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Dermatology ; 239(5): 782-793, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231944


BACKGROUND: Just as the number of tattooed people has increased in recent years, so has the number of adverse reactions in tattooed skin. Tattoo colourants contain numerous, partly unidentified substances, which have the potential to provoke adverse skin reactions like allergies or granulomatous reactions. Identification of the triggering substances is often difficult or even impossible. METHODS: Ten patients with typical adverse reactions in tattooed skin were enrolled in the study. Skin punch biopsies were taken and the paraffin-embedded specimens were analysed by standard haematoxylin and eosin and anti-CD3 stainings. Tattoo colourants provided by patients and punch biopsies of patients were analysed with different chromatography and mass spectrometry methods and X-ray fluorescence. Blood samples of 2 patients were screened for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R). RESULTS: Histology showed variable skin reactions such as eosinophilic infiltrate, granulomatous reactions, or pseudolymphoma. CD3+ T lymphocytes dominated the dermal cellular infiltrate. Most patients had adverse skin reactions in red tattoos (n = 7), followed by white tattoos (n = 2). The red tattooed skin areas predominantly contained Pigment Red (P.R.) 170, but also P.R. 266, Pigment Orange (P.O.) 13, P.O. 16, and Pigment Blue (P.B.) 15. The white colourant of 1 patient contained rutile titanium dioxide but also other metals like nickel and chromium and methyl dehydroabietate - known as the main ingredient of colophonium. None of the 2 patients showed increased levels of ACE and sIL-2R related to sarcoidosis. Seven of the study participants showed partial or complete remission after treatment with topical steroids, intralesional steroids, or topical tacrolimus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the methods presented might be a rational approach to identify the substances that trigger adverse reactions in tattoos. Such an approach might help make tattoo colourants safer in the future if such trigger substances could be omitted.

Hipersensibilidade , Tatuagem , Humanos , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Pele/patologia , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Esteroides
Food Chem ; 410: 135383, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638629


A nanosensor is designed for rapid detection of the gluten content of wheat-containing samples. Gluten is a plant protein that causes allergy in individuals and leads to celiac disease. Since in a celiac diet trace amounts of gluten are able to prompt allergic reactions, a food-allergen label must be provided on foodstuffs and be seriously considered by food industries. Various analytical methods and commercial immunoassays are used for such analyses but prices per test, especially for low-income countries are high. Thus, a rapid, sensitive, simple, and inexpensive detecting tool seems essential. A solution can be designing a gluten optical nanosensor. The nanosensor is made of folic-acid-carbon dots and gluten molecularly templates embedded simultaneously in a silicate matrix. Adding gluten to the solution of this nanostructure and its adsorbing on the blank templated space on the nanostructure causes fluorescence enhancement. The concentration range of gluten detection was 0.36 to 2.20 µM.

Doença Celíaca , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Humanos , Glutens/análise , Carbono/química , Triticum , Dieta , Corantes Fluorescentes/química
Rev. colomb. ciencias quim. farm ; 51(3)set.-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535859


Introdução: perilartina é um adoçante natural potente, considerado 2000 vezes mais doce que o açúcar comum. Ela pode ser alérgica para algumas pessoas. Além disso, ela se usa apenas no Japão, o que pressupõe a possibilidade de adulterar produtos japoneses sem o seu uso. Assim, o desenvolvimento de um método eficiente da sua determinação qualificativa e quantificação é realmente atual. Metodologia: um modelo matemático de um processo anódico foi desenvolvido e analisado mediante a teoria de estabilidade linear e análise de bifurcações. O modelo inclui os cenários mais prováveis do andamento do processo eletroanalítico. Resultados: a perilartina é oxidada no meio básico, formando o poliol e o sal do "pseudoácido" correspondente, o que contribui fortemente para a força iônica da dupla camada elétrica. Isto pode ser responsável pela aparição das instabilidades oscilatória e monotônica no processo eletroanalítico. Conclusão: malgrado o supracitado, o compósito é um modificador eficiente para a determinação eletroquímica da perilartina no meio básico.

Introducción: perilartina es un edulcorante natural potente, considerado 2000 veces más dulce que el azúcar común. Esta puede causar alergia a algunas personas. Además, ella solo se usa en Japón, lo que presupone la posibilidad de falsificar productos japoneses sin su uso. Así, el desarrollo de un método eficiente de su determinación cuantitativa y cualitativa es realmente actual. Metodología: un modelo matemático de un proceso anódico fue desarrollado y analizado mediante la teoría de estabilidad lineal e análisis de bifurcaciones. El modelo incluye los escenarios más probables del curso del proceso electroanalítico. Resultados: la perilartinase oxida en el medio básico, formando el poliol y la sal del "pseudoácido" correspondiente, lo que contribuye fuertemente para la fuerza iónica de la doble capa eléctrica. Esto puede ser responsable por la aparición de las inestabilidades oscilatoria y monotónica en el proceso electroanalítico. Conclusión: a pesar de lo mencionado, el compuesto es un modificador eficaz para la determinación electroquímica de la perilartina en el medio básico.

SUMMARY Introduction: Perillartine is a strong natural sweetener, considered 2000 as sweet as a common sugar. It may be allergic to some people. Also, it is used only in Japan, which may presuppose the possibility of falsify Japanese products without its use. Thus the development of an eficiente method of its quantitative and qualitative determination is really actual. Methodology: A mathematical model of an anodic process has been developed and analyzed by means of linear stability theory and bifurcation analysis. The model includes the most probable scenarios of the course of the electroanalytical process. Results: Perillartine is oxidized in basic media, yielding the polyol and the correspondent pseudoacid salt, which strongly contributes to the double electric layer ionic force. This may be responsible for the oscillatory and monotonic instabilities appearance in the electroanalytical process. Conclusion: Despite of the above mentioned statements, the composite is na efficient modifier for the electrochemical determination of perillartine in basic media.

Food Chem ; 389: 132986, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569245


The aim was to develop a fluorescent multiplex array for simultaneously measuring regulated food allergens using specific allergen protein molecules from peanut, tree nut, cow's milk, egg, soy, fish, shellfish, sesame, mustard and celery. Microspheres coupled to specific monoclonal antibodies were used for allergen detection, with purified allergens as reference standards.Standard curves for 17 allergens covered a 5-log dynamic range. Intra- and inter-assay acceptance criteria were within 70-130% recovery and a CV of ≤15%. Food reference materials contained high levels of their respective major allergens (2000-175,000 µg/g), Similar high allergen levels were found in 10 selected foods analysed using a 9-plex array. Egg, milk, peanut, hazelnut and walnut allergens were detectable in chocolate bars with incurred allergens at 3, 10, 30, and 100 ppm. The multiplex array is an efficient tool for measuring specific food allergens, with applications for risk assessment and standardization of therapeutic products for food allergy.

Chocolate , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos/análise , Animais , Arachis , Bovinos , Corantes/análise , Feminino , Leite/química
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056804


Fungal laccase obtained from a Cerrena unicolor strain was used as an effective biocatalyst for the transformation of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid into a green-coloured antibacterial compound, which can be considered as both an antimicrobial agent and a textile dye, simultaneously. The process of biosynthesis was performed in buffered solutions containing methanol as a co-solvent, allowing better solubilisation of substrate. The transformation process was optimised in terms of the buffer pH value, laccase activity, and concentrations of the substrate and co-solvent. The crude product obtained exhibited low cytotoxicity, antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the synthesised green-coloured compound proved non-allergenic and demonstrated a high efficiency of dyeing wool fibres.

Naftalenossulfonato de Anilina/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Corantes/química , Corantes/farmacologia , Lacase/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftalenossulfonato de Anilina/química , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Biocatálise , Linhagem Celular , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes/metabolismo , Corantes/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/enzimologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Lacase/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
Pharm. care Esp ; 23(6): 6-18, Dic 15, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-216139


Introducción: Las Especialidades Farmacéutica Publicitarias (EFP), son especialidades farmacéuticas de libre uso y dispensación sin receta. Los colorantes azoicos son conocidos por su potencial toxicidad en pacientes alérgicos al ácido acetilsalicílico(AAS), por ello, la exposición a éstos debe acompañarse de precauciones, advertencias y contraindicaciones de uso. Objetivos: Diseñar una guía de dispensación para prevenir la inseguridad por reacción cruzada con excipientes azoicos en pacientes alérgicos al AAS.Material y Métodos: Se obtuvo del BOT plus el listado de EFP comercializadas en España y se revisaron las fichas técnicas de la AEMPS y las fichas del BOT plus para la detección de discrepancias entre fichas y buscar alternativas seguras (también EFP) para aquellas con azoicos.Resultados: De las 1194 EFP evaluadas, 110 (9%) contenían algún azoico, AAS o salicilamida. De las 784 de administración oral: 18 contienen AAS, 4 incluyen salicilamida y 78 azoicos. Para las 78 EFP orales con excipientes azoicos, excepto en 2, se encontró una alternativa EFP del mismo grupo terapéutico que respetaba la misma vía de administración, pero en el 28,9% de los casos no la misma forma farmacéutica.Se detectaron 11 discrepancias entre las fichas técnicas de la AEMPS y del BOT plus. Fueron subsanadas comunicándolas al Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos (CGCOF).Conclusiones: Esta guía resultará de gran utilidad para la Atención Farmaceútica(AF) en la dispensación e indicación de EFP con excipientes azoicos en pacientes alérgicos al AAS. Además de prevenir situaciones de inseguridad, enriquece los protocolos de AF disponibles para la práctica asistencial en la Oficina de Farmacia.(AU)

Introduction: The OTC (Over The Counter) drugs are free use drugs and can be dispensed without a prescription.Azo dyes are known for their potential toxicity in patients allergic to ASA. Therefore, the exposure to them should be accompanied by precautions, warnings and contraindications to the use. Objective: To design a dispensing guide to prevent insecurity due to cross-reaction with azo excipients in patients allergic to ASA. Methods: The list of OTC marketed in Spain was obtained from the BOT plus and the AEMPS techni-cal sheets. The BOT plus sheets were reviewed to detect discrepancies between files and to search for safe alternatives (also OTC) for those with azoic agents.Results: Of the 1194 OTC evaluated, 110 (9%) con-tained some azo, ASA or salicylamide. Among the 784 for oral administration: 18 contain ASA, 4 include salicylamide and 78 azo. For all 78 oral OTC with azo dyes, except for 2, an alternative OTC from the same therapeutic group was found. The alternative OTC respected the same route of administration but not the same pharmaceutical form in 28.9% of the cases.Eleven discrepancies were detected between the AEMPS and BOT plus technical sheets. They were corrected after having been communicated to the General Council of Official Associations of Pharma-cists (CGCOF). Conclusions: This guide will be very useful for Pharmaceutical Care (PC) in the dispensing and indication of OTC with azo excipients in patients allergic to ASA. In addition to preventing situations of insecurity, it enriches the PC protocols available for healthcare practice in the Pharmacy Office.(AU)

Humanos , Compostos Azo , Hipersensibilidade , Aspirina , Assistência Farmacêutica , Espanha , Farmacêuticos
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(2): 199-202, abr.jun.2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398932


A prática de tatuagens é muito antiga e atualmente tornou-se extremamente popular, porém traz consigo riscos que não podem ser ignorados. As tintas utilizadas nas tatuagens são um fator importante para o aparecimento de reações adversas. A reação de hipersensibilidade aos pigmentos das tintas é uma das mais comuns. Entre elas, encontram-se reações alérgicas tipo dermatites de contato ou reações de fotossensibilidade, sendo esta última o motivo deste relato. O tratamento indicado é o uso de corticoides e a fotoproteção. Neste artigo, discorreremos especificamente sobre a reação de fotossensibilidade ao pigmento azul, com o relato de um caso e breve revisão da literatura.

Tattooing is a very old practice that has become extremely popular in recent years; however, it carries risks that cannot be ignored. The inks used in tattoos are an important factor for the appearance of adverse reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions to the pigments in the inks are some of the most common. These include allergic reactions such as contact dermatitis or photosensitivity reactions, the latter being the reason for this report. The recommended treatment is the use of corticosteroids and photoprotection. In this article, we will specifically discuss the photosensitivity reaction to the blue pigment with a case report and a brief literature review.

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Tatuagem , Dermatite Fotoalérgica , Hipersensibilidade , Terapêutica , Corticosteroides , Corantes , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Tinta
Rheumatol Int ; 41(4): 795-797, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196874


Hair dye (HD) and its component para-phenylenediamine (PPD) are commonly used to enhance beauty and youth. HD is associated with allergic contact reactions and the development of autoimmune phenomena. A 28-year-old woman presented to us complaining of pain and swelling affecting the small joints of the hands bilaterally lasting for 7 weeks. Laboratory evaluation was remarkable only for an increase of acute-phase reactants, while the rest of laboratory tests including serological tests for viruses, as well as immunological tests were negative or within normal limits. She noticed a close correlation between the onset of symmetrical polyarthritis and the use of HD product. Thus, after excluding other possibilities of inflammatory arthritides, the diagnosis of HD-induced arthritis was made. The patient was treated with naproxen, and after 3 weeks, she had a complete clinical response with decrease of acute-phase reactants. Thus, we review and discuss the relevant literature of cases related with the use of HD and arthritis development. This is the first described case of HD-induced arthritis. Physicians must be aware and recognize these symptoms and signs of patients exposed to HD and treat them appropriately.

Artrite Reumatoide/induzido quimicamente , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Tinturas para Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Fenilenodiaminas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Naproxeno/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
Methods Mol Biol ; 2223: 169-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226595


Flow cytometry is a popular technique used for both clinical and research purposes. It involves laser-based technology to characterize cells based on size, shape, and complexity. Additionally, flow cytometers are equipped with the ability to take fluorescence measurements at multiple wavelengths. This capability makes the flow cytometer a practical resource in the utilization of fluorescently conjugated antibodies, fluorescent proteins, DNA binding dyes, viability dyes, and ion indicator dyes. As the technology advances, the number of parameters a flow cytometer can measure has increased tremendously, and now some has the capacity to analyze 30-50 or more parameters on a single cell. Here, we describe the basic principles involved in the mechanics and procedures of flow cytometry along with an insight into applications of flow cytometry techniques for biomedical and allergic disease research.

Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Anticorpos/análise , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Pesquisa Biomédica/instrumentação , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Sobrevivência Celular , Citometria de Fluxo/instrumentação , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Imunoconjugados/análise , Lasers , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Linfócitos T/imunologia
Arch Pediatr ; 27(7): 368-371, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807620


BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to food additives are often suspected by families. The aim of this study was to describe oral food challenge (OFC) outcomes in a pediatric cohort with a suspected diagnosis of allergy to food additives (food dyes or sodium benzoate). METHODS: All patients who underwent an open OFC to carmine red, cochineal red, erythrosine, patent blue V, tartrazine, yellow sunset S, and/or sodium benzoate were included. A survey was sent to families after testing to evaluate whether the OFC results had altered feeding behaviors with food additives. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were included. The main suspected food was candy (n=11/23; 48%). Only one OFC out of 45 was formally positive for the carmine and cochineal red. Subsequently, most OFCs were negative (44/45; 97.8%). Despite the negativity of the challenge, four families out of 14 reported occurrences of supposed allergic reactions to food additives and six out of 15 continued to completely avoid the additive of concern in their children's diet. CONCLUSIONS: Allergies to food additives remain rare. Even if an IgE-mediated allergy was excluded with a negative OFC, families remained suspicious about ready-made products. Health professionals and parents should be reassured about the low risk of food dye intolerance or allergies.

Corantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Benzoato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(9): 2401-2403, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428331


The practice of tattooing dates back to 5000 years ago and is currently constantly growing. The most common pigment associated with tattoo complications is the red one. Another pigment, which could be associated with adverse reactions, even if less frequently than red, is blue. Traditionally, blue pigment contains cobalt, which causes allergic reactions. Here, we report a case of blue pigment granulomatous reaction in a 37-year-old male patient.

Hipersensibilidade , Tatuagem , Adulto , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(2): 75-82, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311093


Occupational hand eczema is common among hairdressers, and protective gloves are important in limiting exposure to irritants and allergens. Various glove types may differ in their protective ability, and their use may lead to hand eczema due to skin irritancy and allergy. MEDLINE was searched for studies investigating permeation of gloves to irritants and allergens used in the hairdressing trade, as well as adverse effects of glove use affecting hairdressers. Forty-four studies were identified; nine reported on permeation. Of those, two in vitro studies found nitrile rubber (NR) gloves to give the best protection when handling hair dyes. Polyethylene (PE) gloves had the lowest reported break-through time. The prevalence of sensitization to rubber materials in European hairdressers was as follows: thiuram mix, median 2.5% (range 0%-8.2%), weighted average 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0%-3.1%); mercapto mix, median 0.4% (range 0%-3.3%), weighted average 0.5% (95% CI 0.47%-0.50%), mercaptobenzothiazole, median 0.6% (range 0%-6.6%), weighted average 0.7% (95% CI 0.6%-0.7%), NRL-type I allergy, median 1.3% (range 1%-16.4%), weighted average 4.0% (95% CI 3.6%-4.5%). In conclusion, NR gloves provide the best skin protection for hairdressers, although natural rubber latex (NRL) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves may be sufficient in most cases. PE gloves are not recommended. Synthetic rubber gloves with low or no levels of accelerators are preferred.

Barbearia , Luvas Protetoras , Tinturas para Cabelo/química , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Luvas Protetoras/efeitos adversos , Luvas Protetoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Látex/efeitos adversos , Nitrilas , Permeabilidade , Polietileno , Cloreto de Polivinila , Borracha/efeitos adversos
Chempluschem ; 85(4): 689-693, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253834


The preparation and characterization of new functional materials for sensing have an important role in clinical diagnosis. Monitoring the surface functionalization of functional material is crucial because the final sensing properties are affected by how the (bio)molecules are immobilized on the surface of solid supports. Here, a new approach for the preparation of functional materials for biomedical diagnosis was developed. This method employs a fluorescent dye comprising 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide with two orthogonal functional groups suitable for click chemistry. The orthogonal reactivity of these groups allows the sequential functionalization of the fluorophore, firstly with (bio)molecules, and then binding of the (bio)molecule-naphthalimide macrostructure onto the surface of a solid support. The fluorescent properties confirm the immobilization of the (bio)molecule on the surface of the solid support, without requiring other indirect methods to verify the immobilization. These functional materials were tested successfully with sera of patients, thus proving their potential application for allergic drug diagnosis.

Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Naftalimidas/química , Química Click , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Humanos , Naftalimidas/síntese química
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 111(1): 47-52, ene.-feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191484


OBJETIVOS: El objetivo del trabajo es mostrar la tendencia de la sensibilización de contacto entre los años 2004 y 2014 tras la regulación de su concentración en cosméticos en el año 2009 e investigar los factores de riesgo de la alergia de contacto a la parafenilendiamina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El diseño del estudio fue observacional retrospectivo e incluyó a pacientes con sospecha de alergia de contacto parcheados con la serie estándar del Grupo Español de Investigación en Dermatitis de Contacto y Alergia Cutánea durante los años 2004 a 2014, en 8 hospitales terciarios españoles. En las pruebas epicutáneas estaba incluida la parafenilendiamina al 1% en vaselina o 0,073 mg/cm2 en el TRUE-test(R). El estudio estadístico se realizó siguiendo las recomendaciones internacionales del análisis de los datos en alergia de contacto. RESULTADOS: Un total de 386 (4,1%) pacientes de los 9.341 incluidos fueron positivos a la parafenilendiamina, cuya tendencia empezó a decrecer en los primeros años (2004-2007) y a partir de ahí se mantuvo en torno al 4%. Los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de una alergia de contacto a la parafenilendiamina fueron el sexo, la edad por encima de los 40 años, la polisensibilización y la profesión, entre las que destacan los trabajadores de la peluquería, los trabajadores de la goma y el plástico CONCLUSIONES: La alergia de contacto a la parafenilendiamina sigue siendo elevada en pacientes con eccema de contacto. Los factores de riesgo que predisponen a la alergia de contacto a la PPD coinciden con los que han sido publicados previamente

OBJECTIVES: To analyze trends in the prevalence of contact sensitization to p-phenylenediamine between 2004 and 2014, taking into consideration that the concentration of this product in cosmetics was regulated in 2009. To explore risk factors for contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of patients suspected of having contact dermatitis from allergy to p-phenylenediamine during the years between 2004 and 2015 in 8 tertiary level hospitals. The patients underwent patch testing (TRUE-test) with the standard series of the Spanish Research Group on Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergies. This series included p-phenylenediamine 1%. We followed international recommendations for the statistical analysis of data related to contact allergies. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-six out of 9341 patients (4.1%) had positive reactions to p-phenylenediamine. The prevalence tended to decrease in the early years (2004-2007) and then leveled off at around 4%. Risk factors for developing contact dermatitis from p-phenylenediamine were sex, age over 40 years, multiple sensitivities, and profession, notably workers in hair salons and those who handle rubber and plastics. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of p-phenylenediamine allergy remains high among patients with contact eczema. Risk factors for p-phenylenediamine contact allergy are consistent with previous reports

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Fenilenodiaminas , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Cutâneos/instrumentação , Modelos Logísticos