultivadas por 21 dias e caracterizadas como células-tronco mesenquimais (MSCs, na sigla em inglês) de acordo com os critérios da International Society of Cell Therapy. Em seguida, realizamos um ensaio de brometo de 3-4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il-2,5difeniltetrazólio (MTT) depois de expor células com e sem OA para TGF-β, inibidores de via Smad3 e BMP-4 e para diferentes concentrações de BMP-4. Resultados A exposição aos inibidores TGF-β, Smad3 e BMP-4 modifica a atividade mitocondrial das SFCs. A atividade das SFCs é modificada por influências sobre o aumento das concentrações de BMP-4, mas não há diferença na atividade celular entre pacientes com e sem OA. Conclusão TGF-β, Smad3 e BMP-4 modulam a atividade das SFCs de pacientes com e sem OA do joelho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteoarthritis , Synovial Fluid , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in autophagy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from patients with ankylosing spondylitis and explore the mechanism for decreased autophagy in ASMSCs.@*METHODS@#MSCs collected from 14 patients with AS (ASMSCs) and from 15 healthy donors (HDMSCs) were cultured in the absence or presence of 25 ng/mL TNF-α for 6 h. Autophagy of the cells was determined by immunofluorescence staining of GFP-LC3B, and the results were confirmed by detecting the protein expressions of autophagy markers LC3 II/LC3 I and P62. The mRNA expressions of the related genes were detected using qRT-PCR, and the protein expressions of the autophagy markers and signaling pathway-related molecules were determined with Western blotting. TG100713 was used to block the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway, and its effect on autophagy of ASMSCs was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#ASMSCs showed significantly weaker GFP-LC3B puncta staining and lower protein expression levels of LC3 II/LC3 I but higher levels of P62 protein (P < 0.05), indicating a decreased autophagy capacity as compared with HDMSCs. TNF-α-induced ASMSCs showed significantly higher protein expressions of p-PI3K/ PI3K, p-AKT/AKT and p-mTOR/mTOR than HDMSCs (P < 0.05), suggesting hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in ASMSCs. Blocking PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling with TG100713 eliminated the difference in TNF-α-induced autophagy between HDMSCs and ASMSCs.@*CONCLUSION@#In patients with AS, hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway results in decreased autophagy of the MSCs and potentially contributes to chronic inflammation.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936192

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on proliferation and hormone secretion of parathyroid cells in votro. Methods: The parathyroid cells and ADMSCs were obtained from 10 SD rats by cell separation and culture. The phenotype of P3 generation for ADMSCs was detected by flow cytometry. The co-culture of parathyroid cells and ADMSCs was conducted in the ratios of 2∶1, 1∶1, 1∶2 and 1∶5, respectively. The level of parathyroid hormone in cell supernatant was determined. The results were compared with the parathyroid hormone in the supernatant of parathyroid cells cultured separately in the corresponding number. The effects of ADMSCs on the hormone secretion of parathyroid cells were evaluated. SPSS 11.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The primary culture of either parathyroid cells or ADMSCs and the co-culture of these cells in vitro were performed successfully, and the in vitro culture of different proportions of the two cells showed different effects on parathyroid hormone secretion. The co-culture of parathyroid cells and ADMSCs, especially in the ratio of 1∶5, facilitated the secretion of parathyroid hormone ((1.3±0.0) vs. (0.8±0.1), (1.3±0.0) vs. (0.9±0.0), (1.7±0.5) vs. (0.9±0.0), (1.7±0.0) vs. (1.2±0.2))ng/L with t value of 25.46, 64.30, 3.32, 7.16, P<0.05 on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th days respectively. Secondly, when the ratio was 1∶2, the PTH level showed an upward trend. Conclusion: Parathyroid cells and ADMSCs can be co-cultured in vitro, facilitating the secretion of parathyroid hormone under the appropriate cell proportion such as the ratio of by parathyroid cells to ADMSCs at 1∶5.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Coculture Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To preliminarily investigate the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MIR4697 host gene (MIR4697HG) in regulating the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).@*METHODS@#For adipogenic differentiation, BMSCs were induced in adipogenic media for 10 days. The mRNA expression levels of lncRNA MIR4697HG and adipogenic marker genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhanced binding protein α (CEBP/α) and adiponectin (ADIPQ) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at different time points (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 days). The MIR4697HG stable knockdown-BMSC cell line was generated by infection of MIR4697HG shRNA-containing lentiviruses. To avoid off-target effect, two target sequences (shMIR4697HG-1, shMIR4697HG-2) were designed. And then cells were induced to differentiate in adipogenic medium. Oil red O staining, Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to detect the effect of MIR4697HG knockdown on adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA expression level of MIR4697HG was significantly increased during adipogenic differentiation (P < 0.01), and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs was evidenced by upregulated mRNA levels of specific adipogenesis-related genes including PPARγ, CEBP/α and ADIPQ. Observed by fluorescence microscopy, more than 90% transfected target cells expressed green fluorescent protein successfully after shMIR4697HG-1 group, shMIR4697HG-2 group and shNC group transfection for 72 h. And the transfection efficiency of MIR4697HG examined by qRT-PCR was above 60%. Then the BMSCs were treated with adipogenic media for 7 days and showed that the mRNA expression levels of adipogenesis-related genes including PPARγ, CEBP/α and ADIPQ were significantly decreased in the MIR4697HG knockdown group (P < 0.01), while the expression levels of PPARγ and CEBP/α proteins were decreased remarkably as well (P < 0.01). Consistently, MIR4697HG knockdown BMSCs formed less lipid droplets compared with the control BMSCs, which further demonstrated that MIR4697HG knockdown inhibited adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs.@*CONCLUSION@#lncRNA MIR4697HG played a crucial role in regulating the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and MIR4697HG knockdown significantly inhibited the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. These data may suggest that lncRNA MIR4697HG could serve as a therapeutic potential target for the aberrant adipogenic differentiation-associated disorders including osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis/genetics , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , PPAR gamma/pharmacology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929152

