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Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 236-241, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936000


Objective: To explore the scientificity and feasibility of the tenfold rehydration formula for emergency resuscitation of adult patients after extensive burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. The total burn area (30%-100% total body surface area (TBSA)) and body weight (45-135 kg) of 170 adult patients (135 males and 35 females, aged (42±14) years) with extensive burns admitted to the Fourth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from December 2016 to December 2019 were collected. The 6 461 pairs of simulated data obtained after pairing each body weight in 45 to 135 kg (programmed in steps of 1 kg) with each area in 30% to 100% TBSA (programmed in steps of 1%TBSA) were plugged into four recognized rehydration formulas--Parkland's formula, Brooke's formula, the 304th PLA Hospital formula, and the Third Military Medical University formula and two emergency rehydration formulas--the simplified first aid resuscitation plan for extensive burn patients proposed by the World Health Organization's Technical Working Group on Burns (TWGB, hereinafter referred to as the TWGB formula) and the tenfold rehydration formula proposed by the author of this article to calculate the rehydration rate within 8 hours after injury (hereinafter referred to as the rehydration rate), with results being displayed by a programming step of 10%TBSA for the total burn area. Taking the calculation results of four recognized rehydration formulas as the reasonable rehydration rate, the accuracy of rehydration rates calculated by two emergency rehydration formulas were calculated and compared. The body weight of 45-135 kg was divided into three segments by the results of maximum body weight at a reasonable rehydration rate calculated by the tenfold rehydration formula when the total burn area was 30% and 100% TBSA, respectively. The accuracy of rehydration rate calculated by two emergency rehydration formulas in each body weight segment was compared. When the rehydration rates calculated by two emergency rehydration formulas were unreasonable, the differences in rehydration rates between the two were compared. Statistical distribution of the aforementioned three body weight segments in the aforementioned 170 patients was counted. Using the total burn area and body weight data of the aforementioned 170 patients, the accuracy of rehydration rate calculated by two emergency rehydration formulas was calculated and compared as before. Data were statistically analyzed with McNemar test. Results: When the total burn area was 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% TBSA, respectively, and the body weight was 45-135 kg, the rehydration rates calculated by two emergency rehydration formulas did not exceed the maximum of the calculated results of four recognized rehydration formulas; the rehydration rate calculated by the TWGB formula did not change accordingly with total burn area, while the rehydration rate calculated by the tenfold rehydration formula did not change accordingly with body weight. Substituting 6 461 pairs of simulated data showed that the accuracy of rehydration rate calculated by the tenfold rehydration formula was 43.09% (2 784/6 461), which was significantly higher than 2.07% (134/6 461) of the TWGB formula, χ2=2 404.80, P<0.01. When the body weights were 45-62 kg and 63-93 kg, the accuracy rates of rehydration rate calculated by the tenfold rehydration formula were 100% (1 278/1 278) and 68.42% (1 506/2 201), respectively, which were significantly higher than 0 (0/1 278) and 0.05% (1/2 201) of the TWGB formula, χ2=1 276.00, 1 501.01, P<0.01; when the body weight was 94-135 kg, the accuracy rate of rehydration rate calculated by the tenfold rehydration formula was 0 (0/2 982), which was significantly lower than 4.46% (133/2 982) of the TWGB formula, χ2=131.01, P<0.01. When the rehydration rates calculated by two emergency rehydration formulas were both unreasonable, the rehydration rate calculated by the tenfold rehydration formula was greater than that calculated by the TWGB formula in most cases, accounting for 79.3% (2 808/3 543). Among the 170 patients, the proportions of those weighing 45-62, 63-93, and 94-135 kg were 25.29% (43/170), 65.88% (112/170), and 8.82% (15/170), respectively. Among the 170 patients, the accuracy rate of rehydration rate calculated by the tenfold rehydration formula was 69.41% (118/170), which was significantly higher than 3.53% (6/170) of the TWGB formula, χ2=99.36, P<0.01. Conclusions: Applying the tenfold rehydration formula to calculate the emergency rehydration rate in adults after extensive burns is simpler than four recognized rehydration formulas, and is superior to the TWGB formula. The tenfold rehydration formula is suitable for the front-line medical staffs that are not specialized in burns in pre-admission rescue of adult patients with extensive burns, which is worth popularizing.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Body Surface Area , Burns/therapy , Fluid Therapy/methods , Resuscitation/methods , Retrospective Studies
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 514-518, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388846


Resumen Introducción: La hemorragia no compresible de torso, actualmente tiene una alta morbimortalidad aún en los centros de referencia más especializados. El REBOA es una herramienta emergente que se utiliza como control hemostático precoz en este tipo de pacientes. Caso Clínico: Presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años que sufre un trauma pélvico grave tras caer de altura. Ingresa hemodinámicamente inestable por lo cual se activa protocolo de transfusión masiva y realiza acceso arterial femoral común derecho. Al presentar una respuesta transitoria a la reanimación, se instala balón de REBOA en zona 3, logrando aumentar presión sistólica hasta 130 mmHg, trasladando posteriormente a quirófano. Se realiza packing pélvico preperitoneal y fijación externa, desinflando el balón después de 29 min en zona 3. La paciente sale a unidad de cuidados intensivos sin drogas vasoactivas, para completar cirugía a las 48 h y fijación definitiva 6 días después. La paciente evoluciona en buenas condiciones generales.

