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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341396

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leucemia promielocítica es un subtipo de leucemia mieloide aguda que se presenta frecuentemente con una coagulopatía potencialmente mortal, por lo que representa una emergencia médica. En la gran mayoría de los pacientes ocurre la t(15;17)(q24;q21) que genera el gen aberrante PML-RARA. Mediante diferentes técnicas de citogenética y de la biología molecular que detectan dichas aberraciones es posible diagnosticar la entidad de manera inequívoca y estudiar la enfermedad mínima residual. Objetivo: Describir, comparar y analizar las técnicas de citogenética y de la biología molecular que son útiles para el diagnóstico y el seguimiento del paciente con leucemia promielocítica. Así como señalar sus ventajas y limitaciones. Métodos: Se realizó revisión de la bibliografía científica de los últimos cinco años relacionada con el tema a través de PUBMED. Se realizó análisis y resumen de la información. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se describen dos técnicas de citogenética y tres moleculares basadas en la aplicación de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se comparan y analizan sus ventajas y limitaciones. Conclusiones: Algunas de estas técnicas son útiles únicamente para el diagnóstico, mientras que otras, por su alta sensibilidad, se recomiendan para el seguimiento del paciente con leucemia promielocítica(AU)


Introduction: Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia that frequently presents with a potentially fatal coagulopathy, therefore it represents a medical emergency. In the vast majority of patients, the t (15; 17) (q24; q21) occurs, which generates the aberrant gene PML-RARA. Using different cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques that detect these aberrations, it is possible to unequivocally diagnose the entity and study minimal residual disease. Objective: To describe, compare and analyze cytogenetics and molecular biology techniques that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of the patient with Promyelocytic leukemia. As well as pointing out its advantages and limitations. Methods: A review of the scientific bibliography of the last five years related to the subject was carried out through PUBMED. An analysis and summary of the information was made. Analysis and synthesis of the information: Two cytogenetic and three molecular techniques are described based on the application of the polymerase chain reaction. Its advantages and limitations are compared and analyzed. Conclusions: Some of these techniques are only useful for diagnosis, while others, due to their high sensitivity, are recommended for monitoring the patient with Promyelocytic leukemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aftercare , Cytogenetics/methods , Molecular Biology
2.
Infectio ; 25(3): 197-199, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycetoma is a chronic and slow-developing granulomatous disease characterized by the triad of large painless tumour-like subcutaneous swellings, the formation of sinuses, and discharge that usually contains grains. Phellinus spp. are saprophytic wood-decaying filamentous basidiomycetes. They are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections and are rarely reported worldwide. We report a 59-year-old male patient with mycetoma caused by Phellinus spp. The diagnosis was confirmed with clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, soft tissue and bone biopsy culture, and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycetoma due to Phellinus spp. without chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).


Resumen El micetoma es una enfermedad granulomatosa crónica y de lento desarrollo caracterizada por la tríada de grandes inflamaciones subcutáneas similares a tumores indoloras, la formación de los senos nasales y secreción que generalmente contiene granos. Phellinus spp. son basidiomicetos filamentosos saprofitos que descomponen la madera. Son un poco reconocido causa de infecciones fúngicas invasivas y rara vez se informan en todo el mundo. Presentamos un paciente masculino de 59 años con micetoma causado por Phellinus spp. El diagnostico se confirmó con examen clínico, estudio de resonancia magnética (RM), cultivo de biopsia de tejido blando y óseo y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. A lo mejor que sepamos, este es el primer caso reportado de micetoma debido a Phellinus spp. sin enfermedad granulomatosa crónica (EGC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Basidiomycota , Phellinus , Mycetoma , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mycoses
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 989-994, Jul.-Aug. 2021. ilus, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285275

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se descrever a ocorrência do Bovine alphaherpesvirus 5 (BoHV5) como causa de meningoencefalite não supurativa em bovinos do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Para tanto, 32 amostras de sistema nervoso embebidas em parafina foram obtidas de animais acometidos por doenças neurológicas atendidos na Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (CBG-UFRPE), entre 2012 e 2016. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à presença do gene da glicoproteína C do BoHV5 por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Dois animais (6,25%) tiveram resultado positivo à PCR, e sua análise de sequenciamento indicou 100% de similaridade para o BoHV5. Os resultados histopatológicos desses dois animais revelaram lesões multifocais de meningoencefalite não supurativa associada à polioencefalomalácia, presença de corpúsculos de inclusão basofílicos, infiltração de células de Gitter e presença de manguitos perivasculares. A PCR se mostra uma importante ferramenta para diferenciação das infecções por BoHV5 de outras enfermidades neurológicas de bovinos, especialmente a raiva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Herpesvirus 5, Bovine/isolation & purification , Meningoencephalitis/veterinary , Paraffin , Central Nervous System , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337804

