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2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 87-96, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With an increasing proportion of multiparas, proper interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) are urgently needed. However, the association between IPIs and adverse perinatal outcomes has always been debated. This study aimed to explore the association between IPIs and adverse outcomes in different fertility policy periods and for different previous gestational ages.@*METHODS@#We used individual data from China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System between 2014 and 2019. Multivariable Poisson models with restricted cubic splines were used. Each adverse outcome was analyzed separately in the overall model and stratified models. The stratified models included different categories of fertility policy periods (2014-2015, 2016-2017, and 2018-2019) and infant gestational age in previous pregnancy (<28 weeks, 28-36 weeks, and ≥37 weeks).@*RESULTS@#There were 781,731 pregnancies enrolled in this study. A short IPI (≤6 months) was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (OR [95% CI]: 1.63 [1.55, 1.71] for vaginal delivery [VD] and 1.10 [1.03, 1.19] for cesarean section [CS]), low Apgar scores and small for gestational age (SGA), and a decreased risk of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, preeclampsia or eclampsia, and gestational hypertension. A long IPI (≥60 months) was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (OR [95% CI]: 1.18 [1.11, 1.26] for VD and 1.39 [1.32, 1.47] for CS), placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, preeclampsia or eclampsia, and gestational hypertension. Fertility policy changes had little effect on the association of IPIs and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. The estimated risk of preterm birth, low Apgar scores, SGA, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, and gestational hypertension was more profound among women with previous term births than among those with preterm births or pregnancy loss.@*CONCLUSION@#For pregnant women with shorter or longer IPIs, more targeted health care measures during pregnancy should be formulated according to infant gestational age in previous pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Infant , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Pre-Eclampsia , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Eclampsia , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Birth Intervals , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus
3.
Femina ; 51(10): 614-626, 20231030. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532465

ABSTRACT

Até este momento da pandemia de COVID-19, embora as gestantes não tenham maior risco de se infectar do que a população geral, elas têm maiores riscos de desenvolver formas graves e demandar cuidados de UTI e ventilação invasiva, so- bretudo aquelas que apresentam comorbidades. No Brasil, a mortalidade materna por COVID-19 está entre as mais elevadas do mundo. A transmissão vertical do SARS-CoV-2 parece ser um evento raro, e até o momento não se observou aumento da ocorrência de abortos e malformações. Entretanto, a COVID-19 está associada a elevadas taxas de prematuridade, baixo peso ao nascer e admissão em UTI neona- tal. Em adaptação a esse novo cenário, são indicados cuidados especiais durante o ciclo gravídico-puerperal, sendo útil destacar: o espaço crescente da telemedicina no pré-natal; a não obrigatoriedade da realização de cesariana em caso de gestan- te infectada no momento do parto e a liberação da amamentação pelas puérperas com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pregnancy Complications , Puerperal Disorders/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Parturition , Premature Birth/prevention & control , Dyspnea/complications , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/methods
4.
Psico USF ; 28(1): 53-66, Jan.-Mar. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431100

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo investigou a experiência da maternidade de mães de bebês nascidos extremamente prematuros durante suas hospitalizações na UTI Neo. Em particular, buscou-se conhecer os sentimentos maternos relacionados a esse contexto. Participaram 18 mães cujos bebês tinham entre 25 e 28 semanas gestacionais e pesavam entre 625g e 1000g. As mães foram entrevistas 15 dias após o parto e as respostas foram examinadas por meio de análise de conteúdo qualitativa. Foram desenvolvidos três eixos, derivados das entrevistas: sentimentos sobre a UTI Neo; sentimentos sobre as manifestações do bebê; e sentimentos sobre a maternidade. Os achados revelaram uma complexidade de sentimentos maternos no contexto da UTI Neo. Porém, destacaram-se nas verbalizações maternas o investimento narcísico das mães nos seus bebês, que as levavam a se comunicar com eles a partir de pequenos gestos e expressões sensoriais, o que oportunizava, simultaneamente, a construção de um lugar simbólico para o bebê. (AU)


The present study investigated the motherhood experience of mothers of extremely preterm infants during their hospitalizations in the NICU. In particular, we sought to investigate the maternal feelings related to this context. Participants included 18 mothers whose babies were between 25 and 28 gestational weeks and weighed between 625g and 1000g. Mothers were interviewed 15 days after delivery and the responses were examined using qualitative content analysis. Three axes were developed, derived from the interviews: feelings about the NICU; feelings about the baby's manifestations; and feelings about motherhood. The findings revealed the complexity of maternal feelings in the context of the NICU. However, the mothers' narcissistic investment in their babies, which led them to communicate with them using small gestures and sensory expressions, stood out in the maternal verbalizations, which simultaneously made it possible to build a symbolic place for the infant. (AU)