ABSTRACT

Aging of craniofacial skeleton significantly impairs the repair and regeneration of trauma-induced bony defects, and complicates dental treatment outcomes. Age-related alveolar bone loss could be attributed to decreased progenitor pool through senescence, imbalance in bone metabolism and bone-fat ratio. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from oral bones (OMSCs) have distinct lineage propensities and characteristics compared to MSCs from long bones, and are more suited for craniofacial regeneration. However, the effect of epigenetic modifications regulating OMSC differentiation and senescence in aging has not yet been investigated. In this study, we found that the histone demethylase KDM4B plays an essential role in regulating the osteogenesis of OMSCs and oral bone aging. Loss of KDM4B in OMSCs leads to inhibition of osteogenesis. Moreover, KDM4B loss promoted adipogenesis and OMSC senescence which further impairs bone-fat balance in the mandible. Together, our data suggest that KDM4B may underpin the molecular mechanisms of OMSC fate determination and alveolar bone homeostasis in skeletal aging, and present as a promising therapeutic target for addressing craniofacial skeletal defects associated with age-related deteriorations.


Subject(s)
Aging , Cell Differentiation , Facial Bones/physiology , Humans , Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929141

ABSTRACT

The high neurogenic potential of dental and oral-derived stem cells due to their embryonic neural crest origin, coupled with their ready accessibility and easy isolation from clinical waste, make these ideal cell sources for neuroregeneration therapy. Nevertheless, these cells also have high propensity to differentiate into the osteo-odontogenic lineage. One strategy to enhance neurogenesis of these cells may be to recapitulate the natural physiological electrical microenvironment of neural tissues via electroactive or electroconductive tissue engineering scaffolds. Nevertheless, to date, there had been hardly any such studies on these cells. Most relevant scientific information comes from neurogenesis of other mesenchymal stem/stromal cell lineages (particularly bone marrow and adipose tissue) cultured on electroactive and electroconductive scaffolds, which will therefore be the focus of this review. Although there are larger number of similar studies on neural cell lines (i.e. PC12), neural stem/progenitor cells, and pluripotent stem cells, the scientific data from such studies are much less relevant and less translatable to dental and oral-derived stem cells, which are of the mesenchymal lineage. Much extrapolation work is needed to validate that electroactive and electroconductive scaffolds can indeed promote neurogenesis of dental and oral-derived stem cells, which would thus facilitate clinical applications in neuroregeneration therapy.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Neurogenesis , Tissue Scaffolds
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929133