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM), representa un grave problema por el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos de amplio espectro. En nuestro país, durante el primer cuatrimestre del año, se observó un aumento inusual en el número de aislamiento de gérmenes multirresistentes, sobre todo de bacilos gramnegativos, los cuales fueron remitidos al laboratorio de referencia con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes de resistencia a los carbapenemes. Estudio observacional y prospectivo de corte transversal en 456 aislamientos de bacilos gramnegativos provenientes de 11 centros colaboradores de la Red Nacional de Vigilancia de la RAM, remitidos al Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública entre enero y abril de 2021, para la detección molecular (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple) de los genes de resistencia enzimática bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Trescientos sesenta correspondieron a bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores: 346 Acinetobacter baumannii y 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 fueron miembros de Enterobacterales, siendo prevalente Klebsiella pneumoniae (81). Todos los aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii resultaron ser productores de carbapenemasas: OXA-23 (94%), NDM (4%), NMD+OXA-58 (2%); en Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7 de los 14 aislamientos (50%) fueron portadores de metalobetalactamasa del genotipo NDM (100%). Los genotipos NDM (92%) y KPC (8%) fueron confirmados en Enterobacterales. La resistencia plasmídica a carbapenemes es endémica en nuestro país, siendo prevalentes los genotipos OXA-23 en Acinetobacter baumannii y NDM en Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Enterobacterales


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem due to the indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. During the first quarter of the year, an unusual increase in the number of isolation multi-resistant germs, especially gram-negative bacilli was observed, specially of Gram-negative bacilli which were referred to the reference laboratory in order to characterize the carbapenems resistance genes. Observational and prospective cross-sectional study in 456 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli from 11 collaborating centers of the National AMR Surveillance Network, referred to the Central Public Health Laboratory (LCSP) between January and April 2021, for molecular detection (multiple polymerase chain reaction) targeting the enzymatic resistance genes: bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Of the 456 isolates studied, 360 corresponded to non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, of which 346 were confirmed as Acinetobacter baumannii and 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 were Enterobacterales, being Klebsiella pneumoniae (81) the most prevalent. All isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii carried genes encoding carbapenemases, being the OXA-23 (94%) followed by NDM (4%) and NDM +OXA-58 (2%). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 7 of the 14 isolates (50%) were carriers of NDM metallobetalactamase (100%). No carbapenemase gene was detected in the remaining 7. In all Enterobacterales strains, the presence of carbapenemases of the NDM (92%) and KPC (8%) genotypes were confirmed. Plasmid resistance to carbapenems is endemic in our country, being the OXA-23 genotypes prevalent in Acinetobacter baumannii and NDM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacteria , Drug Resistance , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 35-44, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alginates are polysaccharides used in a wide range of industrial applications, with their functional properties depending on their molecular weight. In this study, alginate production and the expression of genes involved in polymerization and depolymerization in batch cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii were evaluated under controlled and noncontrolled oxygen transfer rate (OTR) conditions. RESULTS: Using an oxygen transfer rate (OTR) control system, a constant OTR (20.3 ± 1.3 mmol L 1 h 1 ) was maintained during cell growth and stationary phases. In cultures subjected to a controlled OTR, alginate concentrations were higher (5.5 ± 0.2 g L 1 ) than in cultures under noncontrolled OTR. The molecular weight of alginate decreased from 475 to 325 kDa at the beginning of the growth phase and remained constant until the end of the cultivation period. The expression level of alyA1, which encodes an alginate lyase, was more affected by OTR control than those of other genes involved in alginate biosynthesis. The decrease in alginate molecular weight can be explained by a higher relative expression level of alyA1 under the controlled OTR condition. CONCLUSIONS: This report describes the first time that alginate production and alginate lyase (alyA1) expression levels have been evaluated in A. vinelandii cultures subjected to a controlled OTR. The results show that automatic control of OTR may be a suitable strategy for improving alginate production while maintaining a constant molecular weight.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharide-Lyases/metabolism , Oxygen Transfer , Azotobacter vinelandii/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Gene Expression , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Azotobacter vinelandii/genetics , Alginates/metabolism , Fermentation , Molecular Weight
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 337-345, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346468

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las leucemias agudas constituyen la neoplasia más frecuente en pacientes pediátricos. Actualmente, el 80% de los niños con leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) logran curarse con quimioterapia con vencional pero el 20% de los mismos presentarán una reaparición de la enfermedad. La enfermedad residual medible (ERM) ha sido descripta como un importante factor pronóstico, que permite evaluar la respuesta de los pacientes al tratamiento. Una de las técnicas más sensibles par a estudiar ERM es la cuantificación de reordena mientos génicos de inmunoglobulinas (Ig) y receptores de linfocitos-T (TCR). Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron describir los reordenamientos detectados de Ig/TCR, evaluar el efecto de la ERM en la supervivencia de niños con LLA y comparar la ERM por Ig/TCR con la cuantificada mediante citometría de flujo multiparamétrica (CFM). Del total de 455 pacientes estudiados, en el 96% fue posible caracterizar al menos un reordenamiento de Ig/TCR. El total de reordenamientos clonales detectados fue de 1550. La ERM pudo ser estudiada en forma exitosa en el 89% de los casos. El valor de ERM positiva combinada al día 33 y 78 de tratamiento, permitió identificar pacientes de alto riesgo, entre los previamente estratificados por la ERM mediante CFM al día 15. La comparación entre la determinación de ERM mediante reordenamientos Ig/TCR y CFM mostró una excelente correlación. El presente trabajo constituye un estudio de ERM mediante Ig/TCR realizado en un número muy significativo de pacientes diagnosticados en forma consecutiva, tratados en el marco de un protocolo homogéneo y con excelente seguimiento clínico.


Abstract Acute leukemias are the most common neoplasm in pediatric patients. Currently, 80% of children with diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are cured with conventional chemotherapy, but 20% of them will have a recurrence of the disease. Measurable Residual Disease (MRD) has been described as an important prognostic factor that allows evaluating the response of patients to treatment. One of the most sensitive techniques to study MRD is the quantification of immunoglobulins (Ig) and T-lymphocyte receptors (TCR) genes rearrangements. The aims of this study were to describe the detected Ig/TCR rearrangements, to evaluate the prognostic impact of MRD in our population of children with ALL and to compare the MRD values by Ig/TCR with those obtained by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC). A total of 455 patients were studied. In 96% of the cases, it was possible to characterize at least one Ig/TCR rearrangement. The total number of Ig/TCR rear rangements detected was 1550. MRD was successfully applied in 89% of the cases. The combined positive MRD values at day 33 and 78 of treatment allow the identification of high-risk patients in cases previously stratified by MRD using flow cytometry at day 15. The comparison between MRD determination by Ig/TCR rearrangements and FC showed excellent correlation. The present work constitutes a study of MRD by Ig/TCR carried out in a very significant number of patients consecutively diagnosed, treated within a homogeneous protocol and with excellent clinical follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Immunoglobulins , Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics
7.
Infectio ; 25(2): 135-137, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250080

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta el caso de un paciente a quien se le diagnosticó una Infección de Transmisión Sexual (ITS) por la técnica de PCR múltiple y en quién se logró por esta técnica, detectar cuatro agentes diferentes simultáneamente: Neisseria gonorreae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum y Trichomonas vaginalis, situación esta, que no hubiera sido posible utilizando el procedimiento estándar.


