Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.913
Filtrar
Mais filtros


Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Neurol India ; 69(5): 1349-1353, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747810

RESUMO

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in leprosy is sparsely documented. Neurophysiological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps in demonstrating CNS involvement in the patient of pure neuritic leprosy. Objectives: To demonstrate CNS involvement in pure neuritic leprosy. Methods: Detailed clinical presentation and skin lesions were evaluated. Sural nerve biopsy, MRI diffusion tensor imaging of spinal cord and optic nerve were performed. Visual evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential were done. Their clinical, electrophysiological, and MRI were done at follow-up visits. Results: We report three patients of pure neuritic leprosy with bilateral foot drop as the initial presentation. MRI T2W sequence of cervico dorsal cord showed dorsal column hyperintensity in two patients. Diffusion-weighted MR revealed decrease fractional anisotropy and an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient. Similar findings were also noted in the optic nerves. The patients were managed with multidrug therapy multibacillary regimen and steroid in tapering dose. At follow-up, they showed clinical improvement in vision and power of ankle dorsiflexor. Conclusions: Patients of pure neuritic leprosy may manifest with bilateral foot drop with the involvement of posterior column and cranial nerves.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Neuropatias Fibulares , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Quimioterapia Combinada , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico por imagem , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuropatias Fibulares/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 34-46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703634

RESUMO

Background: Leprosy elimination was achieved in the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the late 1980s. However, cases continue to be reported within the Region. This paper analyses leprosy cases in the Region reported to WHO during 1991-2019. Methods: Descriptive analyses were conducted of data from leprosy surveillance reported in the Region. Key indicators included prevalence, the number and rate of new cases detected, proportions of cases with multibacillary leprosy or grade 2 disability, and the numbers and proportions of cases among children and cases by sex. Results: From 1991 to 2019, the number of registered cases detected in the Region decreased by 94% (from 68 313 in 1991 to 4381 in 2019), and the number of new cases detected decreased by 72.1% (from 15 002 in 1991 to 4004 in 2019). The proportion of cases of multibacillary leprosy increased from 67.4% (8045/11 943) in 1995 to 85.6% (3428/4004) in 2019, and between 1997 and 2019 the number of leprosy cases occurring in children decreased from 1240 to 424. The proportion of new cases with grade 2 disability decreased from 15.4% in 1997 to 6.6% in 2019. With few exceptions, nearly two thirds of reported cases occurred in males. Conclusion: Most countries and areas in the Region have successfully eliminated leprosy, although some pockets remain in countries with hard-to-reach areas. The introduction of multidrug therapy and WHO's 1991 elimination goals may have prompted the initial decline in leprosy cases. Continued efforts are required in case-finding, care and prevention in areas with a high burden of disease.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Prevalência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 716-723, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral neural surgical decompression (PNSD) is used as a complementary therapy to the clinical treatment of neuritis to preserve neural function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term (≥ 1 year) clinical and functional results for PNSD in leprosy neuritis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included leprosy patients who were in late postoperative period (LPO) of surgical decompression of ulnar, median, tibial, and fibular nerves. Socioeconomic, epidemiological, and clinical data were collected. The following instruments were used in this evaluation: visual analogue pain scale (VAS), Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4), SALSA scale, and simplified neurological assessment protocol. The preoperative (PrO) and 180-day postoperative (PO180) results were compared. RESULTS: We evaluated 246 nerves from 90 patients: 56.6% were on multidrug therapy (MDT) and 43.3% discharged from MDT. Motor scores and pain intensity showed statistically significant improvement (p<0.01). There was an increase in sensory scores only for bilateral ulnar nerves (p<0.05). Of the operated cases, 26.0% of patients were referred for surgery of ulnar neuritis and 23.6% of tibial neuritis. Neuropathic pain was reported in 41% of cases. Daily dose of prednisone reduced from 39.6 mg (±3.0) in PrO, 16.3 mg (±5.2) in PO180, to 1.7 mg (±0.8) in LPO. The SALSA scale results showed mild activity limitation in 51% and moderate in 34% of patients. Eighty percent of individuals reported that the results reached their expectations. CONCLUSIONS: PNSD in leprosy was effective in the long term to decrease the prevalence and intensity of pain, improve motor function, and reduce the dose of corticosteroids, which is reflected in the patients' satisfaction.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Estudos Transversais , Descompressão , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(2): 199-201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558475