El presente estudio investigó la experiencia de maternidad de madres de bebés nacidos extremadamente prematuros durante sus hospitalizaciones en la UCI Neonatal. En particular, se buscó conocer los sentimientos maternos relacionados con este contexto. Participaron 18 madres cuyos bebés tenían entre 25 y 28 semanas de gestación y pesaban entre 625 g y 1000 g. Las madres fueron entrevistadas 15 días después del parto y las respuestas se examinaron mediante análisis de contenido cualitativo. Se desarrollaron tres ejes, derivados de las entrevistas: sentimientos sobre la UCI Neonatal; sentimientos sobre las manifestaciones del bebé; y sentimientos sobre la maternidad. Los hallazgos revelaron una complejidad de los sentimientos maternos en el contexto de la UCI Neonatal. Sin embargo, la inversión narcisista de las madres en sus bebés se evidenció en sus verbalizaciones, que las llevaba a comunicarse con ellos a través de pequeños gestos y expresiones sensoriales que, simultáneamente, permitían la construcción de un lugar simbólico para el bebé. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Premature Birth , Emotions , Mother-Child Relations , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Perinatal Care , Qualitative Research , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Sociodemographic Factors , Nonverbal Communication
5.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 32(2): e2022603, 2023. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440089

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mensurar a prevalência de prematuridade segundo macrorregião brasileira e características maternas, nos últimos 11 anos; comparar as proporções durante a pandemia de covid-19 (2020-2021) com as da série histórica (2011-2019). Métodos: estudo ecológico, com dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos; prevalências calculadas segundo ano, macrorregião e características maternas; análise da série temporal pelo modelo de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: a prevalência de prematuridade em 2011-2021 foi de 11,1%, estável; a média no período pandêmico 11,3% (IC95% 11,2;11,4%) assemelhou-se à do período-base 11,0% (IC95% 10,6;11,5%); a região Norte (11,6%) apresentou a maior proporção entre 2011 e 2021; gestação gemelar (56,3%) e gestantes com 4-6 consultas de pré-natal (16,7%) apresentaram tendência crescente (p-valor < 0,001); observou-se maior prevalência para extremos de idade materna, gestantes de raça/cor da pele preta, indígenas e menor escolaridade. Conclusão: maior prematuridade nas gestantes socialmente vulneráveis, em gestações gemelares e no Norte; prevalência estável, sem diferença entre períodos.


Objetivo: medir la prevalência de prematuridad de 2011 a 2021, según macrorregión brasileña y características maternas, comparando los años de pandemia de COVID-19, con 2011-2019. Métodos: estudio ecológico basado en el Sistema de Información de Nacimientos Vivos. Prevalencias calculadas según año, macrorregión y características maternas. Análisis de series temporales por el modelo generalizado de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: la prematuridad entre 2011-2021 fue 11,1%, con estabilidade; la media de en el periodo de la pandemia 11,3% (IC95% 11,2;11,4) se asemejó a la media de referencia 11,0% (IC95% 10,6;11,5). Región del norte tuvo la proporción más alta entre 2011 y 2021. Embarazo gemelar y mujeres con 4-6 visitas prenatales tuvieron tendencia al aumento. Prevalencias más elevadas correspondían a la edad materna extrema, mujeres embarazadas negras e indígenas y niveles de educación más bajos. Conclusión: mayor prematuridad en situación de vulnerabilidad social, embarazos gemelares y de la Región Norte. Proporciones se mantuvieron estables, sin diferencias entre períodos.


