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1.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1531825

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o conhecimento de gestantes e puérperas acerca da sífilis. Método: pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de instrumento semiestruturado, entre abril a julho de 2021, com 18 gestantes/puérperas com diagnóstico de sífilis na gestação. As respostas foram gravadas e transcritas na íntegra, sendo utilizado para análise a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultados: identificou-se três ideias centrais: 1) Conhecimento sobre a sífilis, 2) Buscando conhecimento sobre a sífilis e 3) Falsa prevenção. O conhecimento das participantes mostrou-se conflitante, pois algumas apresentaram algum conhecimento e outras nenhum, sendo que todas deveriam ter sido orientadas sobre a doença. Considerações finais: identificou-se uma falha no atendimento ofertado nos serviços de saúde. Assim, estratégias voltadas à educação em saúde devem ser incentivadas e implementadas no acompanhamento de pré-natal, ofertando a promoção e prevenção da saúde, a fim de reduzir os casos de sífilis na gestação.


Objective: to identify the knowledge of pregnant and postpartum women about syphilis. Method: descriptive research, with a qualitative approach. Data collection took place using a semi-structured instrument, between April and July 2021, with 18 pregnant/postpartum women diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy. The responses were recorded and transcribed in full, using the Collective Subject Discourse technique for analysis. Results: three central ideas were identified: 1) Knowledge about syphilis, 2) Seeking knowledge about syphilis and 3) False prevention. The knowledge of the participants was conflicting, as some had some knowledge and others none, and all of them should have been educated about the disease. Final considerations: a flaw in the care offered in health services was identified. Therefore, strategies aimed at health education should be encouraged and implemented in prenatal care, offering health promotion and prevention, in order to reduce cases of syphilis during pregnancy.


Objetivos:identificar el conocimiento de las mujeres embarazadas y puérperas sobre la sífilis. Método: investigación descriptiva, con enfoque cualitativo. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante un instrumento semiestructurado, entre abril y julio de 2021, con 18 mujeres embarazadas/puérperas diagnosticadas con sífilis durante el embarazo. Las respuestas fueron grabadas y transcritas en su totalidad, utilizando para su análisis la técnica del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo. Resultados: se identificaron tres ideas centrales: 1) Conocimiento sobre sífilis, 2) Búsqueda de conocimiento sobre sífilis y 3) Falsa prevención. El conocimiento de los participantes fue contradictorio, ya que algunos tenían algún conocimiento y otros ninguno, y todos deberían haber sido educados sobre la enfermedad. Consideraciones finales: se identificó una falla en la atención ofrecida en los servicios de salud. Por lo tanto, se deben fomentar e implementar estrategias orientadas a la educación en salud en la atención prenatal, ofreciendo promoción y prevención de la salud, con el fin de reducir los casos de sífilis durante el embarazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Syphilis/prevention & control , Pregnant Women/education , Prenatal Education , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Qualitative Research
3.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(5): 474-484, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388685

ABSTRACT

Resumen El parto prematuro es la principal causa de morbilidad y de mortalidad perinatal, y hasta un tercio de los casos presentan rotura prematura de membranas. La infección intrauterina que asciende desde la vagina es su principal causa en un hospital público de Chile. Esta revisión narrativa mediante búsqueda en PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scielo, Science Direct y Wiley Online Library incluye estudios publicados sobre los diferentes factores infecciosos que intervienen en el resultado adverso perinatal y la eficacia de los antibióticos en la rotura prematura de membranas de pretérmino. Además, contiene recomendaciones de sociedades científicas sobre el uso de antibióticos en estos casos. Los ensayos concluyen que los antimicrobianos prolongan el embarazo, disminuyen la corioamnionitis clínica y reducen variadas morbilidades neonatales, pero no reducen la mortalidad perinatal ni las secuelas tardías en la infancia. Los resultados adversos obstétricos, especialmente los neonatales, y las secuelas dependen de la existencia de invasión microbiana de la cavidad amniótica o de infección cérvico-vaginal, de la virulencia de los microorganismos aislados, del compromiso inflamatorio/infeccioso de la placenta (corioamnionitis histológica, funisitis) y de la respuesta inflamatoria fetal. Para mejorar los resultados adversos obstétricos neonatales en la rotura prematura de membranas de pretérmino, los esquemas de antibióticos deben ser eficaces, cubriendo el amplio espectro microbiológico existente y actuando sobre los factores infecciosos implicados en la gravedad de la infección. Además, deben administrarse de manera intensiva y prolongada hasta el parto.