RESUMO

Hansen's disease is one of the ancient skin diseases known to humankind, still foxes even trained physician leading to delay in its diagnosis and unusual health burden. India followed by Brazil constitutes the highest number in newly diagnosed cases. Even though the World Health Organization and individual country have done much to contain the spread of leprosy, the findings of systemic complications, grade 2 deformity, and childhood leprosy reflect some shortcomings of the worldwide public health program. Renal involvement, particularly glomerulonephritis, is a known common systemic complication of the leprosy, but introduction of multidrug therapy and early case detection have reduced the chances of systemic complication significantly over the last three decades. Here, we report a case who presented in the emergency department with rapidly progressive swelling of the body, on evaluation found to have leprosy and glomerulonephritis having tubuloreticular inclusions in glomerular endothelial cell cytoplasm on electron microscopy.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite , Hanseníase , Dermatopatias , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glomerulonefrite/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 916, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a treatable disease; however, the release from treatment after completion of multidrug therapy (MDT) often does not equal absence of health problems. Consequently, sequelae interfere with the patient's perception of cure. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the perception of not being healed among people treated for leprosy in a highly endemic area in Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of perceived cure of leprosy in the post-release from treatment period was conducted in Cáceres in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study included a total of 390 leprosy patients treated with MDT and released after completion of treatment from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2017. The dependent variable was self-reported cure of leprosy; the independent variables included clinical, operational and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: Out of the 390 former leprosy patients, 304 (77.9%) perceived themselves as cured and 86 (22.1%) considered themselves unhealed. Among the latter, 49 (57.0%) reported muscle weakness and joint pains. Individuals with complaints related to leprosy post-release from treatment had a 4.6 times higher chance to self-report as unhealed (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.5-8.5). Patients with physical disabilities (PD) grade 1 and 2 at the time of the study had a 3.1 (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.3-7.4) and 8.8 (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.5-21.9) times higher likelihood to self-identify as unhealed, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among successfully treated leprosy patients, a quarter self-report as unhealed of the disease. The factors associated with the perception of being unhealed are PD and complaints related to leprosy in the post-release from treatment phase.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Percepção
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586307

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease associated with abdominal pain and elevated serum pancreatic enzymes. The most common etiologies are gallstones and alcoholism. Drug-induced AP is quite rare, lacks a solid understanding and has been occasionally reported. The diagnosis requires a great suspicion and a careful exclusion of other causes. We present a case of a 37-year-old man, previously diagnosed with leprosy that developed acute pancreatitis after starting the multibacillary polychemotherapy (PCT/MB). After a month of treatment and the discontinuation of the PCT/MB, the therapy was restarted and a new episode of AP occurred. Three months after this last episode, the PCT/MB was reintroduced, changing one of the medications and the patient had no recurrence of AP or other reactions. Therefore, it is important to take into account that there is a risk of acute pancreatitis in patients on multidrug therapy (MDT) for leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3749-3760, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasoplegic syndrome (VPS) is defined as systemic hypotension due to profound vasodilatation and loss of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), despite normal or increased cardiac index, and characterized by inadequate response to standard doses of vasopressors, and increased morbidity and mortality. It occurs in 9%-44% of cardiac surgery patients after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The underlying pathophysiology following CPB consists of resistance to vasopressors (inactivation of Ca2+ voltage gated channels) on the one hand and excessive activation of vasodilators (SIRS, iNOS, and low AVP) on the other. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I), calcium channel blockers, amiodarone, heparin, low cardiac reserve (EF < 35%), symptomatic congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus are the perioperative risk factors for VPS after cardiac surgery in adults. Till date, there is no consensus about the outcome-oriented therapeutic management of VPS. Vasopressors such as norepinephrine (NE; 0.025-0.2 µg/kg/min) and vasopressin (0.06 U/min or 6 U/h median dose) are the first choice for the treatment. The adjuvant therapy (hydrocortisone, calcium, vitamin C, and thiamine) and rescue therapy (methylene blue [MB] and hydroxocobalamin) are also considered when perfusion goals (meanarterial pressure [MAP] > 60-70 mmHg) are not achieved with nor-epinephrine and/or vasopressin. AIMS: The aims of this systematic review are to collect all the clinically relevant data to describe the VPS, its potential risk factors, pathophysiology after CPB, and to assess the efficacy, safety, and outcome of the therapeutic management with catecholamine and non-catecholamine vasopressors employed for refractory vasoplegia after cardiac surgery. Also, to elucidate the current and practical approach for management of VPS after cardiac surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: "PubMed," "Google," and "Medline" weresearched, and over 150 recent relevant articles including RCTs, clinical studies, meta-analysis, reviews, case reports, case series and Cochrane data were analyzed for this systematic review. The filter was applied specificallyusing key words like VPS after cardiac surgery, perioperative VPS following CPB, morbidity, and mortality in VPS after cardiac surgery, vasopressors for VPS that improve outcomes, VPS after valve surgery, VPS after CABG surgery, VPS following complex congenital cardiac anomalies corrective surgery, rescue therapy for VPS, adjuvant therapy for VPS, definition of VPS, outcome in VPS after cardiac surgery, etiopathology of VPS following CPB. This review did not require any ethical approval or consent from the patients. RESULTS: Despite the recent advances in therapy, the mortality remains as high as 30%-50%. NE has been recommended the most frequent used vasopressor for VPS. It restores and maintain the MAP and provides the outcome benefits. Vasopressin rescue therapy is an alternative approach, if catecholamines and fluid infusions fail to improve hemodynamics. It effectively increases vascular tone and lowers CO, and significantly decreases the 30 days mortality. Hence, suggested a first-line vasopressor agent in postcardiac surgery VPS. Terlipressin (1.3µg/kg/h), a longer acting and more specific vasoconstrictor prevents the development of VPS after CPB in patients treated with ACE-I. MB significantly reduces morbidity and mortality of VPS. The Preoperative MB (1%, 2mg/kg/30min, 1h before surgery) administration in high risk (on ACE-I) patients for VPS undergoing CABG surgery, provides 100% protection against VPS, and early of MB significantly reduces operative mortality, and recommended as a rescue therapy for VPS. Hydroxocobalamin (5 g) has been recommended as a rescue agent in VPS refractory to multiple vasopressors. A combination of ascorbic acid (6 g), hydrocortisone (200 mg/day), and thiamine (400 mg/day) as an adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the vasopressors requirement, and provides mortality and morbidity benefits. CONCLUSION: Currently, the VPS is frequently encountered (9%-40%) in cardiac surgical patients with predisposing patient-specific risk factors and combined with inflammatory response to CPB. Multidrug therapy (NE, MB, AVP, ATII, terlipressin, hydroxocobalamin) targeting multiple receptor systems is recommended in refractory VPS. A combination of high dosage of ascorbic acid, hydrocortisone and thiamine has been used successfully as adjunctive therapyto restore the MAP. We also advocate for the early use of multiagent vasopressors therapy and catecholamine sparing adjunctive agents to restore the systemic perfusion pressure with a goal of preventing the progressive refractory VPS.


Assuntos
Vasoplegia , Adulto , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hidroxocobalamina/uso terapêutico , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Vasoplegia/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoplegia/etiologia
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201168

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Hypertension affects at least 80% of hemodialysis patients. Inappropriate control of blood pressure is mentioned as one of the essential cardiovascular risk factors associated with development of cardiovascular events in dialysis populations. The aim of the cross-sectional, retrospective study was the evaluation of the antihypertensive treatment schedule and control of blood pressure in relation to the guidelines in the group of hemodialysis patients. Additionally, we assessed the level of decrease in blood pressure by each group of hypotensive agents. Materials and Methods: 222 patients hemodialyzed in a single Dialysis Unit in three distinct periods of time-2006, 2011, and 2016-with a diagnosis of hypertension were enrolled in the study. The analysis of the antihypertensive treatment was based on the medical files and it consisted of a comparison of the mean blood pressure results reported during the six consecutive hemodialysis sessions. Results: The mean values of blood pressure before hemodialysis were as follows: 134/77, 130/74, and 140/76 mmHg, after hemodialysis 124/74, 126/73, and 139/77 mmHg in 2006, 2011, and 2016 respectively. The goal of predialysis blood pressure control (<140/90) was achieved by up to 64.3% of participants in 2006 as compared to 49.4% in 2016. Additionally, the postdialysis goal (<130/90) reached 57.1% of the study population in 2006 as compared to 27.1% of patients in 2016. The differences in percentage of patients using single, double, triple, and multidrug therapy during observation were not statistically significant. The most often used drugs were ß-blockers, diuretics, and calcium channel blockers in all points of the study. Blockades of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 2006 and calcium channel blockers in 2011 and 2016 were the drugs with highest impact on lowering blood pressure. Conclusions: The goal of predialysis or postdialysis blood pressure control was achieved in a lower percentage of patients during the period of the study. Blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium channel blockers decrease the blood pressure significantly. It is necessary to achieve better control of blood pressure in prevention of cardiovascular incidents.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 453, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is curable with multidrug therapy and treatment in the early stages can prevent disability. However, local nerve damage can lead to injury and consequently recurring and disfiguring ulcers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment of leprosy ulcers using an autologous blood product; leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) to promote healing. METHODS: This is a single-centre study in the Anandaban Hospital, The Leprosy Mission Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal. Consenting patients (n=130) will be individually randomised in a single-blinded, controlled trial. Participants will be 18 years of age or older, admitted to the hospital with a clean, dry and infection-free chronic foot ulcer between 2 and 20 cm2 in size. If the ulcer is infected, it will be treated before enrolment into the study. The intervention involves the application of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) matrix on the ulcer beds during twice-weekly dressing changes. Controls receive usual care in the form of saline dressings only during their twice-weekly dressing changes. Primary outcomes are the rate of healing assessed using standardised photographs by observers blind to allocated treatment, and time to complete re-epithelialization. Follow-up is at 6 months from randomisation. DISCUSSION: This research will provide valuable information on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of L-PRF in the treatment of leprosy ulcers. An additional benefit is the evaluation of the effects of treatment on quality of life for people living with leprosy ulcers. The results will improve our understanding of the scalability of this treatment across low-income countries for ulcer healing in leprosy and potentially other conditions such as diabetic ulcers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN14933421 . Registered on 16 June 2020.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/terapia , Leucócitos , Nepal , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Úlcera
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161550

RESUMO

Leprosy may present kidney and endothelial abnormalities, being a risk factor for complications. However, the involvement of renal and vascular endothelia has been poorly investigated. We aimed to investigate if the levels of systemic endothelial biomarkers are associated with kidney abnormalities and the clinical forms of leprosy. This is a cross-sectional study with leprosy patients enrolled in January 2017 to December 2018, before the initiation of the multidrug therapy. Leprosy-associated clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Two groups were investigated: Paucibacillary (PB) and Multibacillary (MB) infections, for the comparisons. Serum and urine samples were obtained for laboratory analysis. In serum samples, were evaluated the endothelial biomarkers VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. In total, 101 leprosy patients were included, the mean age was 48±Ù¡Ù¥ years and 71 (70%) were male. The multibacillary form occurred in 81 cases (80%), among which 22 had the Virchowian form. Serum creatinine was more elevated in the MB group than in PB patients. In addition, VCAM-1 was elevated in the MB group and was correlated with the bacteriological index (rho = 0.372, p <0.01), the duration of disease symptoms (rho = 0.234, p = 0.04), and the number of skin lesions (rho = 0.468, p <0.001). Moreover, in MB patients who presented albuminuria >15 mg/g of creatinine, VCAM-1 showed a significant correlation with increased albuminuria and improved the correlation with the number of skin lesions (rho= 0.563, p=0.010). In conclusion, higher systemic VCAM-1 levels were associated with the multibacillary clinical form of leprosy and with increased albuminuria. Prospective studies are necessary to establish a cause-effect and evaluate the preventive role of these biomarkers to improve the clinical care.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009382, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939710

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has raised concerns about the increasing number of Hansen disease (HD) relapses worldwide, especially in Brazil, India, and Indonesia that report the highest number of recurrent cases. Relapses are an indicator of MDT effectiveness and can reflect Mycobacterium leprae persistence or re-infection. Relapse is also a potential marker for the development or progression of disability. In this research, we studied a large cohort of persons affected by HD treated with full fixed-dose multibacillary (MB) multidrug therapy (MDT) followed for up to 20 years and observed that relapses are a rare event. We estimated the incidence density of relapse in a cohort of patients classified to receive MB regime (bacillary index (BI) > 0), diagnosed between September 1997 and June 2017, and treated with twelve-dose MB-MDT at a HD reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We obtained the data from the data management system of the clinic routine service. We linked the selected cases to the dataset of relapses of the national HD data to confirm possible relapse cases diagnosed elsewhere. We diagnosed ten cases of relapse in a cohort of 713 patients followed-up for a mean of 12.1 years. This resulted in an incidence rate of 1.16 relapse cases per 1000 person-year (95% CI = 0.5915-2.076). The accumulated risk was 0.025 in 20 years. The very low risk observed in this cohort of twelve-dose-treated MB patients reinforces the success of the current MDT scheme.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009436, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. As incidence begins to decline, the characteristics of new cases shifts away from those observed in highly endemic areas, revealing potentially important insights into possible ongoing sources of transmission. We aimed to investigate whether transmission is driven mainly by undiagnosed and untreated new leprosy cases in the community, or by incompletely treated or relapsing cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature search of major electronic databases was conducted in January, 2020 with 134 articles retained out of a total 4318 records identified (PROSPERO ID: CRD42020178923). We presented quantitative data from leprosy case records with supporting evidence describing the decline in incidence across several contexts. BCG vaccination, active case finding, adherence to multidrug therapy and continued surveillance following treatment were the main strategies shared by countries who achieved a substantial reduction in incidence. From 3950 leprosy case records collected across 22 low endemic countries, 48.3% were suspected to be imported, originating from transmission outside of the country. Most cases were multibacillary (64.4%) and regularly confirmed through skin biopsy, with 122 cases of suspected relapse from previous leprosy treatment. Family history was reported in 18.7% of cases, while other suspected sources included travel to high endemic areas and direct contact with armadillos. None of the countries included in the analysis reported a distinct increase in leprosy incidence in recent years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with socioeconomic improvement over time, several successful leprosy control programmes have been implemented in recent decades that led to a substantial decline in incidence. Most cases described in these contexts were multibacillary and numerous cases of suspected relapse were reported. Despite these observations, there was no indication that these cases led to a rise in new secondary cases, suggesting that they do not represent a large ongoing source of human-to-human transmission.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/transmissão , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Viagem
14.
Int Orthop ; 45(7): 1783-1792, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprous neuropathy is treatable but still a source of disability worldwide. Multidrug therapy (MDT) and oral steroids are the main stay of treatment. Ulnar nerve, at the elbow, is commonly involved. Nerve decompression may be required in selected cases by an epineurotomy (internal neurolysis). The preferred surface of ulnar nerve for performing this procedure to minimize iatrogenic vascular compromise is a matter of debate. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We describe the epineural vessel arrangement on the medial and lateral surface of ulnar nerve around the medial epicondyle while performing epineurotomy for leprous neuropathy. METHODS: We enrolled patients of symptomatic leprous ulnar neuropathy of less than one year duration on MDT that did not respond to steroids, for surgical decompression. Ten patients underwent epineurotomy of ulnar nerves (N = 11) around medial epicondyle. The epineural vessels were classified as per Sunderland's classification of arteriae nervorum. The number of epineural vessels was assessed on the medial and lateral surface of the ulnar nerve adjoining the medial epicondyle. The epineurotomy incision was placed over the surface of ulnar nerve having relatively less vessels. RESULTS: The mean number of epineural vessels on the medial surface was 9.72 (range; 7-14) and on the lateral surface were 4.72 (range; 3-6). The average number of vessels per cm2 of the medial and lateral surface of the nerve was 0.94 and 0.48, respectively. The most common type of epineural vessel was type 3 on both medial and lateral surface of the nerve. Lateral epineurotomy was performed in all 11 cases. All the patients had relief from neuropathic pain. The mean VAS score improved from 3.20 ± 0.89 to 0.50 ± 0.34 at 2 years follow-up (p = 0.02). The mean motor score improved from 9.31 ± 4.12 to 15.42 ± 3.10 and sensory score improved from 40.0 ± 30.70 to 85 ± 9.90 at two years follow-up (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Lateral surface (facing the medial epicondyle) of ulnar nerve has a lesser density of epineural vessels in comparison to its medial (subcutaneous) surface. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This anatomical understanding may be helpful in minimizing the iatrogenic vascular compromise of ulnar nerve while performing its epineurotomy around the medial epicondyle for leprous neuropathy. The findings may be extrapolated to other clinical indications of epineurotomy of ulnar nerve, for example, in cubital tunnel syndrome, traumatic ulnar neuroma in continuity, and benign ulnar nerve tumors.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Ulnar , Hansenostáticos , Síndrome do Túnel Ulnar/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Quimioterapia Combinada , Cotovelo/cirurgia , Humanos , Nervo Ulnar/cirurgia
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931655, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Leprosy is an infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. An extensive literature search did not reveal many reports of melioidosis in association with leprosy. CASE REPORT A 22-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with multibacillary leprosy, developed dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia, complicated by melioidosis. Methemoglobinemia was treated with methylene blue and vitamin C. Two weeks of ceftazidime was initiated to treat melioidosis, and the patient was discharged on amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and doxycycline as melioidosis eradication therapy. However, she developed drug-induced hypersensitivity. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, as an alternative treatment for melioidosis eradication, was commenced and was successfully completed for 12 weeks. During the fifth month of multidrug therapy, the patient developed type II lepra reaction with erythema nodosum leprosum reaction, which was treated with prednisolone. Leprosy treatment continued with clofazimine and ofloxacin, and complete resolution of skin lesions occurred after 12 months of therapy. CONCLUSIONS Our case highlighted the challenges posed in managing a patient with multibacillary leprosy with multiple complications. Clinicians should be aware that dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolysis might complicate the treatment of leprosy. Our case also highlighted the safety and efficacy of combining ofloxacin and clofazimine as a leprosy treatment regimen in addition to gradual steroid dose titration in the presence of type II lepra reaction.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Melioidose , Metemoglobinemia , Adulto , Anemia Hemolítica/induzido quimicamente , Anemia Hemolítica/tratamento farmacológico , Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Metemoglobinemia/induzido quimicamente , Metemoglobinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Multimedia | MULTIMEDIA | ID: multimedia-8572

RESUMO

Aula sobre a resistência à poliquimioterapia no tratamento da hanseníase ministrada pelo Prof. Marcos César Florian durante o 11º Simpósio Brasileiros de Hansenologia


Assuntos
Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada
17.
Int J Pharm ; 602: 120625, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892062

RESUMO

Multidrug dosage forms (aka combination dosage forms, polypills, etc.) create value for patients through reduced pill burdens and simplified administration to improve adherence to therapy. Enhanced flexibility of multidrug dosage forms would provide further opportunities to better match emerging needs for individualized therapy. Through modular dosage form concepts, one approach to satisfy these needs is to adapt multidrug dosage forms to a wider variety of drugs, each with a variety of doses and release profiles. This study investigates and technically explores design requirements for extending the capability of modular multidrug dosage form concepts towards individualization. This builds on our recent demonstration of independent tailoring of dose and drug release, which is here extended towards poorly water-soluble drugs. The challenging design requirement of carrying higher drug loads in smaller volumes to accommodate multiple drugs at their clinical dose is here met regarding dose and release performance. With a modular concept, we demonstrate high precision (<5% RSD) in dose and release performance of individual modules containing felodipine or naproxen in Kollidon VA64 at both a wide drug loading range (5% w/w and 50% w/w drug) and a small module size (3.6 mg). In a forward-looking design-based discussion, further requirements are addressed, emphasizing that reproducible individual module performance is predictive of dosage form performance, provided the modules are designed to act independently. Therefore, efforts to incorporate progressively higher drug loads within progressively smaller module volumes will be crucial to extend the design window further towards full flexibility of future dosage forms for individualized multidrug therapy.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Composição de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Felodipino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos , Solubilidade , Água
18.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(4): 455-468, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral semaglutide is the first oral formulation of a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist to be approved in the United States for glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While oral semaglutide is not indicated for reduction of cardiovascular event risk, its label does include evidence of no increase in cardiovascular risk in people who received oral semaglutide. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incremental value of oral semaglutide added to existing antihyperglycemic treatment for people with T2DM with additional risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We estimated the lifetime cost-effectiveness of oral semaglutide added to current antihyperglycemic treatment for T2DM using a microsimulation model based primarily on the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model 2 (OM2) equations. Oral semaglutide added to current antihyperglycemic treatment was separately compared with (a) ongoing background antihyperglycemic treatment, (b) sitagliptin, (c) empagliflozin, and (d) liraglutide. Comparators sitagliptin, empagliflozin, and liraglutide were added to ongoing antihyperglycemic treatment. We applied hazard ratios derived from a network meta-analysis for cardiovascular and renal outcomes to the UKPDS OM2 estimated baseline rates. Health state utilities and costs were derived from the published literature. We estimated total costs, life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), clinical events, and cost per major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) avoided, over a lifetime time horizon using discount rates of 3% for costs and outcomes. RESULTS: The lifetime total cost for people treated with oral semaglutide was $311,300, with costs for the other comparators ranging from $262,800 (background treatment alone) to $287,800 (liraglutide). Oral semaglutide resulted in the fewest MACE, including the fewest cardiovascular deaths. Among the 5 modeled treatment strategies, oral semaglutide had the highest LYs gained (8.43 vs. 7.76 [background treatment alone] to 8.29 [empagliflozin and liraglutide]) and the highest QALYs gained (4.11 vs. 3.70 [background treatment alone] to 4.03 [empagliflozin]). Oral semaglutide would likely be considered cost-effective compared with liraglutide (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] = $40,100), and moderately cost-effective versus background treatment alone ([ICER] = $117,500/QALY) and sitagliptin (ICER = $145,200/QALY). The ICER for oral semaglutide compared with empagliflozin was approximately $458,400 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: As modeled, oral semaglutide as an add-on therapy to background antihyperglycemic treatment produced incremental benefits in MACE avoided, along with greater QALYs compared with background antihyperglycemic treatment alone. Oral semaglutide use resulted in better outcomes than background treatment alone or sitagliptin, and similar outcomes to liraglutide or empagliflozin with overlapping 95% confidence ranges for QALYs. Oral semaglutide was estimated to be cost-effective compared with liraglutide and to have incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between $100,000 and $150,000 per QALY versus sitagliptin and background therapy alone, but it did not meet these thresholds compared with empagliflozin. DISCLOSURES: Funding for this study was provided by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, an independent organization that evaluates the evidence on the value of health care interventions. ICER reports grants from Laura and John Arnold Foundation, California Health Care Foundation, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, and Kaiser Foundation Health Plan. ICER's annual policy summit is supported by dues from AbbVie, Aetna, America's Health Insurance Plans, Anthem, Alnylam, AstraZeneca, Biogen, Blue Shield of CA, Cambia Health Services, CVS, Editas, Evolve Pharmacy, Express Scripts, Genentech/Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Harvard Pilgrim, Health Care Service Corporation, Health Partners, Humana, Johnson & Johnson (Janssen), Kaiser Permanente, LEO Pharma, Mallinckrodt, Merck, Novartis, National Pharmaceutical Council, Premera, Prime Therapeutics, Regeneron, Sanofi, Spark Therapeutics, uniQure, and United Healthcare. Rind, Fazioli, Chapman, and Pearson are employed by ICER. Guzauskas and Hansen have nothing to disclose. Study results were presented at the New England Comparative Effectiveness Public Advisory Council (New England CEPAC), November 14, 2019, at Brown University, Providence, RI.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/economia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009214, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be a public health problem in Brazil. Furthermore, detection rates in elderly people have increased, particularly those of multibacillary (L-Lep) patients, who are responsible for transmitting M. leprae. Part of the decline in physiological function during aging is due to increased oxidative damage and change in T cell subpopulations, which are critical in defense against the disease. It is not still clear how age-related changes like those related to oxidation affect elderly people with leprosy. The aim of this work was to verify whether the elderly leprosy patients have higher ROS production and how it can impact the evolution of leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 87 leprosy patients, grouped according to age range and clinical form of leprosy, and 25 healthy volunteers were analyzed. Gene expression analysis of antioxidant and oxidative burst enzymes were performed in whole blood using Biomark's microfluidic-based qPCR. The same genes were evaluated in skin lesion samples by RT-qPCR. The presence of oxidative damage markers (carbonylated proteins and 4-hydroxynonenal) was analyzed by a DNPH colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence. Carbonylated protein content was significantly higher in elderly compared to young patients. One year after multidrug therapy (MDT) discharge and M. leprae clearance, oxidative damage increased in young L-Lep patients but not in elderly ones. Both elderly T and L-Lep patients present higher 4-HNE in cutaneous lesions than the young, mainly surrounding memory CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, young L-Lep demonstrated greater ability to neutralize ROS compared to elderly L-Lep patients, who presented lower gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, mainly glutathione peroxidase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that elderly patients present exacerbated oxidative damage both in blood and in skin lesions and that age-related changes can be an important factor in leprosy immunopathogenesis. Ultimately, elderly patients could benefit from co-supplementation of antioxidants concomitant to MDT, to avoid worsening of the disease.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Aldeídos , Antioxidantes , Carga Bacteriana , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae , Estresse Oxidativo , Carbonilação Proteica , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA