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1.
J Genet ; 2020 Nov; 99: 1-5
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215495

ABSTRACT

Fusarium stalk rot disease (FSR) of maize caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is becoming an important biotic production constraint in many of the major maize growing areas causing substantial yield losses. Inbreds are preferred as parents in hybrid development owing to homozygous nature and high heterotic ability. Double haploid (DH) technology has emerged as a significant milestone. A total of 339 DH lines were generated from two inbred lines, VL1043 (susceptible) and CM212 (resistant), through in vivo haploid induction method. The 339 DH lines along with parents were phenotyped for their response to the FSR at the College of Agriculture, V. C. Farm, Mandya, India during summer, kharif and rabi seasons of the 2019–2020. Best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were estimated for the FSR disease scores over three seasons. A wide range of BLUP scores of three to nine indicated the presence of higher variation for response of DH lines to FSR disease. The higher estimates of standardized range (1.31) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (19.80) also displayed higher variability. Nine lines were moderately resistant and 188 exhibited moderately susceptible reaction. The distribution of DH lines was positively skewed (1.34) and platykurtic (2.31) which suggested complementary epistasis and involvement of large number of genes in the disease expression.

2.
J Genet ; 2020 Nov; 99: 1-12
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215484

ABSTRACT

Okra production in eastern India at present is severely threatened by whitefly-mediated okra enation leaf curl disease(OELCuD). Identification of resistant genotype and understanding the genetic control and biochemical relationship of OELCuD resistanceare prerequisite for developing an effective breeding strategy. This study was conducted employing six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 andBC2) of two selected (resistant 9 susceptible (R9S)) crosses. Associationship between severity of OELCuD and biochemical parametersof parents and hybrids at preflowering and flowering stages was studied. Segregation pattern of the genotypes in F2 generation showingOELCuD reaction of two crosses suggested that two duplicate recessive genes was operative for resistance to OELCuD. Generation meananalysis revealed involvement of both additive and nonadditive effects in the inheritance of disease resistance. Hence, postponement ofselection in later generations or intermating among the selected segregates followed by one or two generations of selfing to break theundesirable linkage and allow the accumulation of favourable alleles could be suggested for the development of stable resistant genotypeagainst this disease. Higher peroxidase activity and total phenol content in leaf emerged as reliable biochemical markers for early selectionof genotype resistant to OELCuD.

7.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215335
9.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215333

ABSTRACT

Yoga is a multi-faceted spiritual tool enhancing health and well-being. Physical postures (Asan), regulated breathing (Pranayama), and meditations (Dhyana) are its main components. Breathing exercises of various types, particularly diaphragmatic breathing, alternate nostril breathing (anulom vilom), and kapalbhati have been noted to be useful in chronic asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), post-operative management in head & neck surgery, cardiovascular surgery, and upper abdominal surgery. Its calming effect reduces blood pressure and agitation in various psychiatric disorders also. Common types of breathing exercises which are easy to learn and practice for day to day fitness and prevention of disease are: equal breathing (bhastrika), clavicular breathing, costal breathing, and diaphragmatic breathing. kapalbhati, alternate nostril breathing (anulom vilom), bhramari pranayama, and tribandh breathing. These require proper learning under guidance. Ujjayi pranayama, sitali, and surya bhedan pranayama also require proper training and have a calming effect on the body. Various types of breathing produce their beneficial effects on the body when they are done regularly for the minimum recommended period. These exercises can be practiced in any comfortable posture on the floor or sitting on a chair. Regulation of rate and rhythm during its practice helps towards achieving meditation. Pranayama and Yoga have proven their utility in various diseases as noted in studies done in various medical centers. The western world also recognizes its importance and recommends it to their people. In India, health is given a low priority and outdoor physical activities are becoming less popular. In these conditions of living, Yoga and Pranayama (breathing exercises) are recommended for persons of all ages because these are easy to learn, simple to practice, and do not require any separate space or instruments. Regularity and execution in a proper way for the optimum time alone are needed for general well-being, better lung functions, and as a preventive measure for various respiratory and psychiatric disorders. In the present pandemic of COVID-19, warranting house quarantine for a large number of people, this is going to prove a boon for physical and mental alleviation.