Abstract Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and up to a third of them have premature rupture of membranes. Intrauterine infection that rises from the vagina is its main cause in a public hospital in Chile. This narrative review by searching PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scielo, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library includes published studies of the different infectious factors involved in perinatal adverse outcome and of the efficacy of antibiotics in preterm premature rupture of membranes. It also contains recommendations from scientific societies on the use of antibiotics in these cases. These trials conclude that antimicrobials prolong pregnancy, decrease clinical chorioamnionitis, and reduce various neonatal morbidities, but do not reduce perinatal mortality or infant sequelae. Obstetric and especially neonatal adverse outcomes in these patients depend on the existence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and/or cervicovaginal infection, of the virulence of the isolated microorganisms, of inflammatory/infectious involvement of the placenta (histological chorioamnionitis, funisitis) and fetal inflammatory response. To improve adverse neonatal obstetric outcomes in preterm premature rupture of membranes, antibiotic regimens must be effective, covering the wide existing microbiological spectrum and acting on infectious factors responsible for the severity of the infection. In addition, they must be administered aggressively and for a long time until delivery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Chorioamnionitis/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Premature Birth
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 401-409, jun. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388240

ABSTRACT

Resumen La transmisión vertical de hepatitis B es responsable de 50% de las infecciones en el mundo e implica 90% de riesgo de evolucionar a hepatitis crónica y sus complicaciones. La inmunoprofilaxis postparto (inmunoglobulina más vacuna) es la medida de prevención más efectiva. Sin embargo, puede existir fracaso a pesar de dicha intervención, debido a factores como alta carga viral o la presencia de HBeAg en la madre, los que sólo pueden evitarse si se hace el diagnóstico y tratamiento durante la gestación. En Chile, en el año 2019 se incorporó la vacunación en los recién nacidos, pero no existe aún cribado durante el embarazo, a diferencia de los países desarrollados. En los últimos años se ha experimentado un aumento acelerado de inmigración proveniente principalmente de América latina y el Caribe, con prevalencias altas en algunos de ellos. Chile debiese avanzar prontamente hacia el cribado de hepatitis B en embarazo.


Abstract Half of cases of hepatitis B around the world are produced from vertical transmission; and 90% of them can evolve to chronic hepatitis and their long term complications. Postpartum immunoprophylaxis (immunoglobulin and vaccine) is the most effective preventive measure. However, despite this prophylaxis, vertical transmission is possible if the mother presents a high viral load or e-antigen. This risk can be reduced only if screening during pregnancy and treatment if needed, are incorporated. In 2019, vaccination for hepatitis B in newborn was incorporated in Chile, but not yet prenatal screening, unlike developed countries. Chile has experienced a growth in immigration from Latin America and Caribbean, some countries with high endemicity included. Prenatal screening in Chile should be promptly incorporated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/transmission , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chile , Neonatal Screening , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 313-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879637

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. The algorithm covers 10 continuous steps from pregnant management to follow-up postpartum. Among the 10 steps, screening, antiviral therapy during pregnancy, and infant's immunization are the core components in the algorithm.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(2): e00145819, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153686

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender significados, percepção de risco e estratégias de prevenção da infecção pelo Zika vírus desenvolvidas por gestantes com diferentes condições socioeconômicas, atendidas em serviços de saúde público e privado da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, bem como a contribuição de seus parceiros para lidar com o risco de infecção após o surgimento desse vírus no país. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, a partir do desenvolvimento de 18 entrevistas semiestruturadas, sendo nove com gestantes atendidas pelo setor público de saúde e nove com gestantes atendidas pelo setor privado de saúde. Os dados produzidos demonstraram insuficiências no conhecimento das gestantes sobre aspectos importantes da infecção pelo Zika vírus. A situação socioambiental na qual as gestantes estão submetidas foi um fator importante para a percepção de risco e estratégias de prevenção. Gestantes entrevistadas no setor público de saúde demonstraram se sentir mais vulneráveis ao risco de infecção no ambiente em que vivem do que gestantes entrevistadas no setor privado de saúde, com grande impacto sobre o seu bem-estar psicossocial. Segundo as gestantes, os parceiros exerceram intensa cobrança para que elas adotassem ações preventivas sem, no entanto, realizarem os mesmos cuidados, desconsiderando o risco de transmissão do vírus por via sexual. Conclui-se que, após aproximadamente três anos da epidemia no país, o Zika vírus ainda possui um grande impacto sobre a vida das gestantes e é imprescindível fortalecer as ações de comunicação em saúde para assegurar a disponibilização de informações que respondam adequadamente às necessidades da população sobre a doença.