Summary Here we report the case of a patient with a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STI) in whom four different agents were detected by a multiple PCR technique: Neisseria gonorreae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum / parvum and Trichomonas vaginalis. This detection of multiple agents would not have been possible using conventional procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Diagnosis , Molecular Biology , Trichomonas vaginalis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Mycoplasma hominis , Methods
8.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-20, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa, causada por diversas especies del Complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, actualmente se estima que un tercio de la población mundial se encuentra afectada por lo que representa una amenaza para la salud pública, principalmente por el surgimiento de cepas Multidrogorresistentes (TB-MDR). En Bolivia se reportaron 7.538 personas enfermas con Tuberculosis, los últimos datos sobre TB-MDR indican un aumento de 0,2% por año, en 2019 se registró un 3,1% de TB-MDR. Actualmente en nuestro país se emplean métodos moleculares para la identificación de este agente infeccioso; no obstante, existen muy pocos o ningún trabajo acerca de la aplicación de métodos moleculares para la detección precisa y efectiva de cepas TB-MDR que otorguen validez a los resultados emitidos. Este trabajo resuelve el cuestionamiento de, si la PCR en tiempo real (RT-qPCR) acoplada a curvas melting es una herramienta de diagnóstico alternativo aplicable, para la identificación de Tuberculosis Multidrogorresistente MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se trabajó con 74 cepas de Mycobaterium tuberculosis fenotípicamente identificadas por cultivo (método de las proporciones, Canetti Rist) como gold standar. El material genético para las pruebas moleculares se obtuvo por el método de columnas, se utilizaron dos controles primarios para la determinación de resistencia a los fármacos Isoniacida y Rifampicina, tanto los controles como las muestras se procesaron por RT-qPCR acoplada a curvas melting, mediante cambios de temperatura de disociación. RESULTADOS: los parámetros de test diagnóstico de la prueba demostraron sensibilidad: 67.4%, especificidad: 83.3%, Exactitud: 73.97%, VPP: 85.3%, VPN: 64.1% para Isoniacida. Mientras que para Rifampicina: Sensibilidad: 97%, especificidad: 20%, exactitud: 58.9%, VPP: 55.4% y VPN: 87.5%. CONCLUSIÓN: el método evaluado para la determinación de resistencia a Isoniacida presenta un equilibrio entre sensibilidad y especificidad, por lo que representa una alternativa diagnóstica confiable, mientras que para resistencia a Rifampicina presenta una alta sensibilidad que es muy útil para países endémicos como el nuestro.


INTRODUCTION: tuberculosis is an infectious-contagious disease, caused by various species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, it is estimated that one third of the world population is affected by what represents a threat to public health, mainly by the emergence of multidrugresistant strains (MDR-TB). In Bolivia, 7,538 people are reported sick with Tuberculosis, the latest data on MDR-TB indicate an increase of 0.2% per year, in 2018 there was 3.1% of MDR-TB. Currently in our country molecular methods are used to identify this infectious agent; however, there is very little or no work on the application of molecular methods for the precise and effective detection of MDR-TB strains that give validity to the results issued. This work resolves the question of whether real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) coupled to melting curves is an applicable alternative diagnostic tool for the identification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MATERIALS AND METHODS: we worked with 74 strains of Mycobaterium tuberculosis phenotypically identified by culture (method of proportions, Canetti Rist) as a gold standar. The genetic material for molecular methods was obtained by the column assay, two primary controls were used for the determination of resistance to the drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin, both the controls and the samples were processed by RT-qPCR coupled to melting curves, by means of temperature changes of dissociation. RESULTS: the diagnostic test parameters of the test demonstrated sensitivity: 67.4%, specificity: 83.3%, Accuracy: 73.97%, PPV: 85.3%, NPV: 64.1% for Isoniazid. While for Rifampicin: Sensitivity: 97%, Specificity: 20%, Accuracy: 58.9%, PPV: 55.4% and NPV: 87.5% CONCLUSION: the method evaluated for the determination of resistance to Isoniazid presents a balance between sensitivity and specificity, therefore it represents a reliable diagnostic alternative, while for resistance to Rifampicin it presents a high sensitivity that is very useful for endemic countries such as ours.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Public Health , Isoniazid
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 1-7, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore genetic polymorphisms of the CCKAR gene and their relationship with the growth and development of Qinchuan cattle which could be used as molecular markers for the improvement of the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. RESULTS: Here, we have identified seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at loci g. 1463 C>G; g. 1532 T>A; g. 1570 G>A; g. 1594 C>A; g. 1640 T>C; g. 1677 G>C; and g. 1735 C>T in the coding region of the bovine CCKAR gene. The frequencies identified on allelic and genotypic characteristics have shown that all seven SNPs diverged from the Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium. The SNP2, SNP3, SNP6 and SNP7 had the lowest polymorphism information content values, and remaining SNPs were found to be moderate (0.25 < PIC < 0.50). The genotype CG in SNP1 at loci g.1463 C>G had the greatest association with WH, HW, CD and CCF, while the genotype TA at the very same loci was associated with BFT, ULA and IMF content in Qinchuan cattle. The CCKAR gene expression level in adipose tissue, small intestine, liver and skeleton muscle was found to be higher, whereas, the expression level of mRNA in organs of other digestive system including reticulum, abomasum and omasum was moderate. Some expression of CCKAR mRNA was found in the large intestine, kidney and rumen. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our finding suggested that the CCKAR gene could be used as a potential candidate for the improvement of carcass quality and body measurements of Qinchuan cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/genetics , Receptor, Cholecystokinin A/genetics , Genetic Variation , Linkage Disequilibrium , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Digestive System , Livestock , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency , Meat Products
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 583-588, May-June 2021. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278349