ABSTRACT

Neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to play an essential function during tooth and skeletal development. PRX1+ cells constitute an important MSC subtype that is implicated in osteogenesis. However, their potential function in tooth development and regeneration remains elusive. In the present study, we first assessed the cell fate of PRX1+ cells during molar development and periodontal ligament (PDL) formation in mice. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing analysis was performed to study the distribution of PRX1+ cells in PDL cells. The behavior of PRX1+ cells during PDL reconstruction was investigated using an allogeneic transplanted tooth model. Although PRX1+ cells are spatial specific and can differentiate into almost all types of mesenchymal cells in first molars, their distribution in third molars is highly limited. The PDL formation is associated with a high number of PRX1+ cells; during transplanted teeth PDL reconstruction, PRX1+ cells from the recipient alveolar bone participate in angiogenesis as pericytes. Overall, PRX1+ cells are a key subtype of dental MSCs involved in the formation of mouse molar and PDL and participate in angiogenesis as pericytes during PDL reconstruction after tooth transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Molar , Osteogenesis/physiology , Periodontal Ligament
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929129

ABSTRACT

Dental stem cells (DSCs), an important source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can be easily obtained by minimally invasive procedures and have been used for the treatment of various diseases. Classic paradigm attributed the mechanism of their therapeutic action to direct cell differentiation after targeted migration, while contemporary insights into indirect paracrine effect opened new avenues for the mystery of their actual low engraftment and differentiation ability in vivo. As critical paracrine effectors, DSC-derived extracellular vesicles (DSC-EVs) are being increasingly linked to the positive effects of DSCs by an evolving body of in vivo studies. Carrying bioactive contents and presenting therapeutic potential in certain diseases, DSC-EVs have been introduced as promising treatments. Here, we systematically review the latest in vivo evidence that supports the therapeutic effects of DSC-EVs with mechanistic studies. In addition, current challenges and future directions for the clinical translation of DSC-EVs are also highlighted to call for more attentions to the (I) distinguishing features of DSC-EVs compared with other types of MSC-EVs, (II) heterogeneity among different subtypes of DSC-derived EVs, (III) action modes of DSC-EVs, (IV) standardization for eligible DSC-EVs and (V) safety guarantee for the clinical application of DSC-EVs. The present review would provide valuable insights into the emerging opportunities of DSC-EVs in future clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929071

ABSTRACT

As a group of nonspecific inflammatory diseases affecting the intestine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibits the characteristics of chronic recurring inflammation, and was proven to be increasing in incidence (Kaplan, 2015). IBD induced by genetic background, environmental changes, immune functions, microbial composition, and toxin exposures (Sasson et al., 2021) primarily includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) with complicated clinical symptoms featured by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and even blood in stools (Fan et al., 2021; Huang et al., 2021). UC is mainly limited to the rectum and the colon, while CD usually impacts the terminal ileum and colon in a discontinuous manner (Ordás et al., 2012; Panés and Rimola, 2017). In recent years, many studies have suggested the lack of effective measures in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD, prompting an urgent need for new strategies to understand the mechanisms of and offer promising therapies for IBD.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Diarrhea , Homeodomain Proteins , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Recurrence , Umbilical Cord/cytology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929038

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)‍-based therapy has been regarded as one of the most revolutionary breakthroughs in the history of modern medicine owing to its myriad of immunoregulatory and regenerative properties. With the rapid progress in the fields of osteo- and musculoskeletal therapies, the demand for MSC-based treatment modalities is becoming increasingly prominent. In this endeavor, researchers around the world have devised new and innovative techniques to support the proliferation of MSCs while minimizing the loss of hallmark features of stem cells. One such example is electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure, which is an alternative approach with promising potential. In this review, we present a critical discourse on the efficiency, practicability, and limitations of some of the relevant methods, with insurmountable evidence backing the implementation of EMF as a feasible strategy for the clinically relevant expansion of MSCs.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Electromagnetic Fields , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Signal Transduction
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 351-357, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928817

ABSTRACT

In China, malignant tumor is the main cause of death in both urban and rural areas. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have multidirectional differentiation potential, self-renewal ability and good immunomodulatory properties. Exosomes, as important paracrine substances of MSCs, mediate information exchange and transmission between cells in tumor microenvironment and influence the occurrence and development of tumors. Recently, conflicting findings have been reported on the effects of MSCs and their exosomes on tumors. On the one hand, MSCs and their exosomes are tumorigenic and can target specific sites to inhibit tumor growth; On the other hand, there is also evidence that MSCs could affect tumor growth and migration as part of the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, we will review the relationship between MSCs and exosomes and tumorgenesis and development, as well as how MSCs and exosomes play different roles in tumorgenesis and development, in order to provide beneficial help for tumor diagnosis, prognosis and precise treatment.
.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Exosomes , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 491-495, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936037