Introduction: Non-compressible torso hemorrhage currently has a high morbidity and mortality even in the most specialized referral centers. REBOA is an emerging tool that is used as early hemostatic control in this type of patient. Clinical Case: We present the case of a 25-year-old female patient who suffers severe pelvic trauma after falling from a height. He was admitted hemodynamically unstable, for which a massive transfusion protocol was activated and a right common femoral arterial access was performed. After presenting a transient response to resuscitation, a REBOA balloon was installed in zone 3, increasing systolic pressure up to 130 mmHg, later transferring to the operating room. Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation were performed, deflating the balloon after 29 minutes in zone 3. The patient left the intensive care unit without vasoactive drugs, to complete surgery 48 hours later and definitive fixation 6 days later. The patient evolves in good general condition.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aorta/surgery , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Resuscitation/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4014353, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154003


Abstract Damage Control Resuscitation (DCR) seeks to combat metabolic decompensation of the severely injured trauma patient by battling on three major fronts: Permissive Hypotension, Hemostatic Resuscitation, and Damage Control Surgery (DCS). The aim of this article is to perform a review of the history of DCR/DCS and to propose a new paradigm that has emerged from the recent advancements in endovascular technology: The Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA). Thanks to the advances in technology, a bridge has been created between Pre-hospital Management and the Control of Bleeding described in Stage I of DCS which is the inclusion and placement of a REBOA. We have been able to show that REBOA is not only a tool that aids in the control of hemorrhage, it is also a vital tool in the hemodynamic resuscitation of a severely injured blunt and/or penetrating trauma patient. That is why we propose a new paradigm "The Fourth Pillar": Permissive Hypotension, Hemostatic Resuscitation, Damage Control Surgery and REBOA.

Resumen La resucitación en control de daños busca combatir la descompensación metabólica del paciente severamente traumatizado mediante tres ejes: la hipotensión permisiva, la resucitación hemostática y la cirugía de control de daños. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión de la historia de la resucitación en control de daños y la cirugía de control de daños proponiendo un nuevo paradigma basado en los recientes avances de la tecnología endovascular. Un puente ha sido creado entre el manejo prehospitalario y el control del sangrado, descrito antes de la etapa I de la cirugía de control de daños, que es la inclusión y colocación de un REBOA. Esta es una herramienta adicional en el control de la hemorragia y de soporte en la resucitación hemodinámica de los pacientes con trauma severo de tipo cerrado y/o penetrante. Por lo que se propone un nuevo paradigma "El cuarto pilar": Hipotensión permisiva, resucitación hemostática, cirugía de control de daños y REBOA.

Humans , Aorta , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Balloon Occlusion , Endovascular Procedures , Injury Severity Score , Hypotension, Controlled
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4024486, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154004


Abstract Damage control resuscitation should be initiated as soon as possible after a trauma event to avoid metabolic decompensation and high mortality rates. The aim of this article is to assess the position of the Trauma and Emergency Surgery Group (CTE) from Cali, Colombia regarding prehospital care, and to present our experience in the implementation of the "Stop the Bleed" initiative within Latin America. Prehospital care is phase 0 of damage control resuscitation. Prehospital damage control must follow the guidelines proposed by the "Stop the Bleed" initiative. We identified that prehospital personnel have a better perception of hemostatic techniques such as tourniquet use than the hospital providers. The use of tourniquets is recommended as a measure to control bleeding. Fluid management should be initiated using low volume crystalloids, ideally 250 cc boluses, maintaining the principle of permissive hypotension with a systolic blood pressure range between 80- and 90-mm Hg. Hypothermia must be management using warmed blankets or the administration of intravenous fluids warmed prior to infusion. However, these prehospital measures should not delay the transfer time of a patient from the scene to the hospital. To conclude, prehospital damage control measures are the first steps in the control of bleeding and the initiation of hemostatic resuscitation in the traumatically injured patient. Early interventions without increasing the transfer time to a hospital are the keys to increase survival rate of severe trauma patients.

Resumen La resucitación en el control de daños debe iniciarse lo más rápido posible después de presentado el evento traumático para evitar descompensación metabólica y aumento de la mortalidad. El objetivo de este artículo es sustentar nuestro enfoque respecto a la atención prehospitalaria y presentar nuestra experiencia en la implementación de la iniciativa "Stop the Bleed" en Latinoamérica. La atención prehospitalaria es la fase Cero de la resucitación del control de daños. Por medio de la implementación de la iniciativa "Stop the Bleed" se identificó que el personal prehospitalario tiene una mejor percepción sobre el uso de técnicas hemostáticas como el torniquete que el personal hospitalario. Se recomienda el uso de torniquetes como medida de control de sangrado en extremidades. El manejo de líquidos debe realizarse usando cristaloides a bajos volúmenes, con bolos de 250 mL para cumplir el principio de la hipotensión permisiva con un rango entre 80 y 90 mm Hg de presión arterial sistólica. Se deben realizar medidas para evitar la hipotermia como el uso de sábanas térmicas o paso de líquidos calientes. Estas medidas no deben retrasar en ningún momento el tiempo de traslado para recibir la atención hospitalaria. En conclusión, la atención prehospitalaria es el paso inicial para garantizar las primeras medidas de control de sangrado y de resucitación hemostática de los pacientes. Realizar intervenciones tempranas sin acortar el tiempo de traslado a la atención hospitalaria son las claves para aumentar la tasa de supervivencia.