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diseases in free-ranging wild canids that were roadkill on highways in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. PCR tests were performed for the detection of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. in the spleen. Morphological evaluation and identification of parasites was performed in the liver and lung. Twenty specimens of C. thous were necropsied at the Animal Pathology Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. There was no PCR amplification of genomic DNA sequences of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. using DNA extracted from the spleen as template. Histologically, lesions associated with parasitism by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. were observed in the liver and lung, respectively. This is the first report of Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. parasitism in C. thous in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Therefore, this study demonstrated parasitism of crab-eating foxes by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. Importantly, no evidence of infection with Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. was obtained by PCR analysis.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de doenças em canídeos silvestres de vida livre que foram atropelados em rodovias no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Testes de PCR foram realizados para a detecção de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. no baço. A avaliação morfológica e a identificação de parasitas foram realizadaa no fígado e no pulmão. Vinte espécimes de C. thous foram necropsiados no Setor de Patologia Animal do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Amostras de tecido foram processadas para exame histopatológico e análise de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Não houve amplificação por PCR das sequências de DNA genômico de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. usando-se DNA extraído do baço como modelo. Histologicamente, lesões associadas ao parasitismo por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. foram observadas no fígado e no pulmão, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro relato de Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. parasitismo em C. thous no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Portanto, este estudo demonstrou parasitismo de cachorro-do-mato por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. É importante detacar que não há evidências de infecção por Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. por análise de PCR.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesia/isolation & purification , Brucella/isolation & purification , Canidae/blood , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Autopsy/veterinary , Spleen/virology , Accidents, Traffic , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology , Animals, Wild/blood
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 742-746, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278357

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se neste estudo relatar a frequência e a identidade de patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos em cães residentes de uma área caracterizada por brejo de alta altitude. Amostras sanguíneas (n=203) foram coletadas e molecularmente analisadas via PCR (Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp. e Ehrlichia spp.) e sequenciamento de DNA. De todas as amostras analisadas, 8,87% (18/203) foram positivas a algum patógeno transmitido por carrapato. Especificamente, 5,42% (11/203) e 3,45% (7/203) foram positivos a Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis, respectivamente. Este estudo fornece, pela primeira vez, evidência científica de infecção de cães por esses patógenos nessa área de alta altitude e reforça o provável papel de R. sanguineus s.l. como vetor de A. platys, principalmente considerando.se que muitos animais positivos eram infestados por essa espécie de carrapato.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Ehrlichia canis/isolation & purification , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Wetlands , Altitude
12.
Vive (El Alto) ; 4(10): 128-142, abr. 2021. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292927

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la Leucemia Mieloide Aguda es la neoplasia hematológica más común, caracterizada por una proliferación incontrolada de células madre hematopoyéticas. La mutación FLT3/ITD se presenta en aproximadamente el 30% de todos los pacientes con ésta patología, se asocia con mayor riesgo de recaída y menor supervivencia. El FLT3-ITD puede usarse como un factor pronóstico de la gravedad de ésta patología, importante para predecir los resultados clínicos en pacientes con LMA. OBJETIVO: el objetivo de este estudio fue relacionar la mutación FLT3/ITD con variables hematológicas y clínicas en pacientes diagnosticados con Leucemia Mieloide Aguda atendidos en la Sociedad de Lucha contra el Cáncer (SOLCA) de la ciudad de Cuenca, periodo 2013 ­2020. MÉTODOS: se obtuvieron los datos a partir de registros secundarios registrados una base de datos del hospital, el universo de la muestra lo constituyeron 63 pacientes, diagnosticados con LMA, se les analizó la mutación FLT3/ITD por PCR Convencional. RESULTADOS: se encontró la presencia de la mutación en un 9.5% y una asociación significativamente estadística con alteraciones hematológicas relacionados con niveles de hemoglobina anormal (p=0,037) y ratio 6,63 y LDH elevada en 1,21 veces (p=0,024); recuento elevado de leucocitos y blastos (p=0,031). Los individuos portadores de la mutación se presentó con mayor incidencia en el sexo masculino y grupo etario adulto mediano (45-64 años). CONCLUSIONES: la literatura internacional afirma que la mutación FLT3/ITD en un importante marcador pronóstico; debido a su baja frecuencia, no se pudo determinar una relación estadísticamente significativa con otras variables clínicas en este estudio.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: acute Myeloid Leukemia is the most common hematological neoplasm, characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. The FLT3 / ITD mutation occurs in approximately 30% of all patients with this pathology, it is associated with a higher risk of relapse and lower survival. FLT3-ITD can be used as a poor prognostic factor, important for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with AML. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to characterize the FLT3 / ITD mutation and its relationship with hematological and clinical variables in patients diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia treated at SOLCA in the city of Cuenca, period 2013-2020. METHODS: data were obtained from secondary records in a hospital database, the universe of the sample was made up of 63 patients, diagnosed with AML, and the FLT3 / ITD mutation was analyzed by Conventional PCR. RESULTS: the presence of the mutation was found in 9.5% and a statistically significantly association with hematological alterations related to abnormal hemoglobin levels (p = 0.037) and ratio 6.63 and LDH elevated in 1.21 times (p =0.024); Elevated leukocyte and blast count (p = 0.031). Individuals carrying the mutation had a higher incidence in males and in the middle adult age group (45-64 years). CONCLUSIONS: the international literature affirms that the FLT3 / ITD mutation is an important prognostic marker; Due to its low frequency, it was not possible to determine a statistically significant relationship with other clinical variables in our study, for which it is suggested to expand the unirverse of the sample.(AU)