ABSTRACT

Impaired healing of diabetic wounds is mainly attributed to its pathological mechanism, and refractory diabetic wounds bring heavy burdens to patients and society. Exosomes derived from stem cells possess the similar ability as stem cells in promoting tissue regeneration and more clinical advantages and are gradually playing important roles in wound healing. In recent years, researches have shown that exosomes derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC-EXOs) can promote the healing of diabetic wounds by participating in various processes of wound healing. This article reviews the pathological mechanism leading to impaired healing of diabetic wounds, the related mechanism and the application prospect of ADSC-EXOs in promoting diabetic wound healing.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Exosomes , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Stem Cells , Wound Healing
16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 422-433, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936029

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of non-muscle myosin Ⅱ (NMⅡ) gene silenced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on pulmonary extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibrosis in rats with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. Cells from femur and tibial bone marrow cavity of four one-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were identified as BMMSCs by flow cytometry, and the third passage of BMMSCs were used in the following experiments. The cells were divided into NMⅡ silenced group transfected with pHBLV-U6-ZsGreen-Puro plasmid containing small interference RNA sequence of NMⅡ gene, vector group transfected with empty plasmid, and blank control group without any treatment, and the protein expression of NMⅡ at 72 h after intervention was detected by Western blotting (n=3). The morphology of cells was observed by an inverted phase contrast microscope and cells labeled with chloromethylbenzoine (CM-DiⅠ) in vitro were observed by an inverted fluorescence microscope. Twenty 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into blank control group, ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group according to the random number table, with 5 rats in each group. Rats in blank control group were not treated, and rats in the other 3 groups were given LPS to induce ALI. Immediately after modeling, rats in ALI alone group were injected with 1 mL normal saline via tail vein, rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were injected with 1×107/mL BMMSCs and NMⅡ gene silenced BMMSCs of 1 mL labelled with CM-DiⅠ via tail vein, and rats in blank control group were injected with 1 mL normal saline via tail vein at the same time point, respectively. At 24 h after intervention, the lung tissue was collected to observe intrapulmonary homing of the BMMSCs by an inverted fluorescence microscope. Lung tissue was collected at 24 h, in 1 week, and in 2 weeks after intervention to observe pulmonary inflammation by hematoxylin eosin staining and to observe pulmonary fibrosis by Masson staining, and the pulmonary fibrosis in 2 weeks after intervention was scored by modified Ashcroft score (n=5). The content of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 was detected by immunohistochemistry in 2 weeks after intervention (n=3), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase (MPO) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 24 h after intervention (n=3), and the protein expressions of CD11b and epidermal growth factor like module containing mucin like hormone receptor 1 (EMR1) in 1 week after intervention were detected by immunofluorescence staining (n=3). Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, Bonferroni method, and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results: At 72 h after intervention, the NMⅡprotein expression of cells in NMⅡ silenced group was significantly lower than those in blank control group and vector group (with P values <0.01). BMMSCs were in long spindle shape and grew in cluster shaped like vortexes, which were labelled with CM-DiⅠ successfully in vitro. At 24 h after intervention, cell homing in lung of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was more pronounced than that in ALI+BMMSC group, while no CM-DiⅠ-labelled BMMSCs were observed in lung of rats in blank control group and ALI alone group. There was no obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue of rats in blank control group at all time points, while inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly less than that in ALI alone group at 24 h after intervention, and alveolar wall turned to be thinner and a small amount of congestion in local lung tissue appeared in rats of the two groups in 1 week and 2 weeks after intervention. In 1 week and 2 weeks after intervention, collagen fiber deposition in lung tissue of rats in ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly aggravated compared with that in blank control group, while collagen fiber deposition in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly improved compared with that in ALI alone group. In 2 weeks after intervention, modified Ashcroft scores for pulmonary fibrosis of rats in ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were 2.36±0.22, 1.62±0.16, 1.06±0.26, respectively, significantly higher than 0.30±0.21 in blank control group (P<0.01). Modified Ashcroft scores for pulmonary fibrosis of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly lower than that in ALI alone group (P<0.01), and modified Ashcroft score for pulmonary fibrosis of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly lower than that in ALI+BMMSC group (P<0.01). In 2 weeks after intervention, the content of α-SMA in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly decreased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The content of MMP-2 in lung tissue of rats in the 4 groups was similar (P>0.05). The content of MMP-9 in lung tissue of rats in ALI alone group was significantly increased compared with that in blank control group (P<0.01), and the content of MMP-9 in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.01). At 24 h after intervention, the activity of malondialdehyde, SOD, and MPO in lung tissue of rats in ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly increased compared with that in blank control group (P<0.01), the activity of malondialdehyde in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group and the activity of SOD in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly increased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the activity of SOD in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI+BMMSC group (P<0.01). The activity of MPO in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.01), and the activity of MPO in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI+BMMSC group (P<0.01). In 1 week after intervention, the protein expression of CD11b in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly increased compared with those in the other three groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the protein expressions of EMR1 in lung tissue of rats in the four groups were similar (P>0.05). Conclusions: Transplantation of NMⅡ gene silenced BMMSCs can significantly improve the activity of ECM components in the lung tissue in LPS-induced ALI rats, remodel its integrity, and enhance its antioxidant capacity, and alleviate lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Animals , Bone Marrow , Collagen/metabolism , Endotoxins , Extracellular Matrix , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Myosin Type II/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 393-399, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936025