Humans , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Volume , Body Temperature , Algorithms , Injury Severity Score , Hemorrhage/etiology
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4044511, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154005


Abstract Hemorrhagic shock and its complications are a major cause of death among trauma patients. The management of hemorrhagic shock using a damage control resuscitation strategy has been shown to decrease mortality and improve patient outcomes. One of the components of damage control resuscitation is hemostatic resuscitation, which involves the replacement of lost blood volume with components such as packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. However, this is a strategy that is not applicable in many parts of Latin America and other low-and-middle-income countries throughout the world, where there is a lack of well-equipped blood banks and an insufficient availability of blood products. To overcome these barriers, we propose the use of cold fresh whole blood for hemostatic resuscitation in exsanguinating patients. Over 6 years of experience in Ecuador has shown that resuscitation with cold fresh whole blood has similar outcomes and a similar safety profile compared to resuscitation with hemocomponents. Whole blood confers many advantages over component therapy including, but not limited to the transfusion of blood with a physiologic ratio of components, ease of transport and transfusion, less volume of anticoagulants and additives transfused to the patient, and exposure to fewer donors. Whole blood is a tool with reemerging potential that can be implemented in civilian trauma centers with optimal results and less technical demand.

Resumen El choque hemorrágico y sus complicaciones son la principal causa de muerte en los pacientes con trauma. La resucitación en control de daños ha demostrado una disminución en la mortalidad y mejoría en el manejo del paciente. La resucitación hemostática consiste en la recuperación del volumen con hemoderivados como glóbulos rojos, plasma, crioprecipitado y plaquetas, en proporciones de 1:1:1:1. Sin embargo, esta demanda de hemo componentes podría no aplicarse para toda Latinoamérica u otros países de medianos y bajos ingresos. Las principales barreras para la implementación de esta estrategia serían la escasa disponibilidad de bancos de sangre y de hemoderivados insuficientes para contar con un protocolo de transfusión masiva. Una propuesta para superar estas barreras es el uso de sangre total fresca fría para la resucitación hemostática de los pacientes exsanguinados. Ecuador ha sido pionero en la implementación de esta estrategia con una experiencia ya de seis años, en que han demostrado que la sangre total tiene ventajas sobre la terapia de hemo componentes incluyendo, pero no limitando, la trasfusión de sangre con una razón fisiológica de componentes, fácil transporte y transfusión, menor volumen de anticoagulantes y aditivos trasfundidos al paciente, y menor exposición a donantes. La sangre total es una herramienta con un potencial reemergente que puede ser implementado en centros de trauma civil con óptimos resultados y menor demanda técnica.

Humans , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Transfusion , Hemostatic Techniques , Injury Severity Score
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4064506, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154007


Abstract Noncompressible torso hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. An efficient and appropriate evaluation of the trauma patient with ongoing hemorrhage is essential to avoid the development of the lethal diamond (hypothermia, coagulopathy, hypocalcemia, and acidosis). Currently, the initial management strategies include permissive hypotension, hemostatic resuscitation, and damage control surgery. However, recent advances in technology have opened the doors to a wide variety of endovascular techniques that achieve these goals with minimal morbidity and limited access. An example of such advances has been the introduction of the Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA), which has received great interest among trauma surgeons around the world due to its potential and versatility in areas such as trauma, gynecology & obstetrics and gastroenterology. This article aims to describe the experience earned in the use of REBOA in noncompressible torso hemorrhage patients. Our results show that REBOA can be used as a new component in the damage control resuscitation of the severely injured trauma patient. To this end, we propose two new deployment algorithms for hemodynamically unstable noncompressible torso hemorrhage patients: one for blunt and another for penetrating trauma. We acknowledge that REBOA has its limitations, which include a steep learning curve, its inherent cost and availability. Although to reach the best outcomes with this new technology, it must be used in the right way, by the right surgeon with the right training and to the right patient.

Resumen La hemorragia no compresible del torso es una de las principales causas de muerte prevenibles alrededor del mundo. Una evaluación eficiente y apropiada del paciente traumatizado con hemorragia activa es la esencia para evitar el desarrollo del rombo de la muerte (hipotermia, coagulopatía, hipocalcemia y acidosis). Actualmente, las estrategias de manejo inicial incluyen hipotensión permisiva, resucitación hemostática y cirugía de control de daños. Sin embargo, los recientes avances tecnológicos han abierto las puertas a una amplia variedad de técnicas endovasculares que logran esos objetivos con una morbilidad mínima y un acceso limitado. Un ejemplo de estos avances ha sido la introducción del balón de resucitación de oclusión aortica; REBOA ( Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta , por sus sigla en inglés ), el cual, ha tenido gran provecho entre los cirujanos de trauma alrededor del mundo debido a su potencial y versatilidad en áreas como trauma, ginecología y obstetricia, y gastroenterología. El objetivo de este artículo es describir la experiencia lograda en el uso del REBOA en pacientes con hemorragia no compresible del torso. Nuestros resultados muestran que el REBOA puede usarse como un nuevo actor en la resucitación de control de daños del paciente con trauma severo, para este fin, nosotros proponemos dos nuevos algoritmos para el manejo de pacientes hemodinámicamente inestables: uno para trauma cerrado y otro para trauma penetrante. Se reconoce que el REBOA tiene sus limitaciones, las cuales incluye un periodo de aprendizaje, su costo inherente y la disponibilidad. A pesar de esto, para lograr los mejores resultados con esta nueva tecnología, el REBOA debe ser usado en el momento correcto, por el cirujano correcto con el entrenamiento y el paciente correcto.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Hemorrhage/therapy , Aorta , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Injury Severity Score , Prospective Studies , Balloon Occlusion , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/physiopathology
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2020165, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136711