Objective: to measure the prevalence of prematurity according to the Brazilian macro-regions and maternal characteristics over the past 11 years; to compare the proportions during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021) with those of the historical series (2011-2019). Methods: this was an ecological study, with data from the Live Birth Information System; the prevalence was calculated according to year, macro-region and maternal characteristics; time series analysis was performed using Prais-Winsten regression model. Results: the prevalence of preterm birth in 2011-2021 was 11.1%, stable; the average in the pandemic period 11.3% (95%CI 11.2;11.4%) was similar to that of the base period 11.0% (95%CI 10.6;11.5%); the North region (11.6%) showed the highest proportion between 2011 and 2021; twin pregnancy (56.3%) and pregnant women who had 4-6 prenatal care visits (16.7%) showed an increasing trend (p-value < 0.001); the highest prevalence was observed for extremes of maternal age, pregnant women of Black race/skin color, indigenous women and those with lower level of education. Conclusion: preterm birth rates were highest for socially vulnerable pregnant women, twin pregnancies and in the North; stable prevalence, with no difference between periods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Time Series Studies , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Obstetric Labor, Premature
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252071, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440790

ABSTRACT

Este artigo analisou a percepção e os sentimentos de casais sobre o atendimento recebido nos serviços de saúde acessados em função de perda gestacional (óbito fetal ante e intraparto). O convite para a pesquisa foi divulgado em mídias sociais (Instagram e Facebook). Dos 66 casais que contataram a equipe, 12 participaram do estudo, cuja coleta de dados ocorreu em 2018. Os casais responderam conjuntamente a uma ficha de dados sociodemográficos e uma entrevista semiestruturada, realizada presencialmente (n=4) ou por videochamada (n=8). Os dados foram gravados em áudio e posteriormente transcritos. A Análise Temática indutiva das entrevistas identificou cinco temas: sentimento de impotência, iatrogenia vivida nos serviços, falta de cuidado em saúde mental, não reconhecimento da perda como evento com consequências emocionais negativas, e características do bom atendimento. Os achados demonstraram situações de violência, comunicação deficitária, desvalorização das perdas precoces, falta de suporte para contato com o bebê falecido e rotinas pouco humanizadas, especialmente durante a internação após a perda. Para aprimorar a assistência às famílias enlutadas, sugere-se qualificação profissional, ampliação da visibilidade do tema entre diferentes atores e reorganização dos serviços, considerando uma diretriz clínica para atenção ao luto perinatal, com destaque para o fortalecimento da inserção de equipes de saúde mental no contexto hospitalar.(AU)


This study analyzed couples' perceptions and feelings about pregnancy loss care (ante and intrapartum fetal death). A research invitation was published on social media (Instagram and Facebook) and data collection took place in 2018. Of the 66 couples who contacted the research team, 12 participated in the study by filling a sociodemographic questionnaire and answering a semi-structured interview in person (n=04) or by video call (n=08). All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and examined by Inductive Thematic Analysis, which identified five themes: feelings of impotence, iatrogenic experiences in health services, lack of mental health care, not recognizing pregnancy loss as an emotionally overwhelming event, and aspects of good healthcare. Analysis showed experiences of violence, poor communication, devaluation of early losses, lack of support for contact with the deceased baby, and dehumanizing routines, especially during hospitalization after loss. Professional qualification, extended pregnancy loss visibility among different stakeholders, and reorganization of health services are needed to improve the care offered to grieving families, considering a clinical guideline for perinatal grief care with emphasis on strengthening the insertion of mental health teams in the hospital context.(AU)


Este estudio analizó las percepciones y sentimientos de parejas sobre la atención recibida en los servicios de salud a los que accedieron debido a la pérdida del embarazo (muerte fetal ante e intraparto). La invitación al estudio se publicó en las redes sociales (Instagram y Facebook). De las 66 parejas que se contactaron con el equipo, 12 participaron en el estudio, cuya recolección de datos se realizó en 2018. Las parejas respondieron un formulario de datos sociodemográficos y realizaron una entrevista semiestructurada presencialmente (n=4) o por videollamada (n=08). Los datos se grabaron en audio para su posterior transcripción. El análisis temático inductivo identificó cinco temas: Sentimiento de impotencia, experiencias iatrogénicas en los servicios, falta de atención a la salud mental, falta de reconocimiento de la pérdida como un evento con consecuencias emocionales negativas y características de buena atención. Los hallazgos evidenciaron situaciones de violencia, comunicación deficiente, desvalorización de las pérdidas tempranas, falta de apoyo para el contacto con el bebé fallecido y rutinas poco humanizadas, especialmente durante la hospitalización tras la pérdida. Para mejorar la atención a las familias en duelo, se sugiere capacitación profesional, ampliación de la visibilidad del tema entre los diferentes actores y reorganización de los servicios, teniendo en cuenta una guía clínica para la atención del duelo perinatal, enfocada en fortalecer la inserción de los equipos de salud mental en el contexto hospitalario.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Child Health Services , Mental Health , Humanization of Assistance , Fetal Death , Pain , Parents , Pediatrics , Perinatology , Placenta Diseases , Prejudice , Prenatal Care , Psychology , Psychology, Medical , Public Policy , Quality of Health Care , Reproduction , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Torture , Uterine Contraction , Birth Injuries , Maternity Allocation , Labor, Obstetric , Trial of Labor , Adaptation, Psychological , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Care , Maternal-Child Nursing , Refusal to Treat , Women's Health , Patient Satisfaction , Parenting , Parental Leave , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Privacy , Depression, Postpartum , Credentialing , Affect , Crying , Curettage , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Access to Information , Ethics, Clinical , Humanizing Delivery , Abortion, Threatened , Denial, Psychological , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Parturition , Labor Pain , Premature Birth , Prenatal Injuries , Fetal Mortality , Abruptio Placentae , Violence Against Women , Abortion , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Stillbirth , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nuchal Cord , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Fear , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Fertility , Fetal Diseases , Prescription Drug Misuse , Hope , Prenatal Education , Courage , Psychological Trauma , Professionalism , Psychosocial Support Systems , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Obstetric Violence , Family Support , Obstetricians , Guilt , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitals, Maternity , Obstetric Labor Complications , Labor, Induced , Anger , Loneliness , Love , Midwifery , Mothers , Nursing Care
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
8.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 44(NA)2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425232

