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1.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 1174-1179, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010592

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum is a mushroom widely used for its edible and medicinal properties. Primary bioactive constituents of G. lucidum are ganoderic triterpenoids (GTs), which exhibit important pharmacological activity. Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, is associated with plant growth, development, and stress responses. ABA can also affect the growth, metabolism, and physiological activities of different fungi and participates in the regulation of the tetracyclic triterpenes of some plants. Our findings indicated that ABA treatment promoted GT accumulation by regulating the gene expression levels (squalene synthase (sqs), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (hmgr), and lanosterol synthase (ls)), and also activated cytosolic Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, under ABA mediation, exogenous Ca2+ donors and inhibitors directly affected the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and related gene expression in Ca2+ signaling. Our study also revealed that ABA-mediated cytosolic Ca2+ played a crucial regulatory role in GT biosynthesis, accompanied by antioxidant defense modulation with increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and the resistance ability of O2•- and glutathione (GSH) contents.


Subject(s)
Reishi/metabolism , Triterpenes/metabolism , Abscisic Acid/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 829-834, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970553

ABSTRACT

In the digital transformation of Chinese pharmaceutical industry, how to efficiently govern and analyze industrial data and excavate the valuable information contained therein to guide the production of drug products has always been a research hotspot and application difficulty. Generally, the Chinese pharmaceutical technique is relatively extensive, and the consistency of drug quality needs to be improved. To address this problem, we proposed an optimization method combining advanced calculation tools(e.g., Bayesian network, convolutional neural network, and Pareto multi-objective optimization algorithm) with lean six sigma tools(e.g., Shewhart control chart and process performance index) to dig deeply into historical industrial data and guide the continuous improvement of pharmaceutical processes. Further, we employed this strategy to optimize the manufacturing process of sporoderm-removal Ganoderma lucidum spore powder. After optimization, we preliminarily obtained the possible interval combination of critical parameters to ensure the P_(pk) values of the critical quality properties including moisture, fineness, crude polysaccharide, and total triterpenes of the sporoderm-removal G. lucidum spore powder to be no less than 1.33. The results indicate that the proposed strategy has an industrial application value.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Data Mining , Drug Industry , Powders , Reishi , Spores, Fungal
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5072-5079, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921646

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharide is among the main active components of Ganoderma lucidum for tumor prevention and treatment. Howe-ver, it remains unclear whether it has synergy with tumor immunotherapy. This study evaluated the effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides(GLP) on the infiltration of T lymphocytes into tumor and the underlying mechanism, in order to provide a reference for its application in tumor immunotherapy. GLP were prepared by water extraction and alcohol precipitation combined with Sevag method and then given(intraperitoneal injection) to the mice bearing B16-F10 cells at 25, 50 and 100 mg kg~(-1), respectively, to evaluate the effect on tumor growth. The infiltration of CD3~+ and CD8~+ T cells and the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in tumor were detected by immunohistochemistry. EA.hy926 cells were treated with 50, 100 and 200 μg·mL~(-1) GLP, and the expression of ICAM-1 was determined by Western blot. The adhesion of EA.hy926 cells treated with GLP was measured with fluorescence-labeled Jurkat cells. To analyze the mechanism based on NF-κB pathway, this study determined the protein levels of nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) p65, alpha inhibitor of NF-κB(IκBα), p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα by Western blot. The results showed that GLP can significantly inhibit the tumor growth in mice bearing B16-F10 cells, promote the infiltration of CD3~+ and CD8~+ T cells in tumor, and increase the expression of ICAM-1 in tumor. Meanwhile, GLP could also enhance the expression of ICAM-1 in EA.hy926 cells, thus strengthen the adhesion to Jurkat cells, induce phosphorylation and protein degradation of IκBα, and raise the expression and phosphorylation level of NF-κB p65. These results suggested that GLP could promote the expression of ICAM-1 through NF-κB pathway and further enhance the infiltration of T lymphocytes into tumor, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. This study lays a foundation for the further application of GLP in tumor immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neoplasms , Polysaccharides , Reishi , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(1): e202000103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088520