ABSTRACT Objective: Recently, there have been reports of children with severe inflammatory syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction associated with elevated inflammatory markers. These cases are reported as presenting the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19. In this study, we describe with parental permission a case of MIS-C in an infant with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Case description: A seven-month-old infant, with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of extreme preterm birth and very low weight at birth, with an initial course of mild respiratory symptoms and abrupt progression to vasoplegic shock, myocarditis and hyperinflammation syndrome, shown by high levels of troponin I, ferritin, CRP, D-dimer and hypoalbuminemia. Despite the intensive care provided, the child developed multiple organ dysfunction and died. Comments: Patients with a history of extreme prematurity may present with MIS-C in the presence of COVID-19 and are a group of special concern.

RESUMO Objetivo: Recentemente, foram descritos relatos de crianças com exame positivo para o coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associado à disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, secundária à hiperinflamação, denominada de síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica pediátrica (do inglês multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children - MIS-C). O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de MIS-C em lactente com infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e com evolução fatal abrupta, a despeito do suporte de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Descrição do caso: Lactente de sete meses, com infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e antecedentes de prematuridade extrema, com quadro inicial de síndrome gripal e progressão abrupta para choque vasoplégico, miocardite e síndrome de hiperinflamação, evidenciados por níveis elevados de troponina I, ferritina, proteína C reativa (PCR), dímero D e hipoalbuminemia. Não obstante o suporte de terapia intensiva instituído, a criança evoluiu com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos e morte. Comentários: Pacientes com antecedentes de prematuridade extrema podem apresentar MIS-C na vigência de doença do coronavírus 19 (COVID-19) e constituir um grupo de preocupação especial.

Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Resuscitation/methods , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Fatal Outcome , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Premature Birth , Clinical Deterioration , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 371-374, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010876


With the popularization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technology, the success rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is gradually improved, and the survival rate and neurological outcome of patients with cardiac arrest are improved. Currently, therapeutic methods for cerebral resuscitation after cardiac arrest are limited. In addition to mild hypothermia for clinical application, the majority of drugs remain in the animal experimental stage. Finding effective brain protection drugs has become a hot spot in the field of brain resuscitation research. This article will review the pharmaceutical progress of research for cerebral resuscitation after cardiac arrest, so that we can study the brain protection mechanism of these drugs better and more targeted.

Humans , Cerebrovascular Circulation/drug effects , Heart Arrest/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Research/trends , Resuscitation/methods
Clinics ; 74: e787, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011911


OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.

Animals , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Resuscitation/methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Intestinal Obstruction/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Disease Models, Animal , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Intestinal Obstruction/mortality , Intestinal Obstruction/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(5): e20192334, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057177


RESUMO A oclusão ressuscitativa por balão endovascular da aorta (REBOA) é utilizada para controlar hemorragias não compressíveis do tronco como uma opção menos invasiva e com menos distúrbios fisiológicos quando comparado à toracotomia de emergência com clampeamento da aorta. Isso permite a melhora dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos até que a cirurgia definitiva seja realizada. É utilizada no trauma como uma medida para prevenir o colapso hemodinâmico em pacientes que estão em choque hemorrágico grave, mantendo a perfusão do cérebro e do coração enquanto diminui o sangramento distal até que o controle da hemorragia possa ser realizado. As principais complicações relatadas são insuficiência renal aguda, amputações de membros inferiores e óbitos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a expansão do uso do REBOA em situações não traumáticas de outras áreas da medicina, assim como, avaliar os resultados obtidos até o momento. Uma pesquisa online do PubMed, Medline e SciELO foi realizada com o termo "REBOA" nos últimos cinco anos, e os artigos incluídos foram os 14 que descrevem especificamente o uso do REBOA para condições não traumáticas. Os resultados sugerem que o uso do REBOA levou a um melhor controle do sangramento e aumento da pressão arterial, reduzindo a necessidade de transfusão de sangue e permitindo que os pacientes sobrevivam ao tratamento definitivo das lesões. Concluindo, o uso expandido do REBOA para emergências não traumáticas parece ser eficaz, mas estudos prospectivos e protocolos bem estabelecidos devem ser desenvolvidos para maximizar os resultados.