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles are nanoparticles secreted by most eukaryotic cells and play important roles in material transport and information transmission between cells, involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, antigen presentation, cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, and other biological processes. The culture supernatant of mesenchymal stem cells is rich in extracellular vesicles, and the extracellular vesicles can regulate the formation of new blood vessels, a key step in wound healing and tissue repair. The persistence of diabetic ulcers is closely related to the blocked formation of wound vascular network. This article reviews the role of extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells in promoting angiogenesis of diabetic ulcers, in order to provide a new idea for the treatment of diabetic ulcers.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Ulcer , Wound Healing/physiology
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 266-275, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936004

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of exosomes from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) injury in septic mice and its mechanism. Methods: The experimental research method was adopted. The primary ADSCs were isolated and cultured from the discarded fresh adipose tissue of 3 patients (female, 10-25 years old), who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University undergoing abdominal surgery, and the cell morphology was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope on the 5th day. The expressions of CD29, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD73, and CD90 of ADSCs in the third passage were detected by flow cytometry. The third to the fifth passage of ADSCs were collected, and their exosomes from the cell supernatant were obtained by differential ultracentrifugation, and the shape, particle size, and the protein expressions of CD9, CD63, tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), and β-actin of exosomes were detected, respectively, by transmission electron microscopy, nano-particle tracking analysis and Western blotting. Twenty-four adult male BALB/c mice were adopted and were divided into normal control group, caecal ligation perforation (CLP) alone group, and CLP+ADSC-exosome group with each group of 8 according to random number table (the same grouping method below) and were treated accordingly. At 24 h after operation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels of mice serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lung tissue morphology of mice was detected by hematoxylin-eosin and myeloperoxidase staining, and the expression of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) of mouse lung cells was detected by immunofluorescence method. Primary PMVECs were obtained from 1-month-old C57 mice regardless gender by tissue block method. The expression of CD31 of PMVECs was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. The third passage of PMVECs was co-cultured with ADSCs derived exosomes for 12 h, and the phagocytosis of exosomes by PMVECs was detected by PKH26 kit. The third passage of PMVECs were adopted and were divided into blank control group, macrophage supernatant alone group, and macrophage supernatant+ADSC-exosome group, with 3 wells in each group, which were treated accordingly. After 24 h, the content of reactive oxygen species in cells was detected by flow cytometry, the expression of 8-OHdG in cells was detected by immunofluorescence, and Transwell assay was used to determine the permeability of cell monolayer. The number of samples in above were all 3. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference t test. Results: The primary ADSCs were isolated and cultured to day 5, growing densely in a spindle shape with a typical swirl-like. The percentages of CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90 positive cells of ADSCs in the third passage were all >90%, and the percentages of CD34 and CD45 positive cells were <5%. Exosomes derived from ADSCs of the third to fifth passages showed a typical double-cavity disc-like structure with an average particle size of 103 nm, and the protein expressions of CD9, CD63 and TSG101 of exosomes were positive, while the protein expression of β-actin of exosomes was negative. At 24 h after operation, compared with those in normal control group, both the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β of mice serum in CLP alone group were significantly increased (with t values of 28.76 and 29.69, respectively, P<0.01); compared with those in CLP alone group, both the content of TNF-α and IL-1β of mice serum in CLP+ADSC-exosome group was significantly decreased (with t values of 9.90 and 4.76, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). At 24 h after surgery, the pulmonary tissue structure of mice in normal control group was clear and complete without inflammatory cell infiltration; compared with those in normal control group, the pulmonary tissue edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of mice in CLP alone group were more obvious; compared with those in CLP alone group, the pulmonary tissue edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of mice in CLP+ADSC-exosome group were significantly reduced. At 24 h after operation, endothelial cells in lung tissues of mice in 3 groups showed positive expression of CD31; compared with that in normal control group, the fluorescence intensity of 8-OHdG positive cells of the lung tissues of mice in CLP alone group was significantly increased, and compared with that in CLP alone group, the fluorescence intensity of 8-OHdG positive cells in the lung tissues of mice in CLP+ADSC-exosome group was significantly decreased. The PMVECs in the 3rd passage showed CD31 positive expression by immunofluorescence, and the result of flow cytometry showed that CD31 positive cells accounted for 99.5%. At 12 h after co-culture, ADSC-derived exosomes were successfully phagocytose by PMVECs and entered its cytoplasm. At 12 h after culture of the third passage of PMVECs, compared with that in blank control group, the fluorescence intensity of reactive oxygen species of PMVECs in macrophage supernatant alone group was significantly increased (t=15.73, P<0.01); compared with that in macrophage supernatant alone group, the fluorescence intensity of reactive oxygen species of PMVECs in macrophage supernatant+ADSC-exosome group was significantly decreased (t=4.72, P<0.01). At 12 h after culture of the third passage of PMVECs, and the 8-OHdG positive fluorescence intensity of PMVECs in macrophage supernatant alone group was significantly increased; and compared with that in blank control group, the 8-OHdG positive fluorescence intensity of PMVECs in macrophage+ADSC-exosome supernatant group was between blank control group and macrophage supernatant alone group. At 12 h after culture of the third passage PMVECs, compared with that in blank control group, the permeability of PMVECs monolayer in macrophage supernatant alone group was significantly increased (t=6.34, P<0.01); compared with that in macrophage supernatant alone group, the permeability of PMVECs monolayer cells in macrophage supernatant+ADSC-exosome group was significantly decreased (t=2.93, P<0.05). Conclusions: Exosomes derived from ADSCs can ameliorate oxidative damage in mouse lung tissue, decrease the level of reactive oxygen species, 8-OHdG expression, and permeability of PMVECs induced by macrophage supernatant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mice , Sepsis/pathology
19.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 256-265, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936003