This study aimed to understand the meanings, risk perceptions, and strategies to prevent infection with the Zika virus developed by pregnant women with different socioeconomic conditions seen at public and private health services in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, as well the contribution by their male partners in dealing with the risk of infection since the emergence of this virus in Brazil. A qualitative study was performed with 18 semi-structured interviews, nine each with pregnant women seen in the public and private health systems, respectively. The resulting data revealed insufficient knowledge in pregnant women concerning important aspects of Zika virus infection. The pregnant women's socioenvironmental situation was an important factor for risk perception and preventive strategies. Women interviewed in the public health system felt more vulnerable to the risk of infection than women interviewed in the private health system, with a major impact on their psychosocial well-being. According to the women, their partners placed huge demands on them to adopt preventive measures, but the male partners themselves failed to take the same precautions, e.g., ignoring the risk of sexual transmission of the Zika virus. In conclusion, three years since the outbreak reached Brazil, the Zika virus still has a major impact on the lives of pregnant women. It is crucial to strengthen health communications activities to guarantee the availability of information on the disease that responds adequately to the population's needs.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender los significados, percepción de riesgo y estrategias de prevención frente a la infección por el virus Zika, desarrolladas por gestantes con diferentes condiciones socioeconómicas, atendidas en servicios de salud públicos y privados de la ciudad de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, así como la contribución de sus parejas para lidiar con el riesgo de infección tras el surgimiento de este virus en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo, a partir del desarrollo de 18 entrevistas semiestructuradas, siendo nueve con gestantes atendidas en el sector público de salud y nueve con gestantes atendidas en el sector privado de salud. Los datos producidos demostraron insuficiencias en el conocimiento de las gestantes sobre aspectos importantes de la infección por el virus Zika. La situación socioambiental en la que las gestantes están sometidas fue un factor importante para la percepción de riesgo y estrategias de prevención. Gestantes entrevistadas en el sector público de salud demostraron sentirse más vulnerables frente al riesgo de infección en el ambiente donde viven, que las gestantes entrevistadas en el sector privado de salud, con un gran impacto sobre su bienestar psicosocial. Según las gestantes, las parejas ejercieron una intensa presión para que adoptaran acciones preventivas sin que, sin embargo, tuvieran los mismos cuidados, desconsiderando el riesgo de transmisión del virus por vía sexual. Se concluye que, tras aproximadamente tres años de la epidemia en el país, el virus Zika todavía posee un gran impacto sobre la vida de las gestantes y es imprescindible fortalecer las acciones de comunicación en salud para asegurar la puesta a disposición de información que responda adecuadamente a las necesidades de la población sobre la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Perception , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pregnant Women
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(5): 101629, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350315