ABSTRACT Currently, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is used in trauma surgery for controlling non-compressible torso hemorrhages, as a less invasive option and with fewer physiologic disturbances compared with an invasive emergent thoracotomy for aortic cross-clamping. This can allow improvements in hemodynamic parameters until definitive surgery is performed. REBOA is also used in trauma to prevent hemodynamic collapse in patients who are in severe hemorrhagic shock, as a method to maintain perfusion of the brain and heart while decreasing distal bleeding until hemorrhage control can take place. The major complications reported are acute kidney injury, lower leg amputations, and even death. As experience with REBOA in emergency surgery grows, new indications have been described in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the expansion of the use of REBOA in other areas of medicine, as well as evaluating the current published series. We performed an online search of PubMed, Medline and SciELO with the term "REBOA" in the last five years, and the articles included were the 14 specifically describing the use of REBOA for non-traumatic conditions. The results suggest that the use of REBOA led to improved bleeding control and increased arterial pressure, reducing blood transfusion requirements and allowing patients to survive to definitive treatment of injuries. In conclusion, the expanded use of REBOA for non-traumatic emergencies appears to be effective. However, prospective studies and well-established protocols for specific indications should be developed to maximize patient outcomes.

Humans , Aorta/surgery , Resuscitation/methods , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
Rev. chil. anest ; 48(3): 262-269, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452020


In the world, traumatic pathology continues to be a problem of great magnitude, from the point of view of public health. Today, the volumemic resuscitation in hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock is still controversial; a new alternative in volemic resuscitation is the hemostatic resuscitation that consists of the rapid use of whole blood or of the administration of the concentrate of erythrocytes (CE), fresh frozen plasma (PFC) and platelet concentrate (CP), with a fixed ratio between the products. OBJECTIVE: Clinical case presentation, as well as review of the published literature on hemostatic resuscitation in patients with hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the case of a female patient of 16 years of age with penetrating injuries in the neck, thorax and abdomen; management and evolution in the operating room, intensive care unit until discharge. RESULTS: The adequate initial resuscitation in the patient with hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock has been shown to improve their survival, so that nowadays the application of new alternatives in resuscitation; As is the hemostatic resuscitation, they have yielded better results in the patient's prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma remains one of the main causes of admission to hospital units, with the young population being the most vulnerable due to car accidents. Strategies in improving the time of transfer from the accident site to the hospital unit, its definitive management in the operating room (if required) and the use of new alternatives in the management of hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock; such as hemostatic resuscitation, and the administration of pro-hemostatic drugs, are of great importance in the evolution and prognosis of the patient.

En el mundo, la patología traumática continúa siendo un problema de gran magnitud, desde el punto de vista de salud pública. Hoy en día la resucitación volémica en el choque hemorrágico hipovolémico todavía es controversial; una nueva alternativa en la resucitación volemica es la resucitación hemostática que consiste en el uso rápido de sangre total o de la administración del concentrado de Eritrocitos (CE), Plasma Fresco Congelado (PFC) y Concentrado de Plaquetas (CP), con una razón fija entre los productos. OBJETIVO: Presentación de caso clínico, así como revisión de la literatura publicada sobre resucitación hemostática en el paciente con choque hipovolémico hemorrágico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se presenta el caso de paciente femenino de 16 años de edad con lesiones penetrantes en cuello, tórax y abdomen; manejo y evolución en sala de operaciones, unidad de cuidados intensivos hasta su egreso. RESULTADOS: La adecuada resucitación inicial en el paciente con choque hipovolémico hemorrágico ha demostrado mejorar su sobrevida, por lo que hoy en día la aplicación de nuevas alternativas en la reanimación; como es la resucitación hemostática, han arrojado mejores resultados en el pronóstico del paciente. CONCLUSIONES: El trauma sigue siendo una de las principales causas de ingreso a las unidades hospitalarias, siendo la población joven la más vulnerable por accidentes automovilísticos. Las estrategias en la mejora del tiempo de traslado del lugar del accidente hasta la unidad hospitalaria, su manejo definitivo en sala de quirófano (si así lo requiere) y el uso de nuevas alternativas en manejo del choque hipovolémico hemorrágico; como es la resucitación hemostática, y la ministración de fármacos pro hemostáticos, resultan de gran importancia en la evolución y pronóstico del paciente.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Wounds, Penetrating/complications , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Erythrocytes , Platelet-Rich Plasma
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 460-470, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977995


RESUMO Objetivo: Acompanhar o índice cardíaco e o índice de resistência vascular sistêmica até a ressuscitação. Métodos: Por meio de ecocardiografia junto ao leito, obteve-se um conjunto de parâmetros hemodinâmicos, inclusive débito cardíaco, volume sistólico, índice cardíaco, índice de resistência vascular sistêmica, integral velocidade-tempo, índice de desempenho miocárdico, tempo de reenchimento capilar e frequência cardíaca no momento zero após infusão de fluidos em bolo, e início e utilização de fármacos inotrópicos, com seguimento até 6 horas e 24 horas. Resultados: Incluíram-se 45 pacientes com choque séptico adquirido na comunidade. Os focos de infecção foram gastrenterite (24%), perfuração intestinal com necessidade de cirurgia emergencial (24%), pneumonia (20%), infecção do sistema nervoso central (22%) e infecção de tecidos moles (8%). Os isolados mais frequentes foram de Klebsiella e Enterobacter. Estimamos os fatores que afetaram o índice cardíaco: pressão venosa central elevada no momento zero (r = 0,33; p = 0,024) e persistência de frequência cardíaca elevada após 6 horas (r = 0,33; p = 0,03). O índice de resistência vascular sistêmica foi alto na maioria dos pacientes no momento zero e após 24 horas, e por ocasião da ressuscitação, afetando inversamente o índice cardíaco, assim como a integral velocidade-tempo (r = -0,416; -0,61; 0,55 e -0,295). O tempo de reenchimento capilar aumentado foi preditor clínico de valores baixos de integral velocidade-tempo após 24 horas (r = -0,4). O índice de mortalidade foi de 27%. Nos pacientes que não sobreviveram, observaram-se índices de resistência vascular sistêmica mais baixos e débitos cardíacos mais altos. Conclusão: O índice de resistência vascular sistêmica esteve persistentemente elevado em pacientes com choque frio, o que influenciou no índice de volume sistólico, no índice cardíaco e na integral velocidade-tempo. O uso de ecocardiografia para obtenção de mensurações hemodinâmicas é importante em pacientes pediátricos com choque séptico, para que se possam ajustar as doses de vasodilatadores e vasopressores, e obter os objetivos da ressuscitação em tempo apropriado.

ABSTRACT Objective: Follow-up of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index by bedside echocardiography until resuscitation. Methods: A set of hemodynamic parameters was obtained, including cardiac output, stroke volume, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, velocity time integral, myocardial performance index, capillary refill time, and heart rate at 0 hours after fluid boluses before the start of inotropes, and followed up after 6 hours and 24 hours. Results: Included were 45 patients with community-acquired septic shock. Septic foci were gastroenteritis (24%), intestinal perforation requiring emergency surgery (24%), pneumonia (20%), central nervous system infection (22%) and soft tissue infection (8%). Klebsiella and Enterobacter were the most frequent isolates. We estimated the factors affecting the cardiac index: high central venous pressure at zero time (r = 0.33, p = 0.024) and persistently high heart rate at hour 6 (r = 0.33, p = 0.03). The systemic vascular resistance index was high in most patients at 0 and 24 hours and at the time of resuscitation and inversely affected the cardiac index as well as affecting the velocity time integral (r = -0.416, -0.61, 0.55 and -0.295). Prolonged capillary refill time was a clinical predictor of the low velocity time integral at 24 hours (r = -0.4). The mortality was 27%. Lower systemic vascular resistance index and higher cardiac output were observed in nonsurviving patients. Conclusion: There was a persistently high systemic vascular resistance index in cold shock patients that influenced the stroke volume index, cardiac index, and velocity time integral. The use of echocardiograms for hemodynamic measurements is important in pediatric septic shock patients to adjust dilators, and vasopressor doses and achieve resuscitation targets in a timely manner.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Echocardiography/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Septic/physiopathology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiac Output/physiology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Heart Rate/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology
São Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 421-432, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979381


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the effects on mortality of albumin and crystalloid, used for fluid resuscitation among adult patients with septic shock, through conducting a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). DESIGN AND SETTING: Meta-analysis and TSA conducted at Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China. METHODS: Data were collected from several major databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinical and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies that compared the effects of albumin therapy versus crystalloid therapy on mortality among adult septic shock patients were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. The study name, year of publication, country of the trial, albumin concentration, type of crystalloid and all reported mortalities at different follow-up endpoints were extracted. RESULTS: Compared with crystalloid, albumin did not decrease all-cause mortality at the final follow-up. However, in TSA, the required information size was not achieved in all groups, which means that the effect size was not definitive and further RCTs are needed to confirm or deny these findings CONCLUSIONS: Compared with crystalloid solutions, albumin was unable to decrease all-cause mortality. However, TSA indicated that these results could be false-negative. Additional randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify this discrepancy.

Humans , Shock, Septic/mortality , Shock, Septic/therapy , Albumins/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy/mortality , Crystalloid Solutions/therapeutic use , Resuscitation/methods , Resuscitation/mortality , Bias , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(3): 253-263, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977971


RESUMO Fundamentação: O estudo ANDROMEDA-SHOCK é um estudo internacional, multicêntrico, randomizado e controlado comparando ressuscitação guiada pela perfusão periférica com ressuscitação guiada pelo lactato em pacientes com choque séptico, com a finalidade de testar a hipótese de que a ressuscitação guiada pela perfusão periférica associa-se a menor morbidade e mortalidade. Objetivo: Relatar o plano de análise estatística para o estudo ANDROMEDA-SHOCK. Métodos: Descrevemos o delineamento do estudo, os objetivos primário e secundários, pacientes, métodos de randomização, intervenções, desfechos e tamanho da amostra. Descrevemos nossos planos de análise estatística para os desfechos primários, secundários e terciários. Também descrevemos as análises de subgrupos e sensibilidade. Finalmente, fornecemos detalhes para a apresentação dos resultados, inclusive modelos de tabelas para apresentar as características basais, a evolução das variáveis de hemodinâmica e perfusão, e os efeitos dos tratamentos nos desfechos. Conclusão: Segundo as melhores práticas de pesquisa, relatamos nosso plano de análise estatística e plano de gestão de dados antes do fechamento da base de dados e do início da análise dos dados. Nossa expectativa é que este procedimento previna a ocorrência de vieses na análise e incremente a utilidade dos resultados relatados.

ABSTRACT Background: ANDROMEDA-SHOCK is an international, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing peripheral perfusion-targeted resuscitation to lactate-targeted resuscitation in patients with septic shock in order to test the hypothesis that resuscitation targeting peripheral perfusion will be associated with lower morbidity and mortality. Objective: To report the statistical analysis plan for the ANDROMEDA-SHOCK trial. Methods: We describe the trial design, primary and secondary objectives, patients, methods of randomization, interventions, outcomes, and sample size. We describe our planned statistical analysis for the primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes. We also describe the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Finally, we provide details for presenting our results, including mock tables showing baseline characteristics, the evolution of hemodynamic and perfusion variables, and the effects of treatments on outcomes. Conclusion: According to the best trial practice, we report our statistical analysis plan and data management plan prior to locking the database and initiating the analyses. We anticipate that this procedure will prevent analysis bias and enhance the utility of the reported results.

Humans , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Septic/therapy , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Early Goal-Directed Therapy/methods , Research Design , Lactic Acid/blood
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 312-315, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916551


Evitar novos episódios de parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR). Identificar e tratar as causas que levaram o paciente à PCR. Oferecer suportes ventilatório, hemodinâmico, neurológico e metabólico. Realizar a modulação terapêutica de temperatura para todos os pacientes que retornaram à circulação espontânea. Indicação de cateterismo cardíaco para pacientes sem causa estabelecida de PCR quando a causa pode ser um evento coronariano

Avoid further episodes of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Identify and treat the causes of the patient's CPA. Provide ventilatory, hemodynamic, neurological and metabolic support. Perform therapeutic temperature modulation for all patients who have resumed spontaneous circulation. Indication of cardiac catheterization for patients with no established cause of CPA when the cause may be a coronary event

Humans , Male , Female , Emergencies , Heart Arrest/therapy , Resuscitation/methods , Therapeutics , Cardiac Catheterization , Reperfusion , Dopamine/therapeutic use , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Ischemia , Ketosis/complications
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(1): e1709, fev. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956543


ABSTRACT In a current scenario where trauma injury and its consequences account for 9% of the worlds causes of death, the management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage can be problematic. With the improvement of medicine, the approach of these patients must be accurate and immediate so that the consequences may be minimal. Therefore, aiming the ideal method, studies have led to the development of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA). This procedure has been used at select trauma centers as a resuscitative adjunct for trauma patients with non-compressible torso hemorrhage. Although the use of this technique is increasing, its effectiveness is still not clear. This article aims, through a detailed review, to inform an updated view about this procedure, its technique, variations, benefits, limitations and future.

RESUMO Em um cenário atual onde a lesão traumática e suas consequências representam 9% das causas de morte no mundo, o manejo da hemorragia não compressível do tronco pode ser problemático. Com a melhoria da medicina, a abordagem desses pacientes deve ser precisa e imediata, para que as consequências possam ser mínimas. Portanto, visando o método ideal de manejo, estudos levaram ao desenvolvimento da técnica de oclusão ressuscitativa por balão endovascular da aorta (Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta - REBOA). Este procedimento foi utilizado em centros de trauma selecionados como um complemento durante a reanimação para pacientes vítimas de trauma com hemorragia não compressível do tronco. Embora o uso dessa técnica esteja aumentando, sua eficácia ainda não é clara. Este artigo objetiva, por meio de uma revisão detalhada, trazer uma visão atualizada sobre este procedimento, sua técnica, variações, benefícios, limitações e futuro.

Humans , Aorta , Resuscitation/methods , Balloon Occlusion , Hemorrhage/therapy , Endovascular Procedures
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(1): 118-127, feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900079


INTRODUCCIÓN: El trauma es una importante causa de morbimortalidad en la población pediátrica, alcanzando el primer lugar en mortalidad en nuestro país, sin considerar las patologías perinatales y las malformaciones congénitas. Un porcentaje importante de las muertes precoces y tardías secundarias a esta causa, así como sus secuelas, podrían prevenirse con una óptima y oportuna reanimación. OBJETIVOS: Revisar -a la luz de la evidencia existente- la atingencia de la reanimación con control de daños (RCD) en el trauma pediátrico grave, con énfasis en el manejo médico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usó la base de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library y Google académico, empleando como términos de búsqueda (MeSH): trauma, politrauma, reanimación, control de daños, líquidos de reanimación, hipotensión permisiva, coagulopatía, transfusión masiva y niños. RESULTADOS: El concepto de RCD puede ser aplicado en el trauma grave en niños, teniendo en cuenta sus particularidades anatomo-fisiológicas. El principio se basa en el manejo de la tríada letal (coagulopatía, acidosis e hipotermia) asociado a una cirugía con control de daños. En este contexto se analiza la limitación de cristaloides, la hipotensión permisiva y la reanimación hemostática en el manejo inicial del trauma pediátrico gra ve. CONCLUSIONES: Estudios futuros deberán establecer el verdadero rol de la hipotensión permisiva, la relación óptima de hemoderivados a transfundir y la mejor estrategia para predecir la activación de protocolos de transfusión masiva y su impacto en niños con trauma grave.

INTRODUCTION: Trauma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. It has the first place in mortality in our country without considering perinatal pathologies and congenital malformations. An important percentage of early and late deaths secondary to this cau se, as well as its sequelae, could be prevented with optimal and timely resuscitation. OBJECTIVE: To review the applicability of damage control resuscitation (DCR) in severe pediatric trauma, with emphasis on medical management. Material and Methods: The PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the Google academic database were used. Search terms (MeSH) were: trauma, polytrauma, resuscitation, damage-control, fluids, permissive hypotension, coagulopathy, massive transfusion and children. RESULTS: The concept of DCR can be applied to severe pediatric trauma, taking into account their anatomical and physiological characteristics. The principle is based on the management of the lethal triad (coagulopathy, acidosis and hypothermia) associated with damage control surgery. Limitation of crystalloids, permissive hypotension and hemostatic resuscitation are reviewed in the initial treatment of severe pediatric trauma. CONCLUSION: Future studies should establish the true role of permissive hypotension, the optimal relationship between blood products and the best strategy to predict the activation of massive transfusion protocols and their impact on children with severe trauma.

Humans , Child , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Pediatrics/methods , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Traumatology/methods
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 39(1): 419-429, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-911652


Introdução: O choque hipovolêmico é o principal tipo de choque no trauma. Seu manejo é fundamental visto que é uma das principais causas de mortes evitáveis. Objetivos: Definir conceitos relacionados à reanimação no choque hipovolêmico, como coagulopatia precoce no trauma, controle de danos, hipotensão permissiva, uso de cristaloides e hemoderivados, ácido tranexâmico e protocolo de transfusão maciça. Metodologia: Busca na base de dados bibliográfica Medline/Pubmed e LILACS no período de maio de 2018, incluindo artigos de revisão, revisões sistemáticas e guidelines cuja publicação seja em inglês ou português e remeta os últimos 5 anos. Os descritores foram "permissive hypotension" ou "damage control resuscitation". "hypovolemic shock". Os artigos foram selecionados com busca direta, considerando relevância do tema à proposta e revista com fator de impacto mensurado. Resultados: Foram apresentados 342 resultados da busca de dados, nos quais 15 artigos foram selecionados. Na conduta do choque hipovolêmico, responsável por 30 a 40% das mortes no período de 24 horas após o trauma, adota-se a hipotensão permissiva e preconiza-se o controle de danos. Conclusões: O entendimento da coagulopatia no trauma, do uso limitado de cristaloides, da reanimação balanceada, da hipotensão permissiva, da correta indicação do ácido tranexâmico e da aplicação do protocolo de transfusão maciça é fundamental na reanimação volêmica do paciente traumatizado.

Introduction: The hypovolemic shock is the main type of shock in trauma patients. Its management is fundamental given that hemorrhagic shock is one of the main causes of death that can be avoided. Aims: To define concepts related to resuscitation in hypovolemic shock, such as early coagulopathy in trauma, damage control, permissive hypotension, use of crystalloids and blood derivatives, tranexamic acid and massive transfusion protocol. Methods: Search in the bibliographic database Medline/Pubmed and LILACS in the period of May 2018, including review articles, systematic reviews and guidelines published in either English or Portuguese in the last 5 years. The descriptors were "permissive hypotension" or "damage control resuscitation". Of the 342 results, 15 articles were selected with direct search, considering relevance of the theme to the proposal and reviewed with measured impact factor. Results: From 342 results in database, 10 articles have been selected. The management of hypovolemic shock, responsible for 30-40% of deaths within 24 hours of trauma, permissive hypotension and damage control have been recommended. Conclusion: The understanding of coagulopathy in trauma, of limited use of crystalloids, of balanced resuscitation, of permissive hypotension, of the correct indication of tranexamic acid and of the application of the protocol of massive transfusion is essential in the resuscitation of the trauma patient.

Resuscitation/methods , Shock , Hypotension , Resuscitation/adverse effects , Hypovolemia
Acta cir. bras ; 32(12): 1036-1044, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886191


Abstract Purpose: To use blood lactate (BL) as an end-point metabolic marker for the begin resuscitation of volume replacement in experimental hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Group I (n=7) was not bled (Control). Animals in Group II (n=7) were bled to a MAP of 30mmHg in thirty minutes. Hemodynamic and metabolic data were recorded at Baseline, at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after Baseline. The animals were intubated in spontaneous breathing (FIO2=0.21) with halothane. Results: Group I all survived. In Group II all died; no mortality occurred before a BL<10mM/L. Beyond the end-point all animals exhibited severe acidemia, hyperventilation and clinical signs of shock. Without treatment all animals died within 70.43±24.51 min of hypotension shortly after reaching an average level of BL 17.01±3.20mM/L. Conclusions: Swine's breathing room air spontaneously in hemorrhagic shock not treated a blood lactate over 10mM/L results fatal. The predictable outcome of this shock model is expected to produce consistent information based on possible different metabolic and hemodynamic patterns as far as the type of fluid and the timing of resuscitation in near fatal hemorrhagic shock.

Animals , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/metabolism , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Lactic Acid/blood , Hypotension/metabolism , Shock, Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/mortality , Swine , Time Factors , Biomarkers , Control Groups , Endpoint Determination , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics , Hypotension/physiopathology