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum on testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Thirty male Wistar albino rats were randomly categorized into 3 groups: Group 1: sham, Group 2 ( T/D): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion, Group 3 (T/D+ G. lucidum ): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion and 7 days of 20 mg/kg via gastric gavage G. lucidum polysaccharides per day. Biochemical assays of Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH) levels , histopathology and expression levels of VEGF and Bcl-2 with immunohistochemical methods were examined in testicular tissue. Results G. lucidum treatment was found to have prevented the T/D-induced I/R injury by decreasing MDA levels of the testis. SOD, CAT and GSH activities were decreased in group 2, while they were increased in group 3 (p<0.001) and significant improvement in the tube diameter was observed in group 3. Bcl-2-positive germinal cells were lowered in group 3 compared to the group 2. VEGF expression showed an increase in group 2, whereas it decreased in group 3. Conclusion The antioxidant G. lucidum is thought to induce angiogenesis by reducing the apoptotic effect in testicular torsion-detorsion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatic Cord Torsion/complications , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reishi/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Catalase/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(9): e201900904, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054694

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: Ganoderma lucidum, a kind of mushroom used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, was investigated in the present study for its possible healing effect on calvarial defects with bone grafts. Methods: Wistar male rats (n = 30) were divided into 3 groups: 1) the control (defect) group (n = 10), 2) defect and graft group (n = 10), and 3) defect, graft, and G. lucidum treated group (n = 10). The G. lucidum was administered to the rats at 20 mL/kg per day via gastric lavage. Results: In the defect and graft group, osteonectin positive expression was observed in osteoblast and osteocyte cells at the periphery of the small bone trabeculae within the graft area. In the defect, graft, and G. lucidum treated group, osteonectin expression was positive in the osteoblast and osteocyte cells and positive osteonectin expression in new bone trabeculae. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was positive in the inflammatory cells, fibroblast cells, and degenerated collagen fibril areas within the defect area. Conclusion: This study shows that, with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, G. Lucidum is an important factor in the treatment of calvarial bone defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Skull/surgery , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Bone Transplantation , Reishi/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Skull/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Osseointegration/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 203-209, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS) on human fibroblasts and skin wound healing in Kunming male mice and to explore the putative molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Primary human skin fibroblasts were cultured. The viability of fibroblasts treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 μg/mL of GL-PS, respectively were detected by 3-4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-Htetrazolium bromide (MTT). The migration ability of fibroblasts treated with 0, 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of GL-PS were measured by transwell assay. The secretion of the C-terminal peptide of procollagen type I (CICP) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the cell supernatant was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of β-catenin was detected by Western blot. Furthermore, the Kunming mouse model with full-layer skin resection trauma was established, and was treated with 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL of GL-PS, respectively as external use. The size of the wound was measured daily, complete healing time in each group was recorded and the percentage of wound contraction was calculated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of GL-PS significantly increased the viability of fibroblasts, promoted the migration ability of fibroblasts, and up-regulated the expressions of CICP and TGF-β1 in fibroblasts (Plt;0.05 or Plt;0.01). The expression of β-catenin in fibroblasts treated with 20 and 40 μg/mL of GL-PS was significantly higher than that of the control group (Plt;0.01). Furthermore, after external use of 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL of GL-PS, the rates of wound healing in mice were significantly higher and the wound healing time was significantly less than the control group (Plt;0.05 or Plt;0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#A certain concentration of GL-PS may promote wound healing via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and up-regulation of TGF-β1, which might serve as a promising source of skin wound healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Cell Movement , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I , Fibroblasts , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , Reishi , Chemistry , Skin , Wounds and Injuries , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Physiology , Wound Healing , beta Catenin , Physiology
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 905-911, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771487