INTRODUÇÃO: a Leucemia Mielóide Aguda é a malignidade hematológica mais comum, caracterizada pela proliferação descontrolada de células-tronco hematopoiéticas. A mutação FLT3/ITD está presente em aproximadamente 30% de todos os pacientes com esta patologia, e está associada a um maior risco de recaída e menor sobrevida. O FLT3-ITD pode ser usado como um fator prognóstico para a gravidade desta patologia, importante para prever os resultados clínicos em pacientes com LMA. OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mutação FLT3/ITD com variáveis hematológicas e clínicas em pacientes diagnosticados com leucemia mielóide aguda tratados na Sociedade de Luta contra o Câncer (SOLCA) na cidade de Cuenca, período 2013 - 202020. Métodos. Os dados foram obtidos de registros secundários registrados em um banco de dados hospitalar, o universo da amostra consistiu de 63 pacientes diagnosticados com AML, eles foram analisados para a mutação FLT3/ITD por PCR convencional. RESULTADOS: a presença da mutação foi encontrada em 9,5% e uma associação estatística significativa com alterações hematológicas relacionadas a níveis anormais de hemoglobina (p=0,037) e relação 6,63 e LDH elevada em 1,21 vezes (p=0,024); contagem elevada de leucócitos e explosões (p=0,031). Os individuos portadores da mutação ocorreram com maior incidência no sexo masculino e na faixa etária média adulta (45-64 anos). CONCLUSÕES: a literatura internacional afirma que a mutação FLT3/ITD em um marcador prognóstico importante; devido a sua baixa freqüência, uma relação estatisticamente significativa com outras variáveis clínicas não pôde ser determinada neste estudo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation , Neoplasms
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 190-195, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181008

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although it is known that the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has affected the whole world, mainly targets the respiratory tract, cases of this disease with a wide clinical spectrum are emerging as information is shared. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a pregnant woman who was diagnosed with venous sinus thrombosis after she developed headache and hemiparesis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity lasted for two weeks after COVID-19 had been diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected COVID-19, especially in the presence of causes of hypercoagu- lability and presence of atypical features, venous sinus thrombosis needs to be kept in mind in making the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , Paresis/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thrombophilia , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 525-528, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248946

ABSTRACT

Existem poucos estudos sobre doenças infecciosas em animais silvestres. O objetivo deste estudo foi pesquisar DNA de Leptospira spp. em sangue de tartarugas mantidas em cativeiro, pertencentes ao Bosque Rodrigues Alves (Jardim Zoobotânico da Amazônia). O DNA foi isolado das amostras de sangue coletadas de 148 tartarugas pertencentes a seis espécies diferentes. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi realizada utilizando-se iniciadores específicos para DNA de Leptospira spp. Nenhuma das amostras apresentou resultado positivo para Leptospira spp.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Turtles/microbiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Animals, Wild
15.
Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 90-94, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247690

ABSTRACT

La biología molecular tiene mayor afinidad en las áreas de la salud, en odontología su principal aplicación ha sido en la identificación de microorganismos orales patógenos mediante el uso de secuencias genéticas específicas (ácido desoxirribonucleico [DNA], ácido ribonucleico [RNA] y proteínas). Las pruebas a nivel molecular se caracterizan por su rapidez, reproductibilidad, sensibilidad y especificidad de los microorganismos diana. El presente artículo de revisión bibliográfica servirá como herramienta para comprender los principios de las técnicas más destacadas como son: PCR estándar y RT-PCR en tiempo real, PCR con transcriptasa inversa, microarreglos y ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas (ELISA), además de sus ventajas y desventajas respecto a las pruebas convencionales (AU)