10.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215332

ABSTRACT

As there is an increase in the rate of oral cancer, the surge for the various maxillofacial materials is increasing as well. Materials used for rehabilitation of congenital or acquired defects of patients should fulfil the requirements such as function, longevity, and aesthetics. Defects of face which may be congenital or acquired makes the condition of the affected person very disastrous mentally, physically as well as emotionally. Patient wants facial rehabilitation for a healthy happy life. To provide rehabilitation of these patients, re-evaluation of materials used in the field of maxillofacial prosthesis seems essential. Maxillofacial material should best suit the ideal selection criteria to satisfy the functionality, biocompatibility, aesthetics as well as durability. While the new materials have exhibited many desirable properties, there are also many insufficiencies involved in it. This article presents a systemic review of the evolution, current trends, and future requirements in maxillofacial materials for ensuring psychological well-being.In the recent years, a dramatic increase in the demand for prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with facial defects is seen. Increasing awareness of cancer is resulting in earlier diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, many of the surgical techniques are extensive and thus leave large defects that compromise not only function and aesthetics, but also psychosocial status of the patient. These problems require prompt rehabilitation with surgery or prosthetics.1 However, surgical reconstruction is often contraindicated in the presence of large defects or in high-risk patients. Prosthesis offers the advantage of quick, reversible and medically uncomplicated rehabilitation. In addition, the restoration may be readily removed to allow evaluation of the health of the underlying tissues. Historically, many types of materials have been used. Wood, wax metals, vulcanite and many types of plastics have been used as rigid materials while flexible ones like gelatin glycerine mixtures, latex and elastic plastics have also found some usefulness.2Presently, materials used for the maxillofacial prosthesis are vinyl plastics, polyurethane, silicone rubber and acrylic types.

11.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215331

ABSTRACT

A reliable affirmation and delineation of focal liver injuries is crucial for immaculate patient association. The commonly encountered liver masses on ultrasonography are simple liver cyst, haemangioma, metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma etc. We wanted to assess the accurate detection and characterization of liver masses among patients with liver lesions. METHODSA prospective study was conducted among 60 patients with liver lesions, who had undergone both abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography and correlation was done with histopathology (FNAC / FNAB) for confirmation. Ultrasonography of liver imaging was obtained with SIEMENS and Longitudinal (sagittal), transverse (horizontal), coronal and oblique planes were obtained by using 3.5 MHz frequency transducer. Triple-phase helical CT images of the liver were obtained with Siemens Emotion 16 slice MDCT machine with 5 mm collimation, 0.6 mm reconstruction interval, gantry rotation speed of 0.6 second, pitch of 1.375:1, 120 kV, and 600 mA. RESULTSLesions which were encountered in the given time span were hepatocellular carcinoma (20 %), metastasis (33.3 %), hydrated cyst (2 %), abscess (5 %), haemangioma (13.3 %), Gb carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and other (5 % each) and simple liver cysts (10 %). Among the metastases observed in the liver, 20 % cases were from colorectal malignancies, 20 % were from lung, 15 % from breast, 15 % from ovary, and 15 % were from oesophagus and 15 % were from stomach. The highest percentages of liver metastases were from colon and rectum followed by lungs, oesophagus and stomach, and breast and ovary. Our study showed an accuracy of 98 % in diagnosing various lesions by confirming these diagnoses using image guided FNAC / FNAB. CONCLUSIONSClinical diagnosis based on examination can be very inaccurate, radiological investigations using ultrasonography and computed tomography can help us to arrive at an accurate diagnosis most of the times. Image guided FNAC / FNAB can confirm / dispute radiological diagnosis. This shows excellent correlation between radiological diagnosis and histological diagnosis of various liver lesions.

12.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215330

ABSTRACT

Most patients experience post–operative pain and it is unavoidable. It is the duty of the nurses to ensure that patients' pain is assessed and managed effectively when they are at the hospital. Foot reflex therapy is one effective way nurses can adopt to manage the patient with pain after surgery. We wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of foot reflex therapy on post-operative pain in patients who are subjected to major abdominal surgery. METHODSThis is a descriptive randomized control study that was conducted at Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, among 360 patients who underwent major abdominal surgery. They were equally divided into two groups as control and study groups and the results were analyzed statistically. RESULTSMajority of the patients in the study group showed a positive effect on pain control during 4th and 5th [ (Mean: 1.27 with SD: 1.12) (Mean: 0.03with SD: 0.32) at p < 0.001] post-operative day following foot reflex therapy. CONCLUSIONSThe existing pain and the post-operative pain can be managed by nurses, patients, their care takers or families together, whenever appropriate, in a multidisciplinary manner. Foot reflex therapy is one such alternative complementary therapy which the nurses can adopt to implement the techniques independently.