ABSTRACT

Ganoderic acid(GA) is one of main bioactive components produced by Ganoderma lucidum,which a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and a kind of tracyclic triterpene lanosterol derivatives with highly oxidized structure. It has a variety of important pharmacological activities,such as anticancer,immunoregulation,anti-oxidation,anti-diabetes and anti-HIV. At present,the studies of GA mainly focus on biosynthesis,fermentation control,isolation and purification,structure identification and pharmacological effects.However,there are a fewer pharmacokinetic studies of GA,although it is closely related to the clinical application. Recent studies have shown that GA can be absorbed rapidly by gastrointestinal tract and distributed in various tissues and organs after oral intake. GA is metabolized by liver at phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ,and then mainly excreted by bile. In this paper,the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GA and its absorption,distribution,metabolism and excretion(ADME) will be systematically summarized,in order to provide scientific basis for the application and development studies of Ganoderma triterpenoid drugs and their rational clinical use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lanosterol , Pharmacokinetics , Reishi , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Pharmacokinetics
8.
Mycobiology ; : 112-119, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760520

ABSTRACT

Compounds from Lingzhi has been demonstrated the ability for inhibiting tyrosinase (a key enzyme in melanogenesis) activity. In this study, we investigated the anti-melanogenic activity from the submerged mycelial culture of Ganoderma weberianum and elucidated the skin lightening mechanism by B16-F10 murine melanoma cells. From the cellular context, several fractionated mycelium samples exhibited anti-melanogenic activity by reducing more than 40% extracellular melanin content of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In particular, the fractionated chloroform extract (CF-F3) inhibited both secreted and intracellular melanin with the lowest dosage (25 ppm). Further analysis demonstrated that CF-F3 inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity without altering its protein expression. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that the chemical extracts from submerged mycelial culture of G. weberianum have the potential to serve as an alternative anti-melanogenic agent.


Subject(s)
Chloroform , Ganoderma , Melanins , Melanoma , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Mycelium , Reishi , Skin
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4806-4812, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008167

ABSTRACT

Through the comparative study on the appearance characters and internal structure of cultivated and wild Ganoderma lucidum in Huoshan,this paper provides a reference for the further study of G. lucidum. In this study,the similarities and differences between cultivated G. lucidum " Huozhi No. 1" and wild G. lucidum in Huoshan were compared by means of character observation,optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope( SEM). The results showed that the pileus color of " Huozhi No. 1" was yellowish brown and thicker,while that of wild G. lucidum was mainly reddish brown,the context was thinner,and there were gravel and rotten wood at the bottom of the stipe. A clear skeletal hyphae and binding hyphae were observed in cultivated and wild G. lucidum,but there was no significant difference. The shell layer,context layer,mediostratum layer and spores of cultivated and wild G. lucidum were observed by SEM,and the results showed that there was no significant difference. It was found that the mediostratum of " Huozhi No. 1" was thin and irregular,while the mediostratum of wild G. lucidum was neat and compact. There were two types of spores in wild G. lucidum,one of which retained the outer wall of spore type Ⅰ,with tiny pores on the surface. The other is type Ⅱ spores with many spinous processes on the surface,which may be formed by type Ⅰ spores falling off the outwall. In this study,the appearance characters and internal structure of cultivated and wild G. lucidum in Huoshan were systematically observed and compared,which provided theoretical basis and reference for the identification and quality evaluation of cultivated and wild G. lucidum.