Molecular biology has a greater affinity in the areas of health. In dentistry, its main application has been the identification of pathogenic oral microorganisms, through the use of specific genetic sequences (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA], ribonucleic acid [RNA] and proteins). Molecular tests are characterized by their rapidity, reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity of target microorganisms. This literature review article will serve as a tool to understand the principles of the most prominent techniques such as: Standard PCR, Real-time RT-PCR, Reverse transcriptase PCR, microarrays and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in addition to their advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional tests (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Molecular Biology , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Databases, Genetic
17.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 23-26, Marzo 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1282888

ABSTRACT

Pneumocystis jirovecii es un hongo oportunista, causante de neumonía en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. Es una infección grave con elevada tasa de mortalidad en pacientes oncohematológicos y receptores de trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas. La administración de corticosteroides es el principal factor de riesgo para adquirir esta infección. Actualmente las infecciones ocurren en aquellos pacientes que no reciben adecuada profilaxis. Las técnicas de diagnóstico molecular son las recomendadas por su elevada sensibilidad, especificidad y rapidez. La frecuencia global de P. jirovecii en pacientes inmunocomprometidos de nuestro hospital, durante el período evaluado fue de 4,8%, con una mortalidad global del 20%. Como factores de mal pronóstico se reportan la presencia de coinfecciones y la necesidad de asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Es importante la sospecha precoz en pacientes de riesgo, confirmada con un diagnóstico preciso mediante métodos moleculares para una intervención adecuada y oportuna (AU)


Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus, causing pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. It is a severe infection with a high mortality rate in oncology/hematology patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The administration of corticosteroids is the main risk factor for acquiring this infection. Currently infections occur in patients who do not receive adequate prophylaxis. Molecular diagnostic techniques are recommended because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the study period, the overall incidence of P. jirovecii in immunocompromised patients at our hospital was 4.8%, with an overall mortality rate of 20%. Factors of a poor prognosis are the presence of coinfections and the need for mechanical respiratory assistance. Early suspicion in high-risk patients is important to confirm the diagnosis through molecular studies and start adequate and early treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pneumocystis Infections/diagnosis , Pneumocystis Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
18.
Infectio ; 25(1): 33-38, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154399

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Aislar STEC en las heces del ganado bovino en el municipio de Ulloa, Valle del Cauca y detectar factores de virulencia asociados con la patogénesis. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron 21 muestras provenientes de bovinos, las cuales fueron tomadas directamente del recto del animal mediante hisopos. Las muestras se procesaron hasta obtener colonias puras a las cuales se les evaluó la presencia de los genes stx1, stx2, eae, saa y hlyA mediante PCR y posteriormente, se evaluó el efecto citotóxico de las muestras positivas sobre células Vero (ATCC-CCL-81.4). Resultados: De las 21 muestras de heces de bovinos,12 presentaron bacterias con uno o ambos genes stx. Se obtuvieron 106 aislamientos totales de STEC y se observaron diferencias en cuanto a la presencia y ausencia de los genes de virulencia evaluados en los aislamientos de cada bovino, obteniendo cinco combinaciones de genes. 48 aislamientos presentaron únicamente el gen stx2 y 58 presentaron tanto el gen stx1 como el gen stx2; de los 106 aislamientos, se detectaron 44 con el gen hlyA y 57 con el gen saa. Conclusiones: Todos los sobrenadantes de STEC analizados mostraron actividad citotóxica sobre las células Vero, mientras que en ausencia de STEC las células formaron monocapa después de 48 h de incubación. Este trabajo es el primer reporte en Colombia que aporta información sobre la presencia de STEC en el ganado bovino, la presencia de factores de virulencia y el potencial efecto citotóxico que poseen estas cepas nativas.