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The recognition of the causal association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities including microcephaly underlines the importance of preventing this disease in pregnant women (PW) and women of childbearing age (WCA). Although Brazil and other Latin American countries reported a significant reduction in the number of ZIKV infections in recent years, epidemic waves can recur in settings with previous outbreaks as conditions for transmission remain optimal and susceptible populations are continuously replenished. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 64 PW and 260 non-pregnant WCA attending routine medical appointments in two primary care units in São Paulo, Brazil, and assessed knowledge and attitudes about ZIKV infection and prevention. Results: Most women reported knowing that ZIKV is transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, and most knew that acute symptoms are similar to those seen in Dengue infection. Furthermore, most participants correctly described that ZIKV infection during pregnancy may cause detrimental outcomes for the newborn. However, most ignored that ZIKV infection can be asymptomatic, and only 15% knew about the risk of ZIKV sexual transmission. We found no statistically significant differences between PW and WCA regarding knowledge about ZIKV sexual transmission. Knowledge about ZIKV sexual transmission was significantly associated with education; among participants with ≤12 schooling years, only 9.0% (95%CI 3.4-18.5%) correctly answered that ZIKV can be sexually transmitted, compared to 12.9% (95%CI 8.2-18.8%) among participants with 12-14 schooling years, and to 24.4% (95%CI 15.9-34.9%) of participants with ≥15 schooling years (p = 0.015). Education remained independently associated with knowledge about sexual transmission of ZIKV in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, race and pregnancy status (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Our findings underscore the urgent need of educational and family planning programs that may help prevent detrimental outcomes of ZIKV infection in an endemic area of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aedes/virology
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(3): e00069820, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285811

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A transmissão vertical do HIV ainda representa um importante problema de saúde pública no mundo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a transmissão vertical do HIV em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil, e avaliar a possibilidade de eliminação. Foi realizado estudo transversal dos casos de HIV em gestante e longitudinal sobre a incidência da transmissão vertical do HIV na base populacional de gestantes residentes no Município de Rio Branco, no período de 2007-2015. As coortes de gestantes foram formadas por mulheres que tiveram filhos nascidos vivos, mortos ou abortos. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC), Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM) e Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH). Foi realizado o relacionamento entre as bases de dados utilizando o software OpenRecLink. Foram calculadas as prevalências de HIV em gestante, a taxa de transmissão vertical e os principais fatores associados. A prevalência de HIV em gestante apresentou tendência de aumento, e a prevalência média foi de 0,18%, as variáveis estatisticamente associadas à ocorrência de HIV em gestantes foram idade materna ≥ 20 anos (p = 0,007), menor escolaridade (p = 0,054) e não ter companheiro (p = 0,001). A transmissão vertical foi de 6,9%. O uso de terapia antirretroviral (TARV) no pré-natal, mesmo entre as gestantes que já sabiam ser portadoras do vírus, foi menor que 90%. A realização de cesáreas eletivas ficou abaixo de 60%, e o uso de TARV no parto e pelo recém nascido nas primeiras 24 horas apresentou variações, dependendo do período em que o diagnóstico materno foi realizado. Embora as estratégias de eliminação da transmissão vertical do HIV estejam bem estabelecidas, os resultados deste estudo ainda apontam falhas importantes na cascata de cuidados das gestantes infectadas em Rio Branco.


Abstract: Vertical HIV transmission is still an important global public health problem. This study aimed to verify vertical HIV transmission in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, and to assess the possibility of its elimination. A cross-sectional study was conducted of HIV in pregnant women and a longitudinal study on the incidence of vertical HIV transmission in pregnant women living in the municipality (county) of Rio Branco in 2007-2015. The cohorts of pregnant women consisted of women who had liveborn children, stillbirths, or abortions. The data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System for Notificable Diseases (SINAN), Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC), Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM), and Brazilian Hospital Information Systems (SIH). Databases. Probabilistic database linkage was performed with the OpenRecLink software. The authors calculated the HIV prevalence rate in pregnant women, the vertical transmission rate, and the principal associated factors. HIV prevalence in pregnant women showed an upward trend, and the mean prevalence was 0.18%. Variables statistically associated with the occurrence of HIV in pregnant women were maternal age ≥ 20 years (p = 0.007), lower schooling (p = 0.054), and unmarried conjugal status/without partner (p = 0.001). Vertical HIV transmission was 6.9%. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during prenatal care, even among pregnant women that already knew they were HIV-positive, was less than 90%. The elective cesarean rate was less than 60%, and the use of ART during delivery and by the newborn in the first 24 hours showed variations, depending on the period in which the maternal diagnosis was made. Although the strategies for the elimination of vertical HIV transmission are well established, this study's results point to important flaws in the cascade of care for HIV-infected pregnant women in Rio Branco.


Resumen: La transmisión vertical del VIH todavía representa un importante problema de salud pública en el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar la transmisión vertical del VIH en Río Branco-Acre y evaluar la posibilidad de su eliminación. Se realizó un estudio transversal de los casos de VIH en gestantes y longitudinal sobre la incidencia de la transmisión vertical del VIH en la base poblacional de gestantes residentes en el municipio de Río Branco, durante el período de 2007-2015. Las cohortes de gestantes estuvieron formadas por mujeres que tuvieron hijos nacidos vivos, muertos o abortos. Los datos se obtuvieron del Sistema Brasileño de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación (SINAN), Sistema de Información sobre Nacidos Vivos (SINASC), Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad (SIM) y Sistema de Informaciones Hospitalarias (SIH). Se realizó la relación entre las bases de datos, utilizando el software OpenRecLink. Se calcularon las prevalencias de VIH en gestantes, la tasa de transmisión vertical y sus principales factores asociados. La prevalencia de VIH en gestantes presentó una tendencia de aumento y la prevalencia media fue de 0,18%, las variables estadísticamente asociadas a la ocurrencia de VIH en gestantes fueron: edad materna ≥ 20 años (p = 0,007), menor escolaridad (p = 0,054) y no contar con compañero (p = 0,001). La transmisión vertical fue de un 6,9%. El uso de terapia antirretroviral viral (TARV) durante el período prenatal, incluso entre las gestantes que ya se sabían portadoras del virus, fue menor de un 90%. La realización de cesáreas electivas quedó por debajo de un 60% y el uso de TARV en el parto y por el recién nacido en las primeras 24 horas presentó variaciones, dependiendo del período en que el diagnóstico materno fue realizado. A pesar de que las estrategias de eliminación de la transmisión vertical del HIV estén bien establecidas, los resultados de este estudio todavía apuntan fallos importantes en la cascada de cuidados de las gestantes infectadas en Río Branco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020597, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250846

ABSTRACT

Abstract The topics of congenital syphilis and children exposed to syphilis compose the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Such document was elaborated based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. This article provides guidelines for syphilis in pregnant women and congenital syphilis clinical management, emphasizing the vertical transmission of Treponema pallidum prevention. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of these infections are presented and recommendations for managers in the programmatic and operational management of syphilis. The article also includes guidelines for health professionals in screening, diagnosing, and treating people with sexually transmitted infections and their sex partners, in addition to strategies for surveillance actions, prevention, and control of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/diagnostic imaging , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology
11.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 280-286, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223750

ABSTRACT

Las vacunas han sido una de las herramientas más útiles para lograr disminuir la mortalidad infantil. Sin embargo, los beneficios de las vacunas para menores de un año son dispares, debido a que son muy pequeños para ser vacunados. Otro grupo vulnerable son las embarazadas, quienes presentan mayor morbimortalidad por enfermedades como la influenza. La inmunización materna puede proteger a la madre contra las infecciones prevenibles por vacuna y al recién nacido mediante el traspaso de anticuerpos específicos al feto. No hay evidencia de resultados adversos en el embarazo o el feto/recién nacido por la vacunación de mujeres gestantes con vacuna inactivada contra virus, bacterias o toxoides. Por lo tanto, el embarazo no debe impedir que las mujeres reciban las vacunas que están médicamente indicadas. En Chile, se recomienda la vacunación de las mujeres gestantes, antes o durante la temporada de influenza. A fines de 2017 se implementó la vacunación con dTpa de las embarazadas con más de 28 semanas de gestación, con el objetivo de proteger al recién nacido contra el coqueluche y sus complicaciones. En el presente artículo, se hace una revisión de la literatura disponible sobre la vacunación de las embarazadas, principalmente enfocado en inmunización contra la influenza, el coqueluche y los beneficios en sus hijos.