13.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215329

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease is known as a serious plague because of its regularity in different bits of the world. The signs of coronary artery issue handle a wide range from the mind boggling minor coronary atherosclerosis without angina or ischaemia to sudden passing METHODSThe present study was cross sectional, observational study carried out at tertiary care center. This study was conducted during the period from January 2016 to June 2017. All Type two Diabetes Mellitus 100 patients attending Department of Medicine included in the study. RESULTSMajority of study subjects were in age 51 - 60 years (46 %) having DM (Diabetes Mellitus) since 5 - 10 years (46 %). A lot of patients overweight (40 %), dyslipidaemia (22 %). It mean fasting and post prandial glucose among patients was 164 ± 15.18 mg / dL and 189.4 ± 23.29 mg / dL exclusively. The mean LDL, HDL, VLDL, complete cholesterol and greasy oils levels among patients was 118.14 ± 24.2 mg / dL, 42.60 ± 5.12 mg / dL, 35.68 ± 7.09 mg / dL, 204.96 ± 28.76 mg / dL, 166.17 ± 31.92 mg / dL independently. The regularity was 27 %. The prevalence of MI among DM patients was major in age pack 51 - 60 years (13 %). The ECG changes in calm MI among DM patients showed that a lot of calm MI patients had ST dejection and adjusted T wave inversion (77.77). CONCLUSIONSStandard checking ECG is be commonly useful and unobtrusive gadget in myocardial ischaemia area n asymptomatic diabetic patients

14.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215328

ABSTRACT

The main attributes of cornea which makes it optically important is its ability to maintain its dehydrated state. This corneal dehydration can be achieved and maintained by various factors among which corneal endothelial cell count and morphology play a significant role. Corneal attributes considered in this study i.e. the corneal endothelial cell count and central corneal thickness are extremely variable, and changes are seen even with smaller changes in anterior segment or overall structural changes in eyes. We wanted to compare central corneal thickness in emmetropia and axial myopia and compare corneal endothelial cell count in emmetropia and axial myopia. METHODSThe sample size was decided taking into consideration various prevalence studies. The patients were consecutively recruited for the study considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups emmetropia and axial myopia and were differentiated on the basis of the axial lengths. Specular microscopy was performed for the subjects and corneal endothelial cell count, morphology and central corneal thickness were measured, and comparative study was performed. RESULTSThis study of 80 eyes shows us that the difference between mean the corneal endothelial cell count between emmetrope (2812.80 cells / mm2) and axial myopes (2653 cells / mm2) is statistically significant where p was < 0.05 while the mean central corneal thickness measurements didn’t show statistically significant change between emmetrope (490.05 microns) and axial myope. (489.37 microns). CONCLUSIONSAxial length has an indirect correlation with the corneal endothelial cell count which is statistically significant. While significant correlation between the central corneal thickness and axial length cannot be established in this study.

15.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215327

ABSTRACT

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of gum which surrounds and supports the teeth. Globally, periodontal disease is one of the most common oral diseases. Unhealthy periodontium has been connected to systemic conditions like pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease affects individuals of all ages, but it is most commonly seen in elderly patients. According to the World Health Organization, nearly 65 % of people have respiratory problems due to periodontal disease. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is defined as the maximum rate and speed of expiration of an individual. We wanted to determine and compare PEFR in acute and chronic periodontitis. METHODSThe present case control study was carried out among patients in the 20 - 40 years age group, who were attending outpatient department of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Study participants were grouped into three categories as ‘normal individuals’, ‘patients with acute periodontitis’ and ‘patients with chronic periodontitis’; each group had 20 people. Spirometer was used to detect the peak expiratory flow rate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. P value of less than or equal to 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTSResults were obtained and expressed as mean ± SD. The Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test was used. Significance value is < 0.05. PEFRs are 420 ± 21.37 and 317 ± 21.05 in control and periodontitis individuals, respectively. P values for these criteria were < 0.05. Males have a high PEFR when compared to females in normal individuals group. This difference was statistically not significant. Females have a high PEFR when compared to males in patients with acute periodontitis. This difference was statistically not significant. Males have a high PEFR when compared to females with chronic periodontitis. When compared within and between groups, it was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONSPeriodontitis could be a key source of respiratory disorders. This study shows that acute periodontitis expiratory flow rate was greater than chronic periodontitis expiratory flow rate. Proper maintenance of oral health and early detection of periodontitis may aid in reducing the frequency of respiratory problems due to periodontitis.

16.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215325

ABSTRACT

Investigators have begun to assess the parental acceptance on General Anaesthesia (GA) in pediatric dentistry. Patient satisfaction and knowledge has an essential role in determining the utilization of the healthcare services. Physiologic and functional outcomes can affect completion of the treatment process that is one of the Factors that influence parental decision for seeking care. METHODSIn this survey, a structured self-administered and close ended questionnaire, was used to assess parents’ acceptance for dental treatments under general anaesthesia for their child. Parents whose children were going to undergo dental treatments in Riyadh Elm University, were approached with this questionnaire. All parents fulfilling inclusion criteria were explained about the purpose of the study and a total of 452 parents provided informed consent during the aforementioned period was included in the survey. RESULTSA total of 452 parents of the children participated in the study. The educational level of the parents was found to be significantly associated with the effectiveness of the comprehensive dental care for their child under GA. Child age showed significant association with the parental refusal of dental treatment under GA. Educational level of the parents and residence were found to be significantly associated with the perception that the dental treatment under GA is indicated for a specific class of patients. (P < 0.05) CONCLUSIONSEducation level of parent’s have important role in knowlage and awareness to treat their children under GA. Regular dental check up is important. Educating parents about oral health and diseases is important to increase the awareness about prevention rather than intervention.