ABSTRACT

Introduction: déterminer les complications périnatales associées aux grossesses rapprochées. Méthodes: une étude cas-témoin rétrospective menée du 1er juin 2020 au 1er juin 2021 au centre hospitalier provincial de Settat. Au total, 670 patients ont été recrutés. Six cent trente personnes ont été réparties en deux groupes. Un groupe de patientes avec des intervalles intergénésique <9 mois (N = 443) et un groupe témoin >9 mois (N = 187). Résultats: la prématurité, la dénutrition et l'anémie p<0,05 étaient les principales complications et les principaux facteurs de risque de grossesse imminente étaient l'âge >35 ans (OR = 19,079 (4,98; 73,06) p<0,005) et le milieu rural (OR = 0,468)) (0,28; 0,78) p<0,005), niveau socio-économique bas (OR = 3,465 (2,06; 5,81) p<0,005); absence de prescriptions contraceptives postnatales (OR = 15,77 [7,31; 33,99]; p<0,005); absence d´allaitement avant la grossesse (OR = 49,462 [15,78; 155,03]; p<0,05). Conclusion: des soins préventifs et ciblés sont nécessaires en matière de planification familiale pour éviter les complications périnatales.


Introduction: the purpose of this study is to provide Moroccan data, study maternal risk factors and identify perinatal complications related to closely-spaced pregnancies. Methods: we conducted a retrospective case-control study at the Provincial Hospital Center in the city of Settat since June 1, 2020 to June 1, 2021. A total of 1,200 patients were admitted, but only 630 were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups: a group of patients whose interpregnancy interval was <9 months (N = 443) and a control group whose interpregnancy interval was >9 months (N = 187). Results: prematurity, hypotrophy and anemia p<0,05 were the main complications, the main risk factors for closely-spaced pregnancies were age >35 years (OR =19,079 (4,98; 73,06) p < 0,005), coming from a rural area (OR = 0,468 [0,28; 0,78] p < 0,005), having a low socioeconomic status (OR =3,465 [2,06; 5,81]; p < 0,005); the absence of contraceptive prescription in the postpartum period (OR =15,77 [7,31; 33,99]; p < 0,005); and breastfeeding breaks before getting pregnant (OR = 49,462 [15,78; 155,03]; p<0,05). Conclusion: prevention and specific family planning methods are necessary to avoid perinatal complications.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications , Birth Intervals , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Postpartum Period , Breast Feeding , Anemia
9.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 495-501, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association between periconceptional supplementation of folic acid or multiple-micronutrients containing folic acid(MMFA) and risk of preterm delivery in women with natural conception, singleton pregnancy and vaginal delivery.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was performed based on the prenatal health care system and hospital information system of Tongzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Beijing and the women who had their prenatal care in the hospital from January 2015 to December 2018 were included. The information of 16 332 women who conceived naturally, had a singleton pregnancy, and delivered vaginally was collected. Compliance scores were constructed based on the time of initiation and the frequency of taking nutritional supplements. The association between maternal periconceptional micronutrient supplementation, including pure folic acid (FA) pills or MMFA and the rate of preterm delivery was evaluated using Logistic regression models.@*RESULTS@#The preterm delivery rate (gestational week < 37 weeks) of the study population was 3.8%, and the mean (standard deviation) of gestational age was (38.98±1.37) weeks. A total of 6 174 (37.8%) women took FA during the periconceptional period, 8 646 (52.9%) women took MMFA, and 1 512 (9.3%) women did not take any nutritional supplements. The association between periconceptional supplementation of FA or MMFA and risk of preterm delivery in women was not statistically significant [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.01, 95%CI: 0.74-1.37]. The associations with preterm birth were not statistically significant in further analysis by the type of nutritional supplements, time of initiation, and the frequency of supplementation. In addition, the association between the compliance score of taking supplements and the rate of preterm delivery was not statistically significant, either.@*CONCLUSION@#This study did not find an association between the risk of preterm delivery and the use of FA or MMFA during the periconcep-tional period in women with natural conception, singleton pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. In the future, multicenter studies with large-scale prospective cohort or population-based randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the association between taking FA or MMFA during the periconceptional period and preterm delivery among women.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant , Male , Folic Acid , Premature Birth/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients
10.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 17-25, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971640