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of hydrogen peroxide (HP) pretreatment with low molarity on oxidative stress induced apoptosis of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods: The experimental research methods were used. BMSCs were isolated and cultured from two 2-week-old male BALB/c mice by the whole bone marrow culture method. The 3rd-7th passages of cells in logarithmic growth phase were used for the experiments after identification. According to the random number table (the same grouping method below), the cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group (without HP, the same below), 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, 100 μmol/L HP group, 150 μmol/L HP group, 200 μmol/L HP group, 250 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respectively. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry (n=4) after 24 hours of culture. The cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group, 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, and 100 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respeclively. After 24 hours of culture, the protein expressions of B-lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-related X protein (Bax) were detected by Western blotting, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was calculated (n=3). The cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group, 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, 100 μmol/L HP group, 200 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respectively. After 24 hours of culture, the protein expressions of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and phosphorylated GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β) were detected by Western blotting (n=3). The cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respeclively, and HP pretreatment group with 50 μmol/L HP being added in advance for 12 h and then 300 μmol/L HP being added. After 24 hours of culture, the morphology and growth of cells were observed by inverted fluorescence microscopy (non-fluorescent condition) and immunofluorescence method, the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry, the protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, cysteine aspartic acid specific protease-3 (caspase-3), caspase-9, cleavage caspase-3, cleavage caspase-9, GSK-3β, and p-GSK-3β were detected by Western blotting, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was calculated, with all the number of samples being 3. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. Results: After 24 hours of culture, compared with that in 0 μmol/L HP group, the apoptosis rate of cells did not change significantly in 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, or 100 μmol/L HP group (P>0.05) but increased significantly in 150 μmol/L HP group, 200 μmol/L HP group, 250 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group (P<0.01). After 24 hours of culture, compared with that in 0 μmol/L HP group, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells increased significantly in 25 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) but decreased significantly in 100 µmol/L HP group (P<0.05). After 24 hours of culture, compared with those in 0 μmol/L HP group, the protein expression of GSK-3β in cells showed no significant change in 25 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group (P>0.05), the protein expressions of p-GSK-3β in cells significantly increased in 25 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group (P<0.01), the protein expressions of GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β in cells in 100 μmol/L HP group showed no significant change (P>0.05), the protein expressions of GSK-3β in cells in 200 μmol/L HP group and 300 μmol/L HP group were significantly increased (P<0.05). but the protein expression of p-GSK-3β in cells in 200 μmol/L HP group and 300 μmol/L HP group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). After 24 hours of culture, the morphology and growth of cells in 0 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group were similar and normal; in contrast, the cells in 300 µmol/L HP group became smaller and round, with the cell protrusions being shorter or disappeared, the nucleus being cavitated, and the cell abscission being increased significantly; the morphology of most cells in HP pretreatment group was normal, with the shedding of cells being less than that in 300 µmol/L HP group, and the morphology of nucleus being normal. After 24 hours of culture, the protein expression of caspase-9 was similar among the four groups (P>0.05). Compared with that in 0 μmol/L HP group, the apoptosis rate and the protein expressions of cleavage caspase-9, caspase-3, and cleavage caspase-3 of cells in 50 μmol/L HP group showed no significant changes (P>0.05), the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells in 50 μmol/L HP group increased significantly (P<0.05), the apoptosis rate and the protein expressions of cleavage caspase-9, caspase-3, and cleavage caspase-3 of cells in 300 μmol/L HP group were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells in 300 μmol/L HP group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with those in 300 μmol/L HP group, the apoptosis rate and the protein expressions of cleavage caspase-9, caspase-3, and cleavage caspase-3 of cells were significantly decreased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells was significantly increased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.01). After 24 hours of culture, the protein expressions of GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β of cells in 0 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, 300 μmol/L HP group, and HP pretreatment group were 1.09±0.14, 0.62±0.17, 1.35±0.21, 0.74±0.34, 0.68±0.03, 0.85±0.08, 0.38±0.10, and 0.54±0.09, respectively. Compared with those in 0 μmol/L HP group, the protein expression of p-GSK-3β of cells was significantly increased in 50 μmol/L HP group (P<0.05) but significantly decreased in 300 μmol/L HP group (P<0.01), while the protein expression of GSK-3β of cells was significantly increased in 300 μmol/L HP group (P<0.05). Compared with those in 300 μmol/L HP group, the protein expression of GSK-3β of cells was significantly decreased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.01), while the protein expression of p-GSK-3β of cells was significantly increased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.01). Conclusions: The molarity of 50 μmol/L may be the optimal molarity of HP to pretreat mouse BMSCs, and 50 μmol/L HP pretreatment can antagonize mitochondrial pathway of oxidative stress induced apoptosis by inhibiting the activity of GSK-3β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Oxidative Stress
20.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 215-226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935998