17.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215324

ABSTRACT

Low back pain is a common condition in India. 90 % of Indian population experience low back pain at least once in their lifetime. Studies show that 98 % low back pain is because of mechanical disorder of spine. Piriformis tightness is one of the most misdiagnosed causes for low back pain or sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Various manual therapy approaches have been studied for reducing muscle tightness. We wanted to assess the effectiveness of muscle energy technique that is post-isometric relaxation technique on piriformis muscle tightness, its effectiveness in relieving low back pain with radiation, and increasing range of motion. METHODS60 patients were included in the study as per inclusion and exclusion criteria from Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College, Sawangi Meghe, and were randomly assigned in to two groups. The duration of study was 12 days (6 sessions / week) and follow up was taken on 27th day. Subjects in muscle energy technique experimental group were treated with post isometric relaxation technique (PIR), subjects in control group were given simple passive stretching of piriformis. All subjects were educated about proper ergonomics. RESULTSBoth interventions post isometric relaxation and simple stretching techniques were effective in terms of pain reduction, ROM (Range of Motion) improvement, piriformis tightness, disability with p < 0.05 with post isometric relaxation technique superseding simple stretching. Moreover, post isometric relaxation technique in muscle energy technique had sustained effects on follow-up in terms of relieving pain, disability and tightness for longer period of time. CONCLUSIONSMuscle energy technique gives immediate relief of pain improving ROM and decreasing tightness of piriformis and disability and has longer lasting effects.

18.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-215323

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to global pandemic affecting mental and physical well-being of people around the world. Given the highly contagious nature of COVID-19, public authorities in order to restrict the escalation of the virus ordered social lockdown and asked people to self-quarantine at homes if they develop any symptoms. As a result, these new social regulations have changed how individuals live and carry out everyday tasks in the general society. Reduced physical activity during lockdown has enhanced vulnerability to develop infections and non-communicable diseases. While on the other side, due to absence of routine medical surveillance, the condition of people with existing chronic conditions has deteriorated. Re-allocation of health care resources to treat COVID-19 patients put forward unprecedented challenge for the healthcare system in terms of providing medical support to non-infected out-patients. Extended social lockdowns are also causing adverse repercussions for physiotherapy and rehabilitation out-patient services. COVID-19 restrictions have hampered the in-person interaction of therapists and patients for in-person consultations and therapy sessions. Thus, leading to overall delay in the management and recovery of patients, especially those who are at a critical stage of treatment. During these unprecedented times of COVID-19 pandemic, provision of telehealth appeared to be the guiding light to tackle these evolving challenges of public health. Focusing on the out-patients who need close supervision for therapies and counselling, in this piece, “I” am arguing that methods of telemedicine and tele-rehabilitation should be actively adopted in the healthcare services to bridge the gap caused due to COVID-19.

19.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-213931

ABSTRACT

Medical professionals including dentists are one of those high-risk professionals who can easily get affected by COVID-19 due to its highly contagious nature.Evaluating the molecular pathogenesis and the role of immune system in modulating symptoms it can be assumed that susceptibility of COVID-19 to older adults is more.This review aimed to summarize all the information available on electronic databases PubMed, PubMedcentral, Cochranedatabase related to the effect of COVID-19 ingeriatric individuals and guidelines for a prosthodontist during treatment of geriatric individuals in Indian population during this pandemic period.This review will focus on the characteristic symptoms and signs of COVID-19 in geriatric individuals and how the prosthodontists during treatment of geriatric individuals in Indian populations can better equip themselves to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in a clinical setup.

20.
Article | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-213930

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly communicable disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV2) which originated in Wuhan, China has affected 213 countries worldwide and has caused an economic crisis. As of August10, 2020, India’s recovery rate is 63%. Most of the critical cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management are elderly patients with co-morbidities. The case report is of an elderly, comorbid patient who was intubated and put on a mechanical ventilator. At a time when critical patients on mechanical ventilator hardly survived, this patient survived and was successfully weaned from the ventilator and extubated. The case report emphasizes physical therapy management along with medical management for an elderly SARS CoV2 survivor with co-morbidities, and his journey from the onset of symptoms to being mechanically ventilated to performing his daily activities with minimal discomfort.

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