ABSTRACT

The root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, also called Huangqin, is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine. In ancient China, S. baicalensis root was used to clear heat, protect the fetus, and avoid a miscarriage for thousands of years. In modern times, pregnancy-related diseases can seriously affect maternal and fetal health, but few systematic studies have explored the mechanisms and potential targets of S. baicalensis root in the treatment of pregnancy-related diseases. Flavonoids (baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A) and flavonoid glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) are the main chemical components in the root of S. baicalensis. This study presents the current understanding of the major chemical components in the root of S. baicalensis, focusing on their traditional uses, potential therapeutic effects and ethnopharmacological relevance to pregnancy-related disorders. The mechanisms, potential targets and experimental models of S. baicalensis root for ameliorating pregnancy-related diseases, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and gestational diabetes mellitus, are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Scutellaria baicalensis , Premature Birth/drug therapy , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Ethnopharmacology , China
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 291-298, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of Zishen Yutai Pills (ZYPs) on the quality of oocytes and embryos, as well as pregnancy outcomes in patients with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) receiving in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The possible mechanisms, involving the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), were also investigated.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 patients with DOR who underwent their IVF-ET cycle were randomly allocated to 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio. The patients in the treatment group (60 cases) received ZYPs from the mid-luteal phase of the former menstrual cycle by using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol. The patients in the control group (60 cases) received the same protocol but without ZYPs. The primary outcomes were the number of oocytes retrieved and high-quality embryos. Secondary outcomes included other oocyte or embryo indices as well as pregnancy outcomes. Adverse events were assessed by comparison of the incidence of ectopic pregnancy, pregnancy complications, pregnancy loss, and preterm birth. Contents of BMP15 and GDF9 in the follicle fluids (FF) were also quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the numbers of oocytes retrieved and high-quality embryos were significantly increased in the ZYPs group (both P<0.05). After treatment with ZYPs, a significant regulation of serum sex hormones was observed, including progesterone and estradiol. Both hormones were up-regulated compared with the control group (P=0.014 and 0.008), respectively. No significant differences were observed with regard to pregnancy outcomes including implantation rates, biochemical pregnancy rates, clinical pregnancy rates, live birth rates, and pregnancy loss rates (all P>0.05). The administration of ZYPs did not increase the incidence of adverse events. The expressions of BMP15 and GDF9 in the ZYPs group were significantly up-regulated compared with the control group (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ZYPs exhibited beneficial effects in DOR patients undergoing IVF-ET, resulting in increments of oocytes and embryos, and up-regulation of BMP15 and GDF9 expressions in the FF. However, the effects of ZYPs on pregnancy outcomes should be assessed in clinical trials with larger sample sizes (Trial reqistration No. ChiCTR2100048441).