Vaccines have been one of the most useful tools to reduce infant mortality. However, the benefits of vaccines for children under one year are disparate, because they are too small to be vaccinated. Another vulnerable group are pregnant women, who have a higher morbidity and mortality due to diseases such as influenza. Maternal immunization can protect the mother against vaccine-preventable infections and the newborn by transferring specific antibodies to the fetus. There is no evidence of adverse outcomes in pregnancy or the fetus / newborn by vaccination of pregnant women with inactivated vaccine against viruses, bacteria or toxoids. Therefore, pregnancy should not prevent women from receiving vaccines that are medically indicated. In Chile, vaccination is recommended for pregnant women, before or during the influenza season. In addition to the end of 2017, vaccination with Tdap of pregnant women with more than 28 weeks of gestation was implemented, with the aim of protecting the newly born against pertussis and its complications. In this article, we review the available literature on the vaccination of pregnant women, mainly focused on immunization against influenza, pertussis and benefits in their children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/methods , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Immunization/methods , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(6): 349-355, June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137837

ABSTRACT

Abstract The new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2, SARSCoV- 2) is a virus that causes a potentially serious respiratory disease that has spread in several countries, reaching humans in all age groups, including pregnant women. The purpose of this protocol is to provide technical and scientific support to Brazilian obstetricians regarding childbirth, postpartum and abortion care during the pandemic.


Resumo O novo coronavírus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV- 2) é umvírus que causa uma doença respiratória potencialmente grave que se espalhou por vários países, acometendo seres humanos de todas as faixas etárias, incluindo gestantes. O propósito deste protocolo é fornecer apoio técnico e científico aos obstetras brasileiros com relação aos cuidados no parto, pós-parto e aborto durante a pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Perinatal Care/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Brazil , Comorbidity , Abortion, Legal/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
14.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(5): 303-304, May 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137833

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 outbreak is increasing around the world in the number of cases, deaths, and affected countries. Currently, the knowledge regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 on maternal, fetal, and placental aspects of pregnancy is minimal. Although the elderly and men were the most affected population, in previous situations, such as the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the Ebola epidemic, pregnant women were more likely to develop complications than nonpregnant women. There are unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. Additional information is needed to inform key decisions, such as whether pregnant health care workers should receive special consideration, whether to separate infected mothers and their new borns, and whether it is safe for infected women to breastfeed.


Resumo A COVID-19 está se disseminando em todo o mundo, expandindo o número de casos, mortes e países afetados. Atualmente, o conhecimento sobre o impacto da COVID-19 nos desfechos materno, fetal e placentário da gravidez é mínimo. A despeito de serem os homens e idosos a população mais afetada em situações anteriores, como a pandemia de influenza H1N1 de 2009 e a epidemia de Ebola, as gestantes foram mais propensas a desenvolver complicações do que as mulheres não grávidas. Em relação à gravidez, existem questões específicas a serem respondidas, tais como se as mulheres grávidas são mais gravemente afetadas e se ocorre transmissão intrauterina. São necessárias informações adicionais para embasar a tomada de decisões, tais como; se as profissionais de saúde grávidas devem receber atenção especial, se é necessário separar as mães infectadas dos seus recém-nascidos e se é seguro que as puérperas infectadas amamentem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 51-63, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092722

ABSTRACT

Resumen La tuberculosis en etapa neonatal tiene una alta morbimortalidad, es de difícil diagnóstico e involucra al binomio madre-hijo y su entorno. Las características particulares del sistema inmune en la mujer gestante y el recién nacido, impactan en la presentación clínica de esta enfermedad. Su diagnóstico es complejo y la instauración del tratamiento debe ser oportuna e impostergable. Se abarcan aspectos relevantes para el diagnóstico y manejo del recién nacido expuesto a la tuberculosis


Abstract Tuberculosis in the neonatal stage has a high morbidity and mortality, is difficult to diagnose and involves the mother-child binomial and their environment. The particular characteristics of the immune system in pregnant women and the newborn, impact the clinical presentation of this disease. Its diagnosis is complex and the establishment of treatment must be timely and cannot be postponed. Relevant aspects for the diagnosis and management of the newborn exposes to the tuberculosis are covered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(12): 4655-4664, dez. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055729

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article aims to identify the prevalence and factors associated with influenza vaccination in pregnant women. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a municipality in the southernmost region of Brazil, which included all women giving birth in 2016. The outcome was having received the vaccine against influenza during pregnancy. Sociodemographic, behavioral and prenatal care characteristics and morbidities were analyzed. The analysis included sample description, the prevalence of vaccination for each independent variable and a multivariate analysis. Two thousand six hundred ninety-four pregnant women were interviewed, of which 53.9% reported having been vaccinated. Factors associated with increased prevalence of vaccination were mother's higher schooling, prenatal care, tetanus vaccination and prenatal care performed in a public service. On the other hand, prenatal care onset after the first quarter reduced the prevalence of vaccination. The results point to the need to reinforce the importance of vaccination against influenza among pregnant women and among health professionals, regardless of the severity of the current epidemiological setting.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar a prevalência da imunização contra a gripe em mulheres grávidas e seus fatores associados. Estudo transversal realizado em um município no extremo sul do Brasil, que incluiu todas as mulheres que deram à luz no ano de 2016. O desfecho foi ter recebido a vacina contra a gripe durante a gravidez. Características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, do pré-natal e morbidades foram analisadas como fatores associados à vacinação. A análise constou de descrição da amostra, prevalência da vacinação para cada uma das variáveis independentes e análise multivariada. Foram entrevistadas 2.694 parturientes, das quais 53,9% informaram ter recebido a vacina. Os fatores associados a uma maior prevalência de imunização foram: maior escolaridade materna, realização do pré-natal, ter realizado a vacina antitetânica e fazer o pré-natal em um serviço público. Por outro lado, o início do pré-natal após o primeiro trimestre reduziu a prevalência de imunização. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de reforçar a importância da imunização contra a Influenza entre mulheres grávidas e entre profissionais da saúde, independentemente da gravidade do atual cenário epidemiológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Prenatal Care , Brazil , Tetanus Toxoid/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Educational Status
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 616-628, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058088

ABSTRACT

Resumen La incorporación de terapias biológicas ha significado un gran avance en el manejo de diversas patologías de origen autoinmune, neoplásico u otros. Si bien su uso ha implicado mejoras significativas en el pronóstico de estas enfermedades, no está exento de complicaciones, entre éstas, las infecciosas. El objetivo de este consenso fue evaluar el perfil de seguridad, desde la mirada infectológica, de las terapias biológicas de uso más frecuente y dar recomendaciones para la prevención de infecciones en pacientes tratados con ellas, basándose en la evidencia de mayor calidad disponible para los biológicos seleccionados. El consenso cuenta de dos manuscritos. Esta segunda parte corresponde a la guía clínica que detalla estas recomendaciones mediante estrategias de cribado, terapias profilácticas e indicación de vacunas, según corresponde, para infecciones bacterianas, y por micobacterias en particular, virus, hongos y parásitos, tanto para adultos como para niños.


The use of biological therapies has meant a great improvement in the management of several conditions like autoimmune, neoplastic or others diseases. Although its use has implied significant improvements in the prognosis of these diseases, it is not exempt from complications: infectious diseases as one of them. The objective of this consensus was to evaluate, from an infectious viewpoint, the safeness of the most frequently used biological therapies and give recommendations for the prevention of infections in patients treated with these drugs. These recommendations were based on the highest quality evidence available for the selected biologics. The consensus counts of 2 manuscripts. This second part is a guideline that details these recommendations through screening strategies, prophylactic therapies and vaccines indications for bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections, both for adults and children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/chemically induced , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Communicable Diseases/chemically induced , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Consensus , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Chile , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Hepatitis B/chemically induced , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
20.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 430-438, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286539

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Congenital syphilis continues to be a public health problem in Mexico. Objective: To assess the similarities and differences between national standards, guidelines and international documents related to the detection of syphilis in pregnant women and congenital syphilis. Method Two algorithms were developed based on the standard of female care during pregnancy and on the standard for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections. Based on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines, algorithms were developed for syphilis during pregnancy, syphilis in the newborn and sexual contacts. Results: The standard for pregnancy mentions that syphilis testing should be carried out in every pregnant woman on her first contact or at delivery, without diagnostic tests being specified. The Official Mexican Standard (NOM) on sexually transmitted infections mentions the traditional algorithm for syphilis detection, treatment follow-up, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus and congenital syphilis criteria. The CDC recommend reverse algorithm, antibody titer, treatment and follow-up as part of diagnosis. Conclusions: The elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis requires NOMs updating and homogenizing, as well as the study of stillbirths and neonates born to mothers with syphilis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Algorithms , Syphilis/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , World Health Organization , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Contact Tracing , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Government Regulation , Mexico
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