Subject(s)
Ganoderma , Hyphae , Reishi
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3967-3973, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008313

ABSTRACT

Lanosterol synthase( LS) is a key enzyme involving in the mevalonate pathway( MVA pathway) to produce lanosterol,which is a precursor of ganoderma triterpenoid. And the transcriptional regulation of LS gene directly affects the content of triterpenes in Ganoderma lucidum. In order to study the transcriptional regulation mechanism of LS gene,yeast one-hybrid technique was used to screen the transcription regulators which interact withthe promoter of LS. The bait vector was constructed by LS promoter,then the vector was transformed yeast cells to construct bait yeast strain. One-hybrid c DNA library was constructed via SMART technology. Then the c DNA and p GADT7-Rec vector were co-transformed into the bait yeast strain to screen the upstream regulatory factors of the promoter region of LS by homologous recombination. Total of 23 positive clones were screened. After sequencing,blast was performed against the whole-genome sequence of G. lucidum. As a result,8 regulatory factors were screened out including the transcription initiation TFIIB,the alpha/beta hydrolase super family,ALDH-SF superfamily,60 S ribosomal protein L21,ATP synthase β-subunit,microtubule associated protein Cript,prote asome subunit β-1,and transaldolase. Until now,the regulation effect of these 8 regulatory factors in G.lucidum has not been reported. This study provides candidate proteins for in-depth study on the expression regulation of LS.


Subject(s)
Gene Library , Intramolecular Transferases/metabolism , Reishi/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Transcription Factors/metabolism
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1453-1462, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975722

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can potentially lead to hemorrhages in all areas of the skull, which can damage cells and nerve connections. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) as a antioxidant on cerebellar cell tissues after traumatic brain injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to TBI with a weight-drop device using 300 g1m weight-height impact. The groups are consisted of control, trauma, and trauma+Ganoderma lucidum groups. At seven days post-brain injury, experimental rats were decapitated after intraperitoneal administration of ketamine HCL (0.15 ml/100 g body weight). Cereballar samples were taken for histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Significant improvement was observed in cells and vascular structures of Ganoderma lucidum treated groups when compared to untreated groups. It is believed that Ganoderma lucidum may have an effect on the progression of traumatic brain injury. Ganoderma lucidum application may affect angiogenetic development in blood vessel endothelial cells, decrease inflammatory cell accumulation by affecting cytokine mechanism and may create apoptotic nerve cells and neuroprotective mechanism in glial cells.


La lesión cerebral traumática (LCT) puede provocar hemorragias en todas las áreas del cráneo, lo que puede dañar las células y las conexiones nerviosas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos protectores de los polisacáridos de Ganoderma lucidum (GLPS) como antioxidante en los tejidos de las células del cerebelo después de la lesión cerebral traumática en ratas. Ratas Sprague Dawley fueron sometidas a TBI con un dispositivo de caída de peso usando un impacto de peso de 300 g-1 m. Se formaron los siguientes grupos: control, trauma y trauma + Ganoderma lucidum. Siete días después de la lesión cerebral, las ratas experimentales fueron decapitadas después de la administración intraperitoneal de ketamina HCL (0,15 ml / 100 g de peso corporal). Se tomaron muestras cerebrales para el examen histológico y para la determinación de niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y glutatión (GSH) y actividad de mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Se observó una mejora significativa en las células y las estructuras vasculares de los grupos tratados con Ganoderma lucidum en comparación con los grupos no tratados. Durante el estudio se observó que Ganoderma lucidum puede tener un efecto sobre la progresión de la lesión cerebral traumática. La aplicación de Ganoderma lucidum puede afectar el desarrollo angiogénico en las células endoteliales de los vasos sanguíneos, disminuir la acumulación de células inflamatorias al afectar el mecanismo de las citocinas y puede crear células nerviosas apoptóticas y un mecanismo neuroprotector en las células gliales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cerebellum/drug effects , Reishi/chemistry , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Antigens, CD , Cerebellum/metabolism , Cerebellum/pathology , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 718-727, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951607

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.


Resumo Neste trabalho, avaliamos a descoloração de efluentes têxteis durante seu tratamento em um sistema de fermentação em estado sólido (SSF). Os ensaios foram conduzidos com resíduo de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) utilizando o fungo de podridão branca Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. A influência da concentração de corante, as quantidades de resíduo e da fase líquida foram estudadas tanto na eficiência de descoloração como na produção de enzima. De acordo com os resultados, independentemente das condições experimentais utilizadas, a lacase foi a principal enzima ligninolítica produzida por G. lucidum. A atividade de lacase mais elevada foi obtida em baixas concentrações de efluentes, sugerindo um efeito inibitório no metabolismo fúngico. A maior remoção de cor foi obtida com 10 gramas de resíduo da pupunha e 60 mL do efluente final. Nos ensaios de controle realizados com o corante sintético RBBR, foram atingidos cerca de 20% mais descoloração do que os obtidos com o efluente industrial. A adsorção de RBBR no resíduo de pupunha também foi investigada. Os testes de equilíbrio mostraram que a adsorção deste corante seguiu as isotermas de Langmuir e Freundlich. Assim, os resultados experimentais indicam que o resíduo de pupunha é um substrato adequado tanto para a produção de lacase quanto para a remoção de cor em efluentes industriais.


Subject(s)
Textile Industry/methods , Biodegradation, Environmental , Reishi/enzymology , Arecaceae/chemistry , Laccase/chemistry , Wastewater/chemistry , Anthraquinones , Color , Adsorption , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Fermentation
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 175-179, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893207

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Traumatic injury to the spinal cord results in the delayed dysfunction and neuronal death. Impaired mitochondrial function, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation occur soon after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), while the activation of compensatory molecules that neutralize ROS occurs at later time points. The aim of the current study was to investigate the putative neuroprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum in a rat model of SCI. In order to induce SCI, a standard weight-drop method that induced a moderately severe injury (100 g/cm force) at T10, was used. Injured animals were given either 20 mL/kg Ganoderma lucidum or saline 30 min post injury per day by gastric gavage. At seven days postinjury, rats were decapitated. Spinal cord samples were taken for histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. SCI caused a significant decrease in spinal cord GSH content, which was accompanied with significant increases in MDA levels, MPO activity. On the other hand, Ganoderma lucidum treatment reversed all these biochemical parameters as well as SCI-induced histopathological alterations. Furthermore, impairment of the neurological functions due to SCI was improved by meloxicam treatment. The present study suggests that Ganoderma Lucidum, reduces SCI-induced oxidative stress and exerts neuroprotection by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion.


RESUMEN: La lesión traumática de la médula espinal provoca disfunción retrasada y muerte neuronal. La función mitocondrial deteriorada, la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ERO) y la peroxidación lipídica ocurren poco después de una lesión traumática de la médula espinal (LTE), mientras que la activación de moléculas compensatorias que neutralizan ERO ocurre posteriormente. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto neuroprotector de Ganoderma lucidum en un modelo de LTE en ratas. Con el fin de inducir LTE, se utilizó un método estándar de pérdida de peso que indujo una lesión moderadamente grave (100 g / cm de fuerza) a T10. A los animales lesionados se les administró 20 ml / kg de Ganoderma lucidum o solución salina, por sonda gástrica, 30 minutos después de la lesión. A los siete días después de la lesión, las ratas fueron eutanasiadas por decapitación. Se tomaron muestras de médula espinal para el examen histológico y para la determinación de los niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y glutatión (GSH), y la actividad de mieloperoxidasa (MPO). LTE causó una disminución significativa en el contenido de GSH de la médula espinal, además de aumentos significativos en los niveles de MDA y la actividad de MPO. Por otro lado, el tratamiento con Ganoderma lucidum invirtió todos estos parámetros bioquímicos así como las alteraciones histopatológicas inducidas por LTE. El deterioro de las funciones neurológicas debidas a LTE mejoró con el tratamiento con meloxicam. El presente estudio sugiere que Ganoderma lucidum, reduce el estrés oxidativo inducido por LTE y ejerce la neuroprotección mediante la inhibición de la peroxidación de los lípidos y agotamiento del GSH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Reishi/chemistry , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Glutathione/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peroxidase/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3243-3248, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776929