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Ovarian Reserve , Prospective Studies , Premature Birth , Embryo Transfer/methods , Ovulation Induction/methods , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/therapeutic use
12.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 135-139, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in the rapid clinical diagnosis of critically ill neonates.@*METHODS@#The critically ill neonates who admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Children's Hospital of Fudan University and underwent WGS from August to September, 2019 were enrolled in this prospective study. The genetic testing results and clinical outcome were analyzed with reference to the sequencing data and clinical features of the neonates.@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 neonates were tested, among whom there were 9 boys and 6 girls. The main reason for hospitalization included abnormal breathing in 7 neonates, poor response in 2 neonates, feeding difficulty in 2 neonates, fever in 1 neonate, hypothermia in 1 neonate, preterm birth in 1 neonate, and convulsion in 1 neonate. The mean turn-around time was 4.5 days for WGS. Finally a genetic diagnosis was obtained for 3 neonates, with a positive diagnostic rate of 20% (3/15). Among the 3 neonates, 2 neonates were withdrawn from the treatment due to severe conditions and 1 neonate died on the day when the sample was sent for genetic testing, whose etiology could be explained by the results of genetic testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WGS technique can provide a timely and effective diagnosis for critically ill neonates suspected of genetic diseases and provide genetic evidence for clinical treatment of critically ill cases.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Critical Illness , Prospective Studies , Premature Birth , Dyspnea , Fever
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 104-108, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971047

ABSTRACT

About 3% of pregnant women suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). This article reviews the literature on the outcomes of neonates born to mothers with CKD (including those undergoing dialysis and kidney transplantation), and the results show that CKD during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infant, but it does not increase the risk of congenital anomalies. As for long-term outcomes, CKD during pregnancy has no significant impact on offspring's physical development and immune function. Neurodevelopmental outcome of offspring is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, rather than intrauterine drug exposure. However, further research and follow-up are needed to investigate the outcome of neonates born to mothers with CKD.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Birth Weight , Premature Birth , Mothers , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Infant, Small for Gestational Age
14.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 658-662, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982009

ABSTRACT

The female infant in this case study was admitted to the hospital 4 hours after birth due to preterm birth and respiratory distress. On the third day after birth, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) catheterization was performed. On day 42, thrombus was found at the entrance of the right atrium from the inferior vena cava during a cardiac ultrasound, and it was considered to be related to PICC placement. Low-molecular-weight heparin and urokinase were given. After two weeks of treatment, ultrasonic monitoring showed thrombus shrinkage. No bleeding or pulmonary embolism occurred during the treatment. The patient discharged after improvement. This article mainly introduces a multidisciplinary team approach to diagnosis and treatment of PICC-related thrombosis in neonates.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Female , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Premature Birth , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Catheterization, Peripheral
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 415-419, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981972

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease that affects multiple organs and systems. It is more common in women of childbearing age. Compared with the general population, pregnant women with SLE are at a significantly increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, the offspring of SLE patients may also be adversely affected by in utero exposure to maternal autoantibodies, cytokines, and drugs. This article summarizes the long-term developmental outcomes of offspring of pregnant women with SLE in terms of the blood system, circulatory system, nervous system, and immune system.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 425-433, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985886

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish the reference values and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight among Chinese newborns in order to provide a reference for the assessment of body proportionality at birth. Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied. A total of 24 375 singleton live birth newborns with gestational ages at birth of 24+0 to 42+6 weeks were recruited from June 2015 to November 2018 from 13 cities including Beijing, Harbin, Xi'an, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Kunming, Tianjin, Shenyang, Changsha, and Shenzhen, excluding those with maternal or newborn conditions that may impact the establishment of the reference values. The generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape was employed to establish reference values in terms of percentile and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight for male and female newborns. The random forest machine learning method was employed to analyze the importance of variables between the established reference values in this study and the previous published weight/length, body mass index (BMI), ponderal index (PI), weight/head circumference, length/head circumference in the assessment of symmetrical and asymmetrical small for gestational age (SGA) newborns. Results: A total of 24 375 newborns with 13 197 male infants (preterm birth 7 042 infants and term birth 6 155 infants) and 11 178 female infants (preterm birth 5 222 infants and term birth 5 956 infants) were included in this study. The reference values in terms of percentile (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97) and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight were obtained for male and female newborns with gestational ages of 24+0 to 42+6 weeks. The median birth lengths corresponding to the birth weights of 1 500, 2 500, 3 000, and 4 000 g were 40.4, 47.0, 49.3 and 52.1 cm for males and 40.4, 47.0, 49.2, and 51.8 cm for females, respectively; the median birth head circumferences were 28.4, 32.0, 33.2 and 35.2 cm for males and 28.4, 32.0, 33.1, and 35.1 cm for females, respectively. The differences of length for weight between males and females were minimum, with the difference range of -0.3 to 0.3 cm at P50; the differences of head circumference for weight between males and females were minimum, with the difference range of 0 to 0.2 cm at P50. Based on the match between birth length and birth weight for classifying symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA, length for weight and PI contributed the most, accounting for 0.32 and 0.25, respectively; based on the match between birth head circumference and birth weight, head circumference for weight and weight/head circumference contributed the most, accounting for 0.55 and 0.12, respectively; based on the match between birth length or head circumference with birth weight, head circumference for weight and length for weight contributed the most, accounting for 0.26 and 0.21, respectively. Conclusion: The establishment of the new standardized growth reference values and growth curves of length for weight and head circumference for weight among Chinese newborns are useful for clinical practice and scientific research.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Birth Weight , Body Height , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , East Asian People , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Premature Birth , Reference Values
17.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 322-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985870

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and the risk factors of severe human metapneumovirus (hMPV)-associated community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Methods: A retrospective case summary was conducted. From December 2020 to March 2022, 721 children who were diagnosed with CAP and tested positive for hMPV nucleic acid by PCR-capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of nasopharyngeal secretions at the Yuying Children's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were selected as the research objects. The clinical characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and mixed pathogens of the two groups were analyzed. According to CAP diagnostic criteria, the children were divided into the severe group and the mild group. Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney rank and contrast analysis was used for comparison between groups, while multivariate Logistic regression was applied to analyze the risk factors of the severe hMPV-associated CAP. Results: A total of 721 children who were diagnosed with hMPV-associated CAP were included in this study, with 397 males and 324 females. There were 154 cases in the severe group. The age of onset was 1.0 (0.9, 3.0) years, <3 years old 104 cases (67.5%), and the length of hospital stay was 7 (6, 9) days. In the severe group, 67 children (43.5%) were complicated with underlying diseases. In the severe group, 154 cases (100.0%) had cough, 148 cases (96.1%) had shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, and 132 cases (85.7%) had fever, 23 cases (14.9%) were complicated with respiratory failure. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 86 children (55.8%), including CRP≥50 mg/L in 33 children (21.4%). Co-infection was detected in 77 cases (50.0%) and 102 strains of pathogen were detected, 25 strains of rhinovirus, 17 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 15 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 12 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and 10 strains of respiratory syncytial virus were detected. Six cases (3.9%) received heated and humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, 15 cases (9.7%) were admitted to intensive care unit, and 2 cases (1.3%) received mechanical ventilation. In the severe group, 108 children were cured, 42 children were improved, 4 chlidren were discharged automatically without recovery and no death occurred. There were 567 cases in the mild group. The age of onset was 2.7 (1.0, 4.0) years, and the length of hospital stay was 4 (4, 6) days.Compared with the mild group, the proportion of children who age of disease onset <6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, the proportions of preterm birth, congenital heart disease, malnutrition, congenital airway malformation, neuromuscular disease, mixed respiratory syncytial viruses infection were higher (20 cases (13.0%) vs. 31 cases (5.5%), 32 cases (20.8%) vs. 64 cases (11.3%), 23 cases (14.9%) vs. 44 cases (7.8%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 18 cases (3.2%), 9 cases (5.8%) vs. 6 cases (1.1%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 12 cases (2.1%), 8 cases (5.2%) vs. 4 cases (0.7%), 10 cases (6.5%) vs. 13 cases (2.3%), χ2=0.42, 9.45, 7.40, 4.94, 11.40, 8.35, 3.52, 6.92, all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age<6 months (OR=2.51, 95%CI 1.29-4.89), CRP≥50 mg/L (OR=2.20, 95%CI 1.36-3.57), prematurity (OR=2.19, 95%CI 1.26-3.81), malnutrition (OR=6.05, 95%CI 1.89-19.39) were the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP. Conclusions: Severe hMPV-associated CAP is most likely to occur in infants under 3 years old and has a higher proportion of underlying diseases and co-infection. The main clinical manifestations are cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, fever. The overall prognosis is good. Age<6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, preterm birth, malnutrition are the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP.


Subject(s)
Infant , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Cough , Coinfection , Premature Birth , Respiratory Sounds , Metapneumovirus , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 809-815, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985566

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preterm birth subtypes. Methods: Based on the cohort of pregnant women in Anqing Prefectural Hospital, the pregnant women who received prenatal screening in the first or second trimesters were recruited into baseline cohorts; and followed up for them was conducted until delivery, and the information about their pregnancy status and outcomes were obtained through electronic medical record system and questionnaire surveys. The log-binomial regression model was used to explore the association between GDM and preterm birth [iatrogenic preterm birth, spontaneous preterm birth (preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor)]. For multiple confounding factors, the propensity score correction model was used to compute the adjusted association. Results: Among the 2 031 pregnant women with a singleton delivery, the incidence of GDM and preterm birth were 10.0% (204 cases) and 4.4% (90 cases) respectively. The proportions of iatrogenic preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth in the GDM group (n=204) were 1.5% and 5.9% respectively, while the proportions in non-GDM group (n=1 827) were 0.9% and 3.2% respectively, and the difference in the proportion of spontaneous preterm birth between the two groups was significant (P=0.048). Subtypes of spontaneous preterm were further analyzed, and the results showed that the proportions of preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor in the GDM group were 4.9% and 1.0% respectively, while the proportions in the non-GDM group were 2.1% and 1.1% respectively. It showed that the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes in GDM pregnant women was 2.34 times (aRR=2.34, 95%CI: 1.16-4.69) higher than that in non-GDM pregnant women. Conclusions: Our results showed that GDM might increase the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes. No significant increase in the proportion of preterm labor in pregnant women with GDM was found.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Premature Birth , Diabetes, Gestational , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Hospitals , Iatrogenic Disease
19.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 899-904, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985493

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence of preterm birth based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) stratification and explore the associated factors of preterm birth among pregnant women at different BMI stratifications. Methods: From February 2018 to December 2020, pregnant women who participated in China Birth Cohort Study (CBCS) and gave birth at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled as the study subjects. Electronic Data Capture System and standard structured questionnaires were used to collect data related to pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and delivery for pregnant women. Pregnant women were divided into the low-weight group, normal-weight group and overweight group based on their pre-pregnancy BMI. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the associated factors of preterm birth among pregnant women with different BMI before pregnancy. Results: A total of 27 195 singleton pregnant women were included, with a preterm birth rate of 5.08% (1 381/27 195). The preterm birth rates in the low-weight group, normal-weight group and overweight group were 4.29% (138/3 219), 4.63% (852/18 390) and 7.00% (391/5 586) respectively (P<0.001). After adjusting for relevant factors, the Cox proportional hazards model showed that the risk of preterm birth in the overweight group was 1.457 times higher than that in the normal-weight group (95%CI: 1.292-1.643). Preeclampsia-eclampsia (HR=2.701, 95%CI: 1.318-5.537) was the associated factor for preterm birth in the low-weight group. Advanced maternal age (HR=1.232, 95%CI: 1.054-1.441), history of preterm birth (HR=4.647, 95%CI: 3.314-6.515), vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (HR=1.613, 95%CI: 1.380-1.884), and preeclampsia-eclampsia (HR=3.553, 95%CI: 2.866-4.404) were associated factors for preterm birth in the normal-weight group. Advanced maternal age (HR=1.473, 95%CI: 1.193-1.818), history of preterm birth (HR=3.209, 95%CI: 1.960-5.253), vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (HR=1.636, 95%CI: 1.301-2.058), preeclampsia-eclampsia (HR=2.873, 95%CI:2.265-3.643), and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (HR=1.867, 95%CI: 1.283-2.717) were associated factors for preterm birth in the overweight group. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy overweight is an associated factor for preterm birth, and there are significant differences in the associated factors of preterm birth among pregnant women with different BMI before pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Body Mass Index , Overweight/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Eclampsia , Incidence , Risk Factors , Thinness/epidemiology
20.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1239-1245, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the association between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and birth weight discordance in twins (BWDT).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on twin infants born between January 2011 and December 2020 at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, with complete basic birth data. The impact of ART on the occurrence of BWDT was identified by the multivariate logistic regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3 974 pairs of twins were included, with 1 431 conceived naturally and 2 543 through ART. Neonates in the ART group had higher birth weights than those in the naturally conceived group (P<0.001). The incidence of BWDT was lower in the ART group compared to the naturally conceived group (16.17% vs 21.09%, P<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for confounding factors such as maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, hypothyroidism, gestational age, and chorionic properties, showed no significant difference in the risk of BWDT between the ART and naturally conceived groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ART is not associated with the risk of BWDT.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Birth Weight , Pregnancy Outcome , Infant, Premature , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy, Multiple , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Population Surveillance , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications
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