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1.
ACS Nano ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974409

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death and remains a formidable therapeutic challenge. To date, surgical resection and chemotherapy have been the standards of care. Methotrexate (MTX), which is recognized as a refractory drug for pancreatic cells, was conjugated to the surface of LiYF4:Ce3+ nanoparticles (NP-MTX) through a photocleavable linker molecule. When LiYF4:Ce3+ NPs are stimulated by X-rays, they emit light, which induces the photocleavage of the photolabile linker molecule to release MTX. MTX can target pancreatic tumors, which overexpress folic acid (FA) receptors and are internalized into the cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The synergistic effect of the NP-MTX treatment initiated by X-ray irradiation occurs due to the combination of nanoparticle sensitization and the radiosensitizing chemotherapy of the photocleaved MTX molecule. This dual sensitization effect mediated by NP-MTX enabled 40% dose enhancement, which corresponded with an increase in the generation of cytotoxic cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhanced S phase arrest within the cell cycle. The delivery of an ultralow radiation dose of 0.1 Gy resulted in the photocleavage of MTX from NP-MTX, and this strategy demonstrated in vivo efficacy against AsPC-1 and PANC-1 xenografted pancreatic tumors.

2.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of combined independent risk factors in assessing the risk of hip fractures in elderly women. METHODS: Ninety elderly females who sustained hip fractures (including femoral neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures) and 110 female outpatients without a hip fracture were included in our cross-sectional study from 24 November 2017 to 20 May 2019. The age of subjects in the present study was ≥65 years, with the mean age of 78.73 ± 7.77 and 78.09 ± 5.03 years for women with and without elderly hip fractures, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD), Beta-carboxy terminal telopeptide (ß-CTX), N-terminal/mid region (N-MID), and 25(OH)D levels were analyzed. A novel evaluation model was established to evaluate combined indicators in assessing hip fractures in elderly women. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, taller height (155.68 ± 6.40 vs 150.97 ± 6.23, P < 0.01), higher levels of ß-CTX (525.91 ± 307.38 vs 330.94 ± 289.71, P < 0.01), and lower levels of total hip BMD (0.662 ± 0.117 vs 0.699 ± 0.111, P = 0.022), femoral neck BMD (0.598 ± 0.106 vs 0.637 ± 0.100, P = 0.009), and 25(OH)D (15.67 ± 7.23 vs 29.53 ± 10.57, P < 0.01) were found in the facture group. After adjustment for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D (adjusted OR 0.837 [95% CI 0.790-0.886]; P < 0.01), femoral neck BMD (adjusted OR 0.009 [95% CI 0.000-0.969]; P = 0.048) and height (adjusted OR 1.207 [95% CI 1.116-1.306]; P < 0.01) remained risk factors for hip fractures in elderly women. Then a model including independent risk factors was established. A DeLong test showed the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) (Area under the curve [AUC]) of 25(OH)D was significantly greater than that for femoral neck BMD (P < 0.01) and height (P < 0.01). The AUC of model including 25(OH)D and height was significantly greater than that of other combinations (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: 25(OH)D, femoral neck BMD and height were associated with the occurrence of hip fractures in elderly women even after adjustment for confounding factors, and a model including 25(OH)D and height could provide better associated power than other combinations in the assessment of elderly hip fractures.

3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(4): 1415-1424, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973454

RESUMO

Coupling sugar is a kind of new sweetener which can substitute sucrose. It has a good application prospect in food, medicine and other fields because of its good coloration, water retention and anti caries. The purpose of this study was to find cheap and easily available donor and acceptor, and to optimize the preparation process of coupling sugar by using ß-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacilluscirculans 251. Using sucrose as acceptor, the factors of preparing coupling sugar was optimized, including enzyme dosage, starch types, temperature, pH, ratio of starch/sucrose, and cooperation of isoamylase and ß-CGTase. When 105 g/L potato starch and 95 g/L sucrose was used as substrates, the yield of coupling sugar reached 88.4%, which was catalyzed by 13.5 U/g immobilized ß-CGTase and 45.0 U/g isoamylase under the conditions of pH 5.5 and 40 °C for 21 h. In this study, isoamylase and ß-CGTase were used to prepare coupling sugar innovatively. This method had obvious advantages in yield and cost, which laid both theoretical and experimental foundation for the industrial enzymatic preparation of coupling sugars.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878873

RESUMO

The methodology of coating electrocatalysts on semiconductor substrates is critical for the catalytic performance of photoelectrochemical electrodes. A weakly bound coating leads to orders of magnitude lower efficiency and reliability compared to those required to meet the commercial demand. Herein, a facile strategy based on the hydrolysis of TiCl4 is developed to solve the coating issue. Mesoporous tungsten phosphide (WP) particles were spin-coated and affixed onto TiO2-protected planar p-Si by the formation of a TiO2 necking layer between the catalyst particles and the substrates. Under 1 sun illumination, the as-prepared WP/TiO2/Si photocathode yields a saturated current density of -35 mA cm-2 and a durability of over 110 h with a current density over -15 mA cm-2 at 0 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode in a 1.0 M KOH solution, which is among the state-of-the-art performances of commercial planar Si-based photocathodes. The Kelvin probe force microscopy results suggest the successive transfer of photoelectrons from Si to TiO2 and WP. The as-formed TiO2 necking layer plays the key role in ensuring the surface catalytic activity and durability. This necking strategy is also applicable for coating other transition-metal phosphides, for example, MoP and FeP, thus offering a practical approach to meet the commercial requirement of low-cost, highly efficient, and durable photoelectrodes.

5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(4): 1184-1192, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899386

RESUMO

In order to realize precise fertilization and high yield management of Pinus massoniana clonal seed orchard, clones with different fruiting abilities were used as the materials. Four P fertilization levels were at 0, 400, 800 and 1600 g per plant (P0, P4, P8 and P16 respectively). Fertilization was applied before floral primordia formation and after cone picked, respectively. The effects of P fertilizer on the female strobilus of P. massoniana clones and the changes of N, P contents in needles of different positions during floral primordia formation stage and early stage of flower bud differentiation were investigated. The results showed that compared with P0, the female strobilus of P8 and P16 were significantly increased by 67.4% and 61.2% in 2018 and 28.9% and 14.1% in 2019, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between the female strobilus with the N content and N/P, a significant positive correlation between the female strobilus and the P content in needles. The responses of N and P contents in needles to P fertilization differed in clones with different fruiting abilities. In floral primordia formation stage, the N content of clones with weak fruiting ability was high, and the N/P was 11.5-12.5, while the P content of clones with strong fruiting abilities was high, and the N/P was 9.5-10.5. During this period, the P content of most clones under P8 treatment was the highest, while the N/P was lowest. In the early stage of flower bud differentiation, the N/P of two fruiting clones was 15.3-17.0 and 13.2-15.1, respectively. The P content in upside layer was significantly higher while N/P was significantly lower than that in middle and lower layers. In conclusion, the 800 g P fertilization per plant could increase the P content and reduce the N/P of needles during the floral primordia formation stage of clones with diffe-rent fruiting abilities, which was beneficial to the formation of female strobilus and promote the yield of clone seed orchards.


Assuntos
Pinus , Células Clonais , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Sementes
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 645944, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842392

RESUMO

Background: Leishmaniasis is a regional infectious disease caused by the bite of Leishmania-carrying sandflies. The clinical symptoms include prolonged fever, spleen enlargement, anemia, emaciation, leukopenia, and increased serum globulin levels. If not appropriately treated, patients may die of complications caused by leishmaniasis within 1-2 years after the onset of the illness. Therefore, further investigation of the mechanisms of infection by this pathogen is required. Here, an epidemiological study of Leishmania carriers was conducted. The potential mechanism of infection through domestic animals as carriers of the parasite was investigated to identify potential reservoir hosts for Leishmania. Methods: The rK-39 strip test was performed on blood samples from previously infected patients. Blood samples were collected from the patients and their families. The blood, liver, spleen, and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from livestock. To perform nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA was extracted and the internal transcribed spacer sequence was used. The amplified products were then subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic analyses. Results: Among previously infected patients, 40% (12/30) showed positive results in the rK-39 strip test. The nested PCR positive rates for previously infected patients/relatives and livestock samples were 86% (77/90) and 80% (8/10), respectively. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis showed that the pathogen was Leishmania infantum. Dogs, patients, and domesticated animals carrying Leishmania were found to be a potential source of infection for leishmaniasis. Conclusions: The results of this study provide a basis for developing disease prevention and control strategies for leishmaniasis.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8810698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815661

RESUMO

Programmed necrosis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells caused by excessive compression is a crucial factor in the etiopathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are crucial regulators of the cell death signaling pathway, and their involvement in IVDD has been reported. However, the specific role of ER stress (ERS) and ER-mitochondria interaction in compression-induced programmed necrosis of NP cells remains unknown. Our studies revealed that compression enhanced ERS and the association between ER and mitochondria in NP cells. Suppression of ERS via 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ crosstalk by inhibiting the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, glucose-regulated protein 75, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1 complex (IP3R-GRP75-VDAC1 complex) protected NP cells against programmed necrosis related to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) pathway. Moreover, excessive reactive oxygen species are critical activators of ERS, leading to mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation and consequent programmed necrosis. These data indicate that ERS and ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ crosstalk may be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of IVDD-associated disorders. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying IVDD and may provide novel therapeutic targets.

8.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 351-360, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913296

RESUMO

The real physical image of the affected limb, which is difficult to move in the traditional mirror training, can be realized easily by the rehabilitation robots. During this training, the affected limb is often in a passive state. However, with the gradual recovery of the movement ability, active mirror training becomes a better choice. Consequently, this paper took the self-developed shoulder joint rehabilitation robot with an adjustable structure as an experimental platform, and proposed a mirror training system completed by next four parts. First, the motion trajectory of the healthy limb was obtained by the Inertial Measurement Units (IMU). Then the variable universe fuzzy adaptive proportion differentiation (PD) control was adopted for inner loop, meanwhile, the muscle strength of the affected limb was estimated by the surface electromyography (sEMG). The compensation force for an assisted limb of outer loop was calculated. According to the experimental results, the control system can provide real-time assistance compensation according to the recovery of the affected limb, fully exert the training initiative of the affected limb, and make the affected limb achieve better rehabilitation training effect.


Assuntos
Robótica , Articulação do Ombro , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Movimento , Força Muscular
9.
Virol Sin ; 36(2): 196-206, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830435

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV), as a member of the large DNA viruses, may regulate autophagy and apoptosis by inhibiting programmed cell death. However, the function of ASFV proteins has not been fully elucidated, especially the role of autophagy in ASFV infection. One of three Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases (PYCR), is primarily involved in conversion of glutamate to proline. Previous studies have shown that depletion of PYCR2 was related to the induction of autophagy. In the present study, we found for the first time that ASFV E199L protein induced a complete autophagy process in Vero and HEK-293T cells. Through co-immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry (CoIP-MS) analysis, we firstly identified that E199L interact with PYCR2 in vitro. Importantly, our work provides evidence that E199L down-regulated the expression of PYCR2, resulting in autophagy activation. Overall, our results demonstrate that ASFV E199L protein induces complete autophagy through interaction with PYCR2 and down-regulate the expression level of PYCR2, which provide a valuable reference for the role of autophagy during ASFV infection and contribute to the functional clues of PYCR2.

10.
Environ Technol ; : 1-9, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856959

RESUMO

Chlorine and chloramine are widely used to maintain the microbial safety after drinking water treatment plants. Particles existing in the treated water may react with these chemical disinfectants, and impact the efficacy of disinfection. However, the protective effects of particles without-disinfectant demand on bacteria in the chlorination/chloramination are not well known. In this study, two laboratory-derived bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and two no-disinfectant demand particles (Fe2O3 and kaolin) in drinking water were selected to build particle-associated bacteria (PAB) systems, and their resistance to chlorine/chloramine was further assessed. Flow cytometry (FCM) was employed to image PAB systems and assess the removal rate of bacteria. The results were that particles showed protective effects on bacteria in half of chlorine experiments and 90% of chloramination. The protection was related to the combination form of particles and bacteria tied to neither particle species nor size, and there was no positive relationship between the protection effect and water turbidity. S. aureus attached to Fe2O3 had stronger resistance than kaolin, and kaolin protected E. coli better than Fe2O3. The same trend was observed in both chemical disinfectants, and more significant resistance had been shown in chloramination than chlorination. FCM images which gave a qualitative description on the combination states of different PAB systems may be a clue to explain the strength of the resistance. Environmental bacterial strains and particles are recommended in the future to explore practical applications.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(16): 19332-19341, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871976

RESUMO

Using antimicrobial coatings to control the spread of pathogenic microbes is appreciated in public and healthcare settings, but the performance of most antimicrobial coatings could not fulfill the increasing requirements, particularly the ease of preparation, high durability, rapid response, and high killing efficiency. Herein, we develop a new type of mechano-induced assembly of nanocomposite coating by simple "Press-N-Go" procedures on various substrates such as glassware, gloves, and fabrics, in which the coating shows strong adhesion, high shear stability, and high stiffness, making it durable in daily use to withstand common mechanical deformation and scratches. The coating also shows remarkable disinfection effectiveness over 99.9% to clinically significant multiple drug-resistant bacterial pathogens upon only 6 s near-infrared irradiation, which can be further improved to over 99.9999% upon another 6 s treatment. We envision that the coating can provide convenience and values to control pathogen spread for easily contaminated substrates in high-risk areas.

12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758353

RESUMO

Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to infection, often leading to cognitive impairments. Growing evidence shows that artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. In this study we investigated whether artemisinin exerted protective effect against neurocognitive deficits associated with sepsis and explored the underlying mechanisms. Mice were injected with LPS (750 µg · kg-1 · d-1, ip, for 7 days) to establish an animal model of sepsis. Artemisinin (30 mg · kg-1 · d-1, ip) was administered starting 4 days prior LPS injection and lasting to the end of LPS injection. We showed that artemisinin administration significantly improved LPS-induced cognitive impairments assessed in Morris water maze and Y maze tests, attenuated neuronal damage and microglial activation in the hippocampus. In BV2 microglial cells treated with LPS (100 ng/mL), pre-application of artemisinin (40 µΜ) significantly reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6) and suppressed microglial migration. Furthermore, we revealed that artemisinin significantly suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by activating the AMPKα1 pathway; knockdown of AMPKα1 markedly abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of artemisinin in BV2 microglial cells. In conclusion, atemisinin is a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis-associated neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment, and its effect is probably mediated by activation of the AMPKα1 signaling pathway in microglia.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5459, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750817

RESUMO

To assess the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in connective tissue disease (CTD)-immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), we conducted this single-center retrospective observational study, including patients with refractory CTD-ITP who were treated with eltrombopag between January 2018 and August 2019. The characteristics of patients at baseline, and the efficacy and safety of the drug were analyzed. The predictors for a response were analyzed using a univariate analysis such as Chi-square or nonparametric test and a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) method. A total of 15 patients with refractory CTD-ITP were included in the study. Their median age at the time of inclusion was 40.6 years. The median platelet count at initiation of eltrombopag was 11.53 × 109/L. The median remission time was 3.42 weeks. The complete remission (CR) and overall response rate decreased with time. The factors that associated with response to eltrombopag in patients with CTD-ITP were protopathy, WBC counts, levels of hemoglobin, and characteristics of bone marrow findings in univariate analysis. In addition, MCA indicated that a poor response to eltrombopag in patients with refractory CTD-ITP was closely associated with a protopathy with SS, medium to severe degree of anemia, leukopenia, and bone marrow aspiration showing aplastic anemia, an absence of megakaryocytes or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). In conclusion, eltrombopag was effective and well-tolerated in patients with CTD-associated thrombocytopenia. Some factors should be considered in the use of eltrombopag, including the protopathy, blood test, and bone marrow histology.

14.
Ageing Res Rev ; 68: 101317, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711509

RESUMO

In the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between gut microbiota and the occurrence and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. Both the neuroinflammation and systemic inflammation serve as the key hubs to accelerate the process of AD by promoting pathology and damaging neuron. What's more, the gut microbiota is also crucial for the regulation of inflammation. Therefore, this review focused on the role of gut microbiota in AD through inflammatory pathways. Firstly, this review summarized the relationship and interaction among gut microbiota, inflammation, and AD. Secondly, the direct and indirect regulatory effects of gut microbiota on AD through inflammatory pathways were described. These effects were mainly mediated by the component of the gut microbiota (lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and amyloid peptides), the metabolites of bacteria (short-chain fatty acids, branched amino acids, and neurotransmitters) and functional by-products (bile acids). In addition, potential treatments (fecal microbiota transplantation, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary interventions) for AD were also discussed through these mechanisms. Finally, according to the current research status, the key problems to be solved in the future studies were proposed.

15.
Genetics ; 217(2)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724405

RESUMO

Detection of surrounding organisms in the environment plays a major role in the evolution of interspecies interactions, such as predator-prey relationships. Nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) are predators that develop specialized trap structures to capture, kill, and consume nematodes when food sources are limited. Despite the identification of various factors that induce trap morphogenesis, the mechanisms underlying the differentiation process have remained largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the highly conserved pheromone-response MAPK pathway is essential for sensing ascarosides, a conserved molecular signature of nemaotdes, and is required for the predatory lifestyle switch in the NTF Arthrobotrys oligospora. Gene deletion of STE7 (MAPKK) and FUS3 (MAPK) abolished nematode-induced trap morphogenesis and conidiation and impaired the growth of hyphae. The conserved transcription factor Ste12 acting downstream of the pheromone-response pathway also plays a vital role in the predation of A. oligospora. Transcriptional profiling of a ste12 mutant identified a small subset of genes with diverse functions that are Ste12 dependent and could trigger trap differentiation. Our work has revealed that A. oligospora perceives and interprets the ascarosides produced by nematodes via the conserved pheromone signaling pathway in fungi, providing molecular insights into the mechanisms of communication between a fungal predator and its nematode prey.

16.
J Neurochem ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733478

RESUMO

Stroke is a disastrous neurological disease with high morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of the pathological process is extremely complicated and unclear. Although many basic studies have confirmed molecular mechanism of brain injury after stroke, these studies have not yet translated into treatment and clinical application. Ferroptosis is a form of cell death that is distinct from necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy morphologically and biochemically and is characterized by iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxides. Despite ferroptosis being first identified in cancer cells, it was recently revealed to also be a significant factor in the pathological process of stroke. A better understanding of ferroptosis in stroke may provide us with better therapeutic targets to treat this devastating disease. Here, we systematically summarized the current mechanism of ferroptosis and reviewed the current studies regarding the relationship between ferroptosis and stroke.

17.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 22, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences of genotypes between male and female have been studied in Parkinson's disease (PD), but limited research has focused on the comparison between sexes with LRRK2 G2385 variant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore sex effects in the same genetic subtype and role of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2385R variants in the same sex in PD. METHODS: 613 PD patients were recruited from the Movement Disorders Clinic in Ruijin Hospital. We did not include healthy controls in this study. The data collected includes demographic information, disease history, scores of motor and non-motor symptoms scales, midbrain transcranial sonography and DNA. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between clinical features and sex in LRRK2 G2385R carriers and non-carriers, as well as the association between the clinical features and LRRK2 G2385R variants in male and female sex. RESULTS: Sex distribution is similar in LRRK2 G2385R carriers and non-carriers. In male sex, LRRK2 G2385R carriers showed lower risk in cognitive impairment compared with non-carriers (OR = 0.301, p = 0.003, 95%CI 0.135-0.668). In female sex, LRRK2 G2385R carriers showed lower risk in autonomic dysfunction compared with non-carrier (OR = 0.401, p = 0.040, 95%CI 0.167-0.960). In LRRK2 G2385R non-carriers, female sex showed lower risk of impairment in activity of daily living (OR = 0.610, p = 0.021, 95%CI 0.400-0.928), excessive daytime sleepiness (OR = 0.555, p = 0.007, 95%CI 0.361-0.853), substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (OR = 0.448, p = 0.019, 95%CI 0.228-0.878), autonomic dysfunction frequency (OR = 0.626, p = 0.016, 95%CI 0.428-0.917) and higher risk in mood disorders (OR = 1.691, p = 0.022, 95%CI 1.078-2.654) compared with male. In LRRK2 G2385R carriers, female sex showed a lower risk of autonomic dysfunction (OR = 0.294, p = 0.024, 95%CI 0.102-0.849) compared with male. CONCLUSION: In contrast to male PD patients, a more benign disease course was observed in female in both LRRK2 G2385R carriers and non-carriers. However, sex differences were less notable in PD with LRRK2 G2385R variants.

18.
Can J Neurol Sci ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685541

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin's effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.

19.
Food Chem ; 355: 129500, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780794

RESUMO

Noodles were prepared using wheat flour supplemented with 1%, 3%, and 5% grape seed power (GSP). The farinograph properties of wheat flour, the textural properties of the dough, and thermal properties of the gluten were determined. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, and the effects of the addition of GSP on the physicochemical and structural properties (free sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobic region, and secondary structure) of wheat gluten protein were analyzed. 1% GSP promoted the aggregation of gluten proteins by promoting hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, thus enhanced the noodle quality. Whereas, 3% and 5% GSP addition disrupted the disulfide bonds between gluten protein molecules and formed macromolecular aggregates linked to gluten proteins through non-covalent bonds and hydrophobic interactions, which prevented the formation of the gluten protein reticulation structure. Our study emphasized the interaction between wheat proteins and GSP in noodle making dough.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705315

RESUMO

Photometric stereo recovers three-dimensional (3D) object surface normal from multiple images under different illumination directions. Traditional photometric stereo methods suffer from the problem of non-Lambertian surfaces with general reflectance. By leveraging deep neural networks, learning-based methods are capable of improving the surface normal estimation under general non-Lambertian surfaces. These state-of-the-art learning-based methods however do not associate surface normal with reconstructed images and, therefore, they cannot explore the beneficial effect of such association on the estimation of the surface normal. In this paper, we specifically exploit the positive impact of this association and propose a novel dual regression network for both fine surface normals and arbitrary reconstructed images in calibrated photometric stereo. Our work unifies the 3D reconstruction and rendering tasks in a deep learning framework, with the explorations including: 1. generating specified reconstructed images under arbitrary illumination directions, which provides more intuitive perception of the reflectance and is extremely useful for visual applications, such as virtual reality, and 2. our dual regression scheme introduces an additional constraint on observed images and reconstructed images, which forms a closed-loop to provide additional supervision. Experiments show that our proposed method achieves accurate reconstructed images under arbitrarily specified illumination directions and it significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art learning-based single regression methods in calibrated photometric stereo.

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