Abstract Objective: To isolate STEC in stool samples from cattle in Ulloa, Valle del Cauca, and to detect virulence factors associated with its pathogenesis. Materials and methods: We took 21 samples from cattle, which were taken directly from the rectum of the animal using swabs. The samples were processed until obtaining pure colonies and evaluated for the presence of the stx1, stx2, eae, saa and hlyA genes by PCR. Afterward, the cytotoxic effect of positive samples were evaluated on Vero cells (ATCC-CCL- 81.4). Results: We observed that from the 21 stools samples, 12 presented bacteria with one or both stx genes. A total of 106 isolates of STEC were obtained and differences among each other were observed regarding the presence and absence of the virulence genes, obtaining five combinations of genes. We found that 48 isolates presented only stx2 gene and 58 presented both the stx1 and stx2 gene. Regarding the other virulence genes, the hlyA gene was detected in 44 isolates and the saa gene was detected in 57 isolates. Conclusions: All the STEC supernatants showed cytotoxic activity on Vero cells, while in its absence the cells formed monolayer after 48 h of incubation. This work is the first report in Colombia that provides information about the presence of STEC in stool cattle, virulence genes and its potential cytotoxic effect in native strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Shiga Toxin , Escherichia coli , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Feces , Livestock , Bacteria , Virulence , Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): 299-304, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155304

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe epidemiological characteristics and deaths in children with cancer and COVID-19 at a reference hospital in Recife, Brazil. Methods: cohort involving children under the age of 19 underwent cancer treatment during April to July 2020. During the pandemic, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV-2) in nasal / oropharyngeal swab were collected in symptomatic patients or before hospitalization. Those with detectable results were included in this cohort study. The outcomes were delayed on cancer treatment and death. Descriptive analysis was performed and presented in preliminary results. Results: 48 children participated in the cohort, mostly with hematological neoplasms (66.6%.),69% were male, median age was 5.5 years. The most frequent symptoms were fever (58.3%) and coughing (27.7%);72.9% required hospitalization, 20% had support in ICU and 10.5% on invasive ventilatory assistance.66.6% of the patients had their oncological treatment postponed, 16.6% died within 60 days after confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions: COVID-19 led a delay in the oncological treatment for children with cancer and a higher mortality frequency when compared to the historical series of the service. It would be important to analyze the risk factors to determine the survival impact.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever características epidemiológicas e óbitos em crianças com câncer e a doença do novo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), em hospital de referência do nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: coorte envolvendo menores de 19 anos em tratamento de câncer, durante abril a julho de 2020. Pacientes sintomáticos ou antes de hospitalização foram submetidos a pesquisa do vírus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa em tempo real (RT-PCR), em swab naso/orofaríngeo. Foram incluídos aqueles com resultado detectável. Os desfechos foram atraso no tratamento oncológico e óbito. Realizada análise descritiva e apresentado os resultados preliminares. Resultados: 48 crianças, maioria com neoplasia hematológica (66,6%), sexo masculino (69%), mediana de idade 5,5 anos. os sintomas mais observados foram febre (58,3%) e tosse (27,7%); 72,9% necessitou internamento hospitalar, 20% suporte em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e 10,5 % assistência ventilatória invasiva. O tratamento oncológico foi adiado em 66,6% dos pacientes, 16,6 % evoluiu para óbito até 60 dias após confirmação da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. Conclusões: COVID-19 determinou atraso no tratamento oncológico das crianças com câncer e aumento da frequência de óbitos quando comparada à série histórica do serviço. Será importante analisar os fatores de risco para determinar o impacto na sobrevida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Risk Factors , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e58-e60, feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147267

ABSTRACT

El virus SARS-CoV-2, responsable de la pandemia de COVID-19, es un agente infeccioso emergente. El conocimiento tanto de sus mecanismos de infectividad como de las posibles complicaciones y tratamientos específicos es motivo de constante investigación.Para comprender la afectación del sistema nervioso central en los niños, se estudia el comportamiento de este germen basándose en las propiedades neuroinvasivas de ciertos virus respiratorios, el daño neurológico causado por otros coronavirus y las manifestaciones clínicas en adultos con COVID-19.Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 2 meses de edad que consultó por un cuadro febril sin foco con detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa en secreciones nasofaríngeas y el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Presentó buena evolución, con resolución de la fiebre y sin compromiso ni manifestaciones neurológica


The SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is an emerging infectious agent. The knowledge of both its infectivity mechanisms and the possible complications and specific treatments is the subject of constant research. To understand the involvement of the central nervous system in children, the behavior of this germ is studied based on the neuroinvasive properties of certain respiratory viruses, the neurological damage caused by other coronaviruses, and the clinical manifestations in adults with COVID-19.We describe the clinical case of a 2-month-old patient who consulted for fever without a focus with detection of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal secretions and cerebrospinal fluid. The infant presented good evolution, with resolution of the fever and without compromise or neurological manifestation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Coronavirus , Pediatrics , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Polymerase Chain Reaction
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