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1.
Anat Sci Educ ; 2024 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520129

ABSTRACT

Human body donors play a crucial role in anatomical education, research, and clinical skills training, and those interested in anatomical donation may bequeath their bodies to body donation programs (BDPs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perspective of body donors on the donation process in order to make recommendations for improvement that align with donor values. A survey was administered via email to 2145 individuals that had enrolled in The Ohio State University's BDP and yielded a 40% response rate. Results showed that a majority of registered donors do not place high importance on detailed consent options during the enrollment process, but do value BDP oversight, such as through the use of an oversight committee to supervise the program. Only 9.1% of donors felt that their loved ones should be permitted to make changes to their consent forms after they have passed. Although 96.2% of participants would allow photos/videos to be taken of their donated bodies, females were significantly less likely to consent to this than males (p = 0.001), as well as less likely to allow their donations to be utilized for anatomy outreach (p = 0.023). Racial minorities were significantly less trusting of the university to treat their donation with dignity and respect compared to White registrants (p = 0.034). Suggestions for improving BDP protocols include the implementation of an annual newsletter for registrants, improving methods to spread awareness about donation, increasing transparency during the consent process, and creating resources for donors' families.

2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 1-8, feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528813

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction interferes with the quality of life and activities of daily living among patients. The symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction, including pain and clicking and popping sounds, are worsened during stressful events, and patients report increased pain around the temporomandibular joint. Stress-related behaviors, such as teeth clenching and teeth grinding, are commonly reported as increasing during stress. The prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction and stress-related behaviors is reported differently in the literature. Stress in higher education is common. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction and stress-related behaviors among staff members at a local University. The study also sought to explore pain patterns described by people experiencing temporomandibular joint dysfunction and the relationship between stress-related behaviors and pain symptoms experienced. Further, the impact of stress on symptoms experienced by people with temporomandibular dysfunction was investigated in this pilot study.


La disfunción de la articulación temporomandibular interfiere con la calidad de vida y las actividades de la vida diaria entre los pacientes. Los síntomas de la disfunción temporomandibular, incluidos el dolor y los chasquidos, empeoran durante los eventos estresantes, y los pacientes informan un aumento del dolor alrededor de la articulación temporomandibular. Los comportamientos relacionados con el estrés, como apretar y rechinar los dientes, suelen aumentar durante el estrés. La prevalencia de la disfunción temporomandibular y los comportamientos relacionados con el estrés se informa de manera diferente en la literatura. El estrés en la educación superior es común. El propósito de este estudio piloto fue investigar la prevalencia de la disfunción de la articulación temporomandibular y los comportamientos relacionados con el estrés entre los miembros del personal de una universidad local. El objetivo del estudio además fue explorar los patrones de dolor descritos por personas que experimentan disfunción de la articulación temporomandibular y la relación entre los comportamientos relacionados con el estrés y los síntomas de dolor experimentados. Además, en este estudio piloto se investigó el impacto del estrés en los síntomas que experimentan las personas con disfunción temporomandibular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/psychology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/epidemiology , Pain/psychology , Pain/epidemiology , Universities , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 558-570, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299426

ABSTRACT

Donor-centered education offers students the opportunity to not only acquire visual and tactile experiences for applying anatomical knowledge but also a chance for students to reflect upon fundamental humanistic principles. The exploration of differences in students' viewpoints on body donation and the utilization of body donors in their education remains unexplored across various healthcare professional programs, which has an impact on student learning and experience. This study aimed to qualitatively examine the similarities and differences in student perspectives regarding body donation across three healthcare professional programs. One-page reflections from nursing (n = 37), physical and occupational therapy (n = 49), and medical students (n = 66) regarding their experiences in the anatomy laboratory at McGill University were collected and analyzed using a deductive approach based on themes and sub-themes outlined by Stephens et al. in 2019. Despite differences in their curricula, there were few discrepancies across the programs' reflections suggesting that donor-based learning had similar effects on each user group. Most students across the healthcare professional programs mentioned that their positive laboratory experiences motivated them to donate their bodies, extending the privilege they had to future generations. Nursing students did not reflect upon the notion that working with body donors provided unique learning experiences in the anatomy laboratory. Likewise, physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) students did not address the importance of maintaining the privacy of body donors by covering certain body parts during lab. These findings show that prosection- and dissection-based exercises encourage reflective practices associated with these of medical ethics, highlighting an important advantage to including donor-based learning in anatomical education.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Humans , Anatomy/education , Dissection/education , Curriculum , Delivery of Health Care
4.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(3): 646-659, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308395

ABSTRACT

Dissection of human body donors is a valuable part of anatomical education, research, and clinical training. In the United States, deceased human bodies are predominantly sourced through whole-body donation programs (BDPs) housed by academic institutions. Due to the lack of information regarding BDPs, the aim of this study was to gather information from US BDPs through a survey to better understand the donation process and standard operating procedures of these programs. In 2021, a Qualtrics survey was distributed to 125 BDPs and yielded responses from 72 program leaders. Collectively, these programs received more than 26,000 whole-body donations annually. Findings show that 70% typically receive enough donations to fit the needs of their institutions, 17% receive a surplus of donations, and 13% receive too few donations. Sixty-eight percent of programs permit next of kin body donation regularly or in times of need, and 44% allow next of kin to make changes to a donor's donation form after death. On average, over 85% of the registered donor population is composed of white individuals, and only 6 institutions have methods in place to promote diversity among their donor population. Overall, there is considerable variability in the operation of BDPs across the United States. These findings can be used to make recommendations about donor enrollment and program operations to ultimately improve the donation process. Future research needs to investigate the opinions and preferences of body donors along with their next of kin on the body donation process and associated policies.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Human Body , Humans , United States , Anatomy/education , Tissue Donors , Dissection , Universities
5.
Anat Sci Educ ; 17(2): 422-432, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105618

ABSTRACT

The teaching of anatomy is relevant to many fields and anatomy teachers are in demand. Individuals with a graduate anatomy education are some of the most sought-after candidates to fill open teaching positions, but it is unclear as to what constitutes a graduate anatomy education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the components of a graduate anatomy education in the United States. A survey regarding the components of doctoral, master's, and graduate certificate programs was distributed to program directors and department chairs at 71 US institutions. Respondents indicated that there were 17 doctoral, 28 master's, and 9 graduate certificate programs. Students completed coursework in all the traditional anatomical subdisciplines in approximately half of doctoral (53%) and master's (57%) programs, though the number was lower in graduate certificate programs (22%). In comparison, within 12 programs (5 doctoral, 4 master's, and 3 graduate certificate) students were required to complete coursework in less than 2 anatomical subdisciplines. Required coursework outside the subdisciplines usually involved educational theories and practices (61% of programs), research methods (52% of programs), and/or physiology (37% of programs). Respondents indicated that most programs (81%) were designed to prepare their students to teach. It appears that graduate anatomy training likely involves gross anatomy coursework, coursework in another anatomical subdiscipline, and coursework in educational theories and practices. Given the likely decline in the number of doctoral-level anatomy programs from 21 to 19, serious consideration should be given to hiring teaching candidates with master's or graduate certificate training in anatomy.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Humans , United States , Anatomy/education , Education, Graduate , Curriculum , Students , Social Responsibility
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1587-1595, dic. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528805

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Anatomy and clinical skills are taught separately to physical and occupational therapy students. Formaldehyde is the primary chemical used to embalm donors which creates a challenge in integrating clinical skills into the anatomy curriculum. This study aimed to evaluate the integration of clinical skills into anatomical education using Imperial College London- Soft Preservation (ICL-SP) and formaldehyde embalming through the evaluation of student perceived learning and confidence. Students were invited to complete a survey after dissecting an ICL-SP and formaldehyde embalmed donors and perform clinical tests. It was easier to dissect and identify neurovascular structures on ICL-SP donors compared to formaldehyde. Clinical tests, like measuring range of motion and ligament tests were also more realistic on ICL-SP donors. The integration of clinical skills in the anatomical curriculum increased student perceived understanding of associated anatomy (p < 0.001), gave better understanding of how anatomy is important to their professions (p < 0.001) and increased motivation to learn anatomy (p < 0.001). The integration of clinical skills into anatomical education can facilitate student learning with higher confidence performing clinical skills and is complemented by the utilization of the new ICL-SP methodology instead of the traditional formaldehyde preservation.


Las habilidades anatómicas y clínicas se enseñan por separado a los estudiantes de terapia física y ocupacional. El formaldehído es el químico principal que se usa para embalsamar a los donantes, lo que crea un desafío para integrar las habilidades clínicas en el plan de estudios de anatomía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la integración de habilidades clínicas en la educación anatómica utilizando Imperial College London-Soft Preservation (ICL-SP) y embalsamamiento de formaldehído a través de la evaluación del aprendizaje y la confianza percibidos por los estudiantes. Se invitó a los estudiantes a completar una encuesta después de diseccionar un ICL-SP y donantes embalsamados formolizados y realizar pruebas clínicas. Fue más fácil diseccionar e identificar estructuras neurovasculares en donantes ICL-SP en comparación con los fijados en formaldehído. Las pruebas clínicas, como la medición del rango de movimiento y las pruebas de ligamentos, también fueron más realistas en los donantes de ICL-SP. La integración de habilidades clínicas en el plan de estudios anatómico aumentó la comprensión percibida por los estudiantes de anatomía asociada (p < 0,001), dio una mejor comprensión de cómo la anatomía es importante para sus profesiones (p < 0,001) y aumentó la motivación para aprender anatomía (p < 0,001). La integración de las habilidades clínicas en la educación anatómica puede facilitar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes con mayor confianza en el desempeño de las habilidades clínicas y se complementa con la utilización de la nueva metodología ICL-SP en lugar de la conservación tradicional con formaldehído.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students/psychology , Tissue Preservation/methods , Anatomy/education , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupational Therapy , Physical Therapy Modalities , Clinical Competence , Curriculum , Dissection , Embalming , Formaldehyde
7.
Clin Anat ; 36(7): 993-1000, 2023 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37199183

ABSTRACT

Work with deceased human bodies to enhance anatomical education was first documented in the 3rd century BCE. However, the development of body donation programs provided many new opportunities for medical education. The aim of this study was to investigate the work supported by human body donors at academic institutions in the United States and to evaluate the ethical oversight process and the preparation methods used. A questionnaire was developed using Qualtrics and sent to 125 body donation programs in the United States. Representatives from a total of 69 institutions completed the questionnaire. The data showed that human body donations across the United States are used in teaching, clinical skills training, research, and educational outreach. Most institutions worked with hard-fixed donors for teaching and some with soft-preserved and unembalmed donors for clinical skills training. Among the participating programs, only 33 representatives reported an ethical approval process for conducting research involving human body donors. These findings raise ethical concerns related to the operation of body donation programs due to the lack of oversight. Furthermore, some institutions allowed faculty and staff to take photographs of donated bodies for educational purposes, which is often not disclosed on the consent form. The data also showed the need for more discussion on anatomical legacy collections housed at these institutions in the United States.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Education, Medical , Humans , United States , Human Body , Tissue Donors , Universities , Faculty , Anatomy/education
9.
Anat Sci Int ; 98(1): 1-11, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227535

ABSTRACT

Utilization of human material in surgical simulation training has been well-established as an effective teaching method. Despite the value of donor-based surgical simulation training, its application may be hampered by difficulties regarding access to donated bodies. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess body donation and body acquisition practices with regard to surgical simulation training programs around the world. The results of this review highlight discrepancies regarding body donation practices and surgical simulation programs among continents and countries. The utilization of donor bodies in surgical simulation appears to mirror body donation practices. In countries that rely mostly or exclusively upon unclaimed bodies or executed criminals, there are scant reports of donor-based surgical simulation programs. In countries where willed-body donation is the principal source of human material, there tend to be many surgical simulation programs that incorporate human material as part of surgical training. This review suggests that, in anatomical and surgical education, the utilization of active willed-body donation programs, as opposed to the utilization of unclaimed human bodies, positively corresponds with the development of beneficial donor-based surgical simulation programs. Likewise, donor-based surgical simulation training programs may have an influence on the perpetualization of willed-body donations.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Human Body , Humans , Cadaver , Tissue Donors , Anatomy/education
10.
Anat Sci Int ; 97(3): 307-312, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143025

ABSTRACT

Human body donors selflessly decided to make the ultimate gift to donate their bodies to education. Being on the receiving end, the health sciences education community owes it to the donors to ensure that they are being treated with utmost respect by promoting and developing high ethical standards and maximizing the benefits from this gift. Working with human body donors for research purposes has increased over the years, while regulations associated with these processes did not change. This article draws upon current literature and author's experiences to offer practical tips for health educators and everyone working with body donors to achieve these goals. We offer 10 practical tips that help in starting the conversation about the best ways to work with body donors to maximize their contribution to health sciences education.


Subject(s)
Human Body , Tissue Donors , Humans
11.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 19-25, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431553

ABSTRACT

Deceased human bodies are donated for education and research. Informed consent has become the standard for research on the living. A question could be asked on how informed are the donors and their families about the process before this generous gift is given. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the published donation forms used by body donation programs in the United States and assess them according to the guidelines published by the American Association of Clinical Anatomists. The findings of this study shows that the level of information given to donors and families, before consenting to whole body donation, varies greatly throughout the United States. Many of the forms fail to include the recommendations made by professional societies. Additional information needs to be added to whole body donation forms to better inform donors and families about the donation process, what happens to the body, and the final disposition of the bodies once studies are completed. Overall, it was concluded that in some cases consent is being obtained but much more needs to be done before institutions can claim to obtain informed consent.


Subject(s)
Anatomists , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Human Body , Humans , Informed Consent , Tissue Donors , United States
12.
Med Sci Educ ; 31(6): 1903-1910, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950529

ABSTRACT

Several teaching resources are used to enhance the learning of anatomy. The purpose of this study was to examine the preference of medical students on the use of various resources to learn anatomy and their link to 12 learning outcomes. A selected response item questionnaire was administered that asked students to rank six laboratory teaching resources from most to least preferred, and rate how useful these six resources were towards achieving 12 learning outcomes. These learning outcomes covered many of the learning domains such as demonstrating an understanding of anatomy, visualizing structures, appreciating clinical correlations, and understanding anatomical variations. Medical students ranked cadaveric prosections paired with an active learning clinical tutorial as the highest rank and most useful resource for learning anatomy, followed by dissection videos, electronic resources, and printed material, followed by plastinated specimens and plastic models. Overall, cadaveric prosections were also rated as the most helpful teaching resource in achieving various learning outcomes. In conclusion, anatomy teachers should provide prosections coupled with clinical tutorials as well as electronic resources as students prefer these and think they help them learn anatomy. Future studies will investigate the impact of using these resources on students' performance. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40670-021-01436-2.

13.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(1): 71-78, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539206

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, teaching and learning within the discipline of anatomy has undergone significant changes. Some of these changes are due to a reduction in the number of teaching hours, while others are related to advancements in technology. Faced with these many choices for change, it can be difficult for faculty to decide on which new developments in anatomical education need or indeed can be integrated into their course to enhance student learning. This article presents the universal design for learning (UDL) framework-an informed, evidence-based, and robust approach to underpin new course design and pedagogical reform in anatomy education. Universal design for learning is not a theory but a framework grounded in cognitive neuroscience that focuses on engaging multiple brain networks. The guidelines for UDL are organized into three core principles: (1) provide multiple means of representation, (2) provide multiple means of action and expression, and (3) provide multiple means of engagement. The learning space within the anatomy laboratory provides an excellent opportunity in which to apply this framework. This article also describes current trends employed in the teaching of anatomy. The principles of UDL are then outlined, followed by a description of how UDL approaches have been applied in the design and delivery of anatomy practical teaching to first year medical students at University College Cork. Future implications for this work are a consideration and investigation of how a course designed with the principles of UDL at its heart ultimately benefits student learning.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Universal Design , Anatomy/education , Curriculum , Humans , Learning , Teaching , Universities
15.
Med Sci Educ ; 30(4): 1459-1464, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457813

ABSTRACT

The teaching of anatomy has for long been delivered through lectures and supplemented with laboratory sessions that are predominantly delivered by faculty members. In this study, we aimed to assess the benefits of medical students' student-centered learning (SCL) approach in the anatomy laboratory. First-year medical students were invited to participate in this study. Information about the study was provided to the students and informed consent was obtained. In one laboratory session, students were divided into groups and were provided with a list of structures that they need to identify on prosections using the available resources. This was followed by a faculty-led learning session (FLL) to identify the same list of structures. Students were then asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of the laboratory session evaluating the benefits of incorporating SCL into their learning. Anonymized data was collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS). From the 86 registered students, 65 took part in this study. Medical students preferred FLL session when it comes to consolidating anatomical knowledge, remembering new anatomical knowledge, and developing in-depth understanding of anatomy and their ability to ask questions regarding challenging topics. Meanwhile, students' preferred SCL session when it comes to helping them stay focused, providing a more relaxed learning environment, enhancing communication with peers, and developing independent learning skills. In this study, we highlight the benefits of incorporating SCL in the anatomy laboratory complemented by FLL. With the clear benefits of SCL, further research is required to investigate the best way to integrate similar sessions in an anatomy laboratory and its impact on student performance.

16.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(3): 233-240, mayo 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-182985

ABSTRACT

Several research articles have reported the shortage of qualified anatomy teachers across different countries. This issue is being addressed by developing graduate anatomy training programs where students are taught the different anatomical sciences. These graduates will also need to be trained as educational scholars in order to face the challenges in their future careers as academics. To address this educational need, in this article we discuss the design and development of a new course in 'Anatomy Pedagogy' that we successfully integrated into a new innovative master's program in human anatomy in our institution. This course was designed by utilizing the different principles of the scholarship of teaching and learning. In this article, the authors aim to outline the content of this course and analyse it in light of the scholarship of teaching and learning. This includes the learning outcomes, faculty-led learning, student-led teaching, teaching practicum and the different assessment techniques used on this course. Some of the principles used to analyse this course includes universal design for learning, teaching for understanding, assessment as learning and peer to peer learning. In the coming academic years, the authors aim to collect qualitative and quantitative data what will help inform the future delivery of this course


No disponible


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , Education, Premedical/organization & administration , Fellowships and Scholarships/trends , Education, Medical
17.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(1): 64-73, 2019 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450564

ABSTRACT

Cadaveric material has long been used to teach anatomy and more recently to train students in clinical skills. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach to compare the impact of four embalming solutions on the tissues of human cadavers. To this end, a formalin-based solution, Thiel, Genelyn and Imperial College London soft-preservation (ICL-SP) solution were compared. The effect of these chemicals on the properties of the tissue was assessed by measuring the range of motion (ROM) of joints and measuring the dimensions of different structures on computed tomography (CT) images before and after embalming. The mean changes in the ratio (angle to ROM) differed statistically between embalming methods (Welch Statistic 3,1.672  = 67.213, p = 0.026). Thiel embalmed cadavers showed an increase in range of motion while ICL-SP cadavers remained relatively the same. Genelyn and formalin embalmed cadavers registered a notable decrease in range of motion. Furthermore, investigation into the impact of the embalming chemicals on the dimensions of internal organs and vessels revealed that Thiel embalming technique leads to a decrease in the dimension of the cardiovascular system alone while formalin-based solutions maintain the shape of the organs and vessels investigated. Our findings suggest that the joints of cadavers' embalmed using ICL-SP technique may faithfully mimic that of unembalmed cadavers and that formalin is necessary to retain shape and size of the organs and vessels investigated in this study. Despite this, a study with larger numbers of cadavers is required to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Embalming/methods , Fixatives/pharmacology , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Range of Motion, Articular/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cadaver , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 62(5): 625-633, 2018 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656596

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cadaveric studies provide a means of safely assessing new technologies and optimizing scanning prior to clinical validation. Reducing radiation exposure in a clinical setting can entail incremental dose reductions to avoid missing important clinical findings. The use of cadavers allows assessment of the impact of more substantial dose reductions on image quality. Our aim was to identify a suitable low-dose abdominopelvic CT protocol for subsequent clinical validation. METHODS: Five human cadavers were scanned at one conventional dose and three low-dose settings. All scans were reconstructed using three different reconstruction algorithms: filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (60% FBP and 40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR40)), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Two readers rated the image quality both quantitatively and qualitatively. RESULTS: Model-based iterative reconstruction images had significantly better objective image noise and higher qualitative scores compared with both FBP and ASIR40 images at all dose levels. The greatest absolute noise reduction, between MBIR and FBP, of 34.3 HU (equating to a 68% reduction) was at the lowest dose level. MBIR reduced image noise and improved image quality even in CT images acquired with a mean radiation dose reduction of 62% compared with conventional dose studies reconstructed with ASIR40, with lower levels of objective image noise, superior diagnostic acceptability and contrast resolution, and comparable subjective image noise and streak artefact scores. CONCLUSION: This cadaveric study demonstrates that MBIR reduces image noise and improves image quality in abdominopelvic CT images acquired with dose reductions of up to 62%.


Subject(s)
Radiation Dosage , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiography, Abdominal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Algorithms , Cadaver , Humans
19.
J Dent Educ ; 81(4): 420-426, 2017 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365606

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine whether Thiel-embalmed cadavers would provide a useful anatomy teaching tool for topics that cannot be approached using formalin-fixed cadavers such as oral cavity examination and maxillary anesthesia. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed bodies for performing oral examinations was assessed by asking first-year dental and dental hygiene students at a dental school in Ireland to identify oral structures on a classmate and on a Thiel-embalmed body. The study was conducted in 2016. The ease of location was compared in the two settings, and their quality was assessed on the cadavers. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach maxillary anesthesia was assessed by students' performing mock injections at five adjacent sites daily for five consecutive days, followed by inspection of the gingival surface by experienced anatomists and dentists. Data were obtained from 57 students, but only the 54 forms that were fully completed were analyzed, for an overall response rate of 85.7%. The results showed that most oral structures were more difficult to locate on cadavers. The texture and appearance of features in the cadavers were rated at a midpoint between realistic and unrealistic. The relative inexperience of the participants, the accumulation of fixative in the oral cavity, and discoloration were mentioned as potential confounding factors. Visual analysis of images obtained following repeated injections revealed no deterioration of the tissue. Importantly, the puncture marks appeared to reduce over time, suggesting that the gingival tissue maintains some elasticity following Thiel fixation. These findings suggest that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may be a useful tool to provide students more time to localize and study aspects of the oral cavity. Likewise, the recoiling capacity of gingival tissue suggests that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may provide an ideal tool for teaching injection technique of local anesthetics.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , Anesthesia, Dental , Anesthesia, Local , Cadaver , Education, Dental/methods , Embalming/methods , Mouth/anatomy & histology , Anesthesia, Dental/methods , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Humans
20.
Anat Sci Educ ; 10(2): 137-143, 2017 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352048

ABSTRACT

Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire based approach was used to gain a better insight into the opinion of anatomists on the use of preserved cadavers for the teaching of human anatomy. This study focused on anatomy teachers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. From the 125 participating anatomists, 34.4% were medically qualified, 30.4% had a PhD in a non-anatomical science and 22.4% had a PhD in an anatomical science, these figures include ten anatomists who had combinations of MD with the two other PhD qualifications. The main findings from the questionnaire were that 61.6% of participants agreed that hard-fixed formalin cadavers accurately resemble features of a human body whereas 21.6% disagreed. Moreover, anatomists rated the teaching aids on how accurately they resemble features of the human body as follows: plastic models the least accurate followed by plastinated specimens, hard fixed cadavers; soft preserved cadavers were considered to be the most accurate when it comes to resembling features of the human body. Though anatomists considered soft preserved cadavers as the most accurate tool, further research is required in order to investigate which techniques or methods provide better teaching tool for a range of anatomical teaching levels and for surgical training. Anat Sci Educ 10: 137-143. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.


Subject(s)
Anatomists/psychology , Anatomy/education , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cadaver , Education, Professional/methods , Faculty , Teaching , Audiovisual Aids , Curriculum , Embalming/methods , Fixatives , Formaldehyde , Humans , Ireland , Learning , Models, Anatomic , Postmortem Changes , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tissue Fixation/methods , United Kingdom
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