ABSTRACT

Near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods was used to distinguish Ganoderma lucidum samples collected from different origins, and a prediction model was established for rapid determine polysaccharides contents in these samples. The classification accuracy for training dataset was 96.87%, while for independent dataset was 93.33%; as for the prediction model, 5-fold cross-validation was used to optimize the parameters, and different signal processing methods were also optimized to improve the prediction ability of the model. The best square of correlation coefficients for training dataset was 0.965 4, and 0.851 6 for validation dataset; while the root-mean-square deviation values for training dataset and validation dataset were 0.018 5 and 0.023 6, respectively. These results showed that combining near infrared spectroscopy with suitable chemometrics approaches could accuracy distinguish different origins of G. lucidum samples; the established prediction model could precious predict polysaccharides contents, the proposed method can help determine the activity compounds and quality evaluation of G. lucidum.


Subject(s)
Fungal Polysaccharides , Geography , Least-Squares Analysis , Reishi , Chemistry , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1063-1068, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893094

ABSTRACT

Head trauma affects the optic nerve visual function and visual acuity. As a result of head trauma occurring in the retina of the various biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical effects were investigated. The protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated on the damage to the retina of the rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to traumatic brain injury with a weight-drop device using 300 g-1 m weight-height impact. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as group 1 control, 2 group trauma, 3 group trauma+Gonoderma lucidum (20 mL/kg per day via gastric gavage) Ganoderma lucidum was administered for 7 days after trauma.All rats were decapitated 5 days after the induction of trauma, and the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum in retina were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. The antioxidant effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the cellular degeneration extracellular matrix and retinal barrier in retina after head trauma was investigated.


El traumatismo craneal afecta al nervio óptico en relación a su función y la agudeza visual. Se estudiaron los diversos efectos bioquímicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos en la retina producidos por una lesión y trauma a la cabeza. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto protector de Gonaderin lucidum sobre el daño a la retina de ratas. Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron sometidas a una lesión cerebral traumática con un dispositivo de caída de peso usando un impacto de 300 g-1 m de peso-altura. Treinta ratas se dividieron en tres grupos: grupo 1, de control; grupo 2, trauma; grupo 3, de trauma + Gonoderma lucidum (20 ml / kg día, a través de una sonda gástrica). Ganoderma lucidum se administró durante 7 días después del trauma. Todas las ratas fueron decapitadas 5 días después. La inducción del trauma y los efectos protectores de Ganoderma lucidum en la retina fueron evaluados mediante análisis histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y bioquímicos. Se investigó el efecto antioxidante de Ganoderma lucidum sobre la degeneración celular en la matriz extracelular y la barrera retiniana en la retina después del traumatismo craneal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Craniocerebral Trauma/pathology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Reishi/chemistry , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Antioxidants/metabolism , Craniocerebral Trauma/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Retina/pathology
16.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 76-84, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80644

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury causes tissue damage, breakdown of cerebral blood flow and metabolic regulation. This study aims to investigate the protective influence of antioxidant Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides (GLPs) on brain injury in brain-traumatized rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley conducted a head-traumatized method on rats by dropping off 300 g weight from 1 m height. Groups were categorized as control, G. lucidum, trauma, trauma+ G. lucidum (20 mL/kg per day via gastric gavage). Brain tissues were dissected from anesthetized rats 7 days after injury. For biochemical analysis, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase values were measured. RESULTS: In histopathological examination, neuronal damage in brain cortex and changes in blood brain barrier were observed. In the analysis of immunohistochemical and western blot, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor and cluster of differentiation 68 expression levels were shown. These analyzes demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLPs on brain injury. CONCLUSION: We propose that GLPs treatment after brain injury could be an alternative treatment to decraseing inflammation and edema, preventing neuronal and glial cells degeneration if given in appropriate dosage and in particular time intervals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Blood-Brain Barrier , Blotting, Western , Brain Injuries , Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Edema , Ganoderma , Glutathione , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde , Methods , Neuroglia , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidase , Polysaccharides , Protein Kinases , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reishi , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
17.
Mycobiology ; : 1-6, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729460

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum has a long history of use as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the taxonomy of Ganoderma species remains controversial, since they were initially classified on the basis of their morphological characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that G. lucidum from China be renamed as G. sichuanense or G. lingzhi. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis using the internal transcribed spacer region rDNA sequences of the Ganoderma species indicated that all strains of the Korean 'G. lucidum' clustered into one group together with G. sichuanense and G. lingzhi from China. However, strains from Europe and North American, which were regarded as true G. lucidum, were positioned in a clearly different group. In addition, the average size of the basidiospores from the Korean cultivated Yeongji strains was similar to that of G. lingzhi. Based on these results, we propose that the Korean cultivated Yeongji strains of 'G. lucidum' should be renamed as G. lingzhi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , China , Classification , DNA, Ribosomal , Europe , Ganoderma , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Phylogeny , Reishi
18.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 186-189, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648769

ABSTRACT

Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare, deadly fungus. However, it can be easily mistaken for antler Ganoderma lucidum. In this case report, two patients made tea with the fungus and drank it over a 2-week period. Both patients presented with bicytopenia, and one patient had desquamation of the palms and soles. Both were treated with prophylactic antibiotics and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. One patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and received a platelet transfusion. Both patients were discharged without complications. Podostroma cornu-damae infections caused by intoxication were successfully treated using our treatment strategy, which consisted of prophylactic antibiotics, platelet transfusion, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. We believe this report can guide future treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Agaricales , Alopecia , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antlers , Fungi , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Intensive Care Units , Pancytopenia , Platelet Transfusion , Poisoning , Reishi , Tea
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2814-2819, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337885

ABSTRACT

The oil content and fatty acid composition of Ganoderma lucidum collected from different producing areas, varieties, tissue types and growth periods were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the oil content was 23. 61%-34.17% in different domestic producing areas of China; the oil content of fruiting bodies from major varieties cultured in Zhejiang province were 0.81%-1.87%, wall-unbroken spores were 0.07%-0.24%, wall-broken spores were 27.54%-34.17%, so the oil content of wall-unbroken spores were much higher than fruiting bodies, and wall-breaking treatment would increase the oil extraction rate 150-340 times. G. lucidum spores oil was mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acid composition. oleic acid and linoleic content were 53.26%-58.16% and 10.69%-16.87% respectively. Fatty acid composition ratio of spores and fruiting bodies were significantly different by PLS-DA. Determining the composition of fatty acid, especially the content of oleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid, could identify the tissue types of G. lucidum products' sources. In addition, the study result showed that the spores and fruiting bodies collected in the first year contained richer oil and fatty acid than second year's samples from the same variety of G. lucidum.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Oils , Reishi , Chemistry
20.
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 736-741, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250349

ABSTRACT

In this study, one immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell line (BPH) and four human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, 22Rv1, PC-3, and DU-145) were treated with Ganoderma Lucidum triterpenoids (GLT) at different doses and for different time periods. Cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry and chemical assays. Gene expression and binding to DNA were assessed using real-time PCR and Western blotting. It was found that GLT dose-dependently inhibited prostate cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. GLT-induced apoptosis was due to activation of Caspases-9 and -3 and turning on the downstream apoptotic events. GLT-induced cell cycle arrest (mainly G1 arrest) was due to up-regulation of p21 expression at the early time and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and E2F1 expression at the late time. These findings demonstrate that GLT suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis, which might suggest that GLT or Ganoderma Lucidum could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Caspase 9 , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Cyclin D1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 , Genetics , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 , Genetics , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , E2F1 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Nucleosomes , Metabolism , Pathology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Prostate , Metabolism , Pathology , Reishi , Chemistry , Signal Transduction , Triterpenes , Pharmacology
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