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of exosomes from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on inflammatory response of mouse RAW264.7 cells and wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in mice. Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. The discarded adipose tissue was collected from 3 female patients (aged 10-25 years) who underwent abdominal surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University. ADSCs were extracted from the adipose tissue by collagenase Ⅰ digestion and identified with flow cytometry. Exosomes were extracted from the human ADSCs by differential ultracentrifugation, the morphology of the exosomes was observed by transmission electron microscopy, the particle diameter of the exosomes was detected by nanoparticle tracking analyzer, and the protein expressions of CD9, CD63, tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), and β-actin were detected by Western blotting. The human ADSCs exosomes (ADSCs-Exos) and RAW264.7 cells were co-cultured for 12 h, and the uptake of RAW264.7 cells for human ADSCs-Exos was observed. The RAW264.7 cells were divided into phosphate buffer solution (PBS) group stimulated with PBS for suitable time, endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation 2 h group, LPS stimulation 4 h group, LPS stimulation 6 h group, LPS stimulation 12 h group, and LPS stimulation 24 h group stimulated with LPS for corresponding time, with 3 wells in each group, and the mRNA expressions of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The RAW264.7 cells were divided into PBS group, LPS alone group, and LPS+ADSCs-Exos group, with 3 wells in each group, which were dealt correspondingly for the time screened out in the previous experiment, the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, trasforming growth factor β (TGF-β,) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected by real time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method, and the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 1 (Arg1) were detected by Western blotting. Twenty-four 8-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into PBS group and ADSCs-Exos group according to the random number table, with 12 mice in each group, and a full-thickness skin defect wound with area of 1 cm×1 cm was inflicted on the back of each mouse. Immediately after injury, the wounds of mice in the two groups were dealt correspondingly. On post injury day (PID) 1, the concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were detected by real time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method. On PID 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15, the wound healing was observed and the wound non-healing rate was calculated. On PID 15, the defect length of skin accessory and collagen volume fraction (CVF) were detected by hematoxylin eosin staining and Masson staining, respectively, the CD31 expression and neovascularization were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells, the ratio of iNOS and Arg1 double positive cells, and the ratio of iNOS positive cells to Arg1 positive cells and their fluorescence intensities were detected by immunofluorescence method. The number of samples in animal experiments was 6. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and independent sample t test. Results: At 12 h of culture, the cells exhibited a typical spindle shape, which were verified as ADSCs with flow cytometry. The exosomes with a vesicular structure and particle diameters of 29-178 nm, were positively expressed CD9, CD63, and TSG101 and negatively expressed β-actin. After 12 h of co-culture, the human ADSCs-Exos were endocytosed into the cytoplasm by RAW264.7 cells. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 of RAW264.7 cells in LPS stimulation 2 h group, LPS stimulation 4 h group, LPS stimulation 6 h group, LPS stimulation 12 h group, and LPS stimulation 24 h group were significantly higher than those in PBS group (with t) values of 39.10, 14.55, 28.80, 4.74, 48.80, 22.97, 13.25, 36.34, 23.12, 18.71, 29.19, 41.08, 11.68, 18.06, 8.54, 43.45, 62.31, 22.52, 21.51, and 37.13, respectively, P<0.01). The stimulation 12 h with significant expressions of all the inflammatory factors was selected as the time point in the following experiment. After stimulation of 12 h, the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 of RAW264.7 cells in LPS alone group were significantly higher than those in PBS group (with t values of 44.20, 51.26, 14.71, and 8.54, respectively, P<0.01); the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 of RAW264.7 cells in LPS+ADSCs-Exos group were significantly lower than those in LPS alone group (with t values of 22.89, 25.51, and 8.03, respectively, P<0.01), while the mRNA expressions of IL-10, TGF-β, and VEGF were significantly higher than those in LPS alone group (with t values of 9.89, 13.12, and 7.14, respectively, P<0.01). After stimulation of 12 h, the protein expression of iNOS of RAW264.7 cells in LPS alone group was significantly higher than that in PBS group and LPS+ADSCs-Exos group, respectively (with t values of 11.20 and 5.06, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expression of Arg1 was significantly lower than that in LPS+ADSCs-Exos group (t=15.01, P<0.01). On PID 1, the serum concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α and the mRNA expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in wound tissue of mice in ADSCs-Exos group were significantly those in lower than PBS group (with t values of 15.44, 12.24, 9.24, 7.12, and 10.62, respectively, P<0.01). On PID 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 d, the wound non-healing rates of mice in ADSCs-Exos group were (73.2±4.1)%, (53.8±3.8)%, (42.1±5.1)%, (24.1±2.8)%, and 0, which were significantly lower than (82.5±3.8)%, (71.2±4.6)%, (52.9±4.1)%, (41.5±3.6)%, and (14.8±2.5)% in PBS group, respectively (with t values of 4.77, 8.93, 5.54, 7.63, and 7.59, respectively, P<0.01). On PID 15, the defect length of skin accessory in wounds of mice in PBS group was significantly longer than that in ADSCs-Exos group (t=9.50, P<0.01), and the CVF was significantly lower than that in ADSCs-Exos group (t=9.15, P<0.01). On PID 15, the CD31 expression and the number of new blood vessels (t=12.99, P<0.01), in wound tissue of mice in ADSCs-Exos group were significantly more than those in PBS group, and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells was significantly higher than that in PBS group (t=7.52, P<0.01). On PID 15, the ratio of iNOS and Arg1 double positive cells in wound tissue of mice in PBS group was (12.33±1.97)%, which was significantly higher than (1.78±0.29)% in ADSCs-Exos group (t=13.04, P<0.01), the ratio of iNOS positive cells and the fluorescence intensity of iNOS were obviously higher than those of ADSCs-Exos group, and the ratio of Arg1 positive cells and the fluorescence intensity of Arg1 were obviously lower than those of ADSCs-Exos group. Conclusions: The human ADSCs-Exos can alleviate inflammatory response of mouse RAW264.7 cells, decrease macrophage infiltration and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, increase the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines to promote neovascularization and cell proliferation in full-thickness skin defect wounds of mice, hence accelerating wound healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Exosomes , Female , Humans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Skin , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wound Healing
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL