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1.
Food Microbiol ; 115: 104324, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37567633

RESUMO

In dairy industry, filamentous fungi are used as adjunct cultures in fermented products for their technological properties but they could also be responsible for food spoilage and mycotoxin production. The consumer demands about free-preservative products has increased in recent years and lead to develop alternative methods for food preservation. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) can inhibit fungal growth and therefore increase the food product shelf-life. This study aimed to evaluate radial growth as a function of CO2 and more particularly carbonic acid for fourteen adjuncts and/or fungal spoiler isolated from dairy products or dairy environment by using predictive mycology tools. The impact of the different chemical species linked to CO2 (notably carbonic acid) were study because it was reported previously that undissociated carbonic acid impacted bacterial growth and bicarbonates ions were involved in modifications of physiological process of fungal cells. A significant diversity in the responses of selected strains was observed. Mucor circinelloides had the fastest growth rates (µ > 11 mm. day-1) while Bisifusarium domesticum, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium bialowiezense had the slowest growth rates (µ < 1 mm. day-1). Independently of the medium pH, the majority of strains were sensitive to total carbonic acid. In this case, it was not possible to conclude if CO2 active form was gaseous or aqueous so modeling were performed as a function of CO2 percentage. Only Geotrichum candidum and M. circinelloides strains were sensitive to undissociated carbonic acid. Among the fourteen strains, P. bialowiezense was the less sensitive strain to CO2, no growth was observed at 50% of CO2 only for this strain. M. lanceolatus was the less sensitive strain to CO2, the CO250 which reduce the growth rates by 50% was estimated at 138% of CO2. Low CO2 percentage improved the growth of Penicillium expansum, Penicillium roqueforti and Paecilomyces niveus. Mathematical models (without and with optimum) were suggested to describe the impact of CO2 percentage or undissociated carbonic acid concentration on fungal growth rate.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Ácido Carbônico , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Fungos , Laticínios/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos
2.
Food Microbiol ; 114: 104289, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37290872

RESUMO

The growth of six bacterial species (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus cereus, Paenibacillus spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pseudomonas fragi) was studied in various gas compositions. Growth curves were obtained at various oxygen concentrations (between 0.1 and 21%), or various carbon dioxide concentrations (between 0 and 100%). Decreasing the O2 concentration from 21% to about 3-5% has no effect on the bacterial growth rates, which are only affected by low oxygen levels. For each strain studied, the growth rate decreased linearly with carbon dioxide concentration, except for L. mesenteroides which remained insensible to this gas. Conversely, the most sensitive strain was totally inhibited by 50% of carbon dioxide in the gas phase at 8 °C. Predictive models were fitted, and the parameters characterizing the inhibitory effect of these two gases were estimated. This study provides new tools to help the food industry design suitable packaging for MAP storage.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Embalagem de Alimentos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Bacillus cereus , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
3.
Food Microbiol ; 106: 104055, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690448

RESUMO

Group I Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes are physiologically and genetically closely related. Both are widely distributed in the environment and can cause foodborne botulism. In this work, a physiological study was conducted with 37 isolates from spoiled canned food and five referenced strains of C. sporogenes (three isolates) and Group I C. botulinum (two isolates). Growth limits of vegetative cells were established as a function of pH and NaCl concentration in PYG modified medium (PYGm) at 30 °C for 48 days. The heat resistance of the spores was studied for 2 min and 10 min at 102 °C and 110 °C. This physiological study (pH, NaCl growth limits and heat resistance) allowed the selection of 14 isolates of C. sporogenes (twelve isolates) and Group I C. botulinum (two isolates) representative of the diversity found. This panel of 14 selected isolates (11 isolated from spoiled canned food and three reference strains), were whole genome sequenced, but no association of physiological and genetic characteristics could be detected. Finally, we studied the ability of spores to germinate and grow from 5 isolates (four C. sporogenes and one Group I C. botulinum), under stress conditions generated by pH and NaCl following a low intensity heat treatment. The accumulation of these 3 stresses creates synergies that will strongly reduce the probability of spore growth in pH and salt conditions where they usually proliferate. The effect is progressive as the conditions become drastic: the number of decimal reduction observed increases translating a probability of growth which decreases. This study provides a better understanding of the behaviour of C. sporogenes and Group I C. botulinum isolates and shows how the combination of pH, NaCl and heat treatment can help prevent or minimise foodborne botulism outbreaks.


Assuntos
Botulismo , Clostridium botulinum , Clostridium , Clostridium botulinum/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Esporos Bacterianos
4.
Food Microbiol ; 100: 103832, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416948

RESUMO

Clostridium sporogenes has been widely used as a surrogate for proteolytic C. botulinum for validating thermal processes in low-acid cans. To limit the intensity of heat treatments, industrials must use other ways of control as an association of acidic and saline environment after a low heat treatment. The probability of growth of pH (7-4.4), sodium chloride concentration (0-11%) and heat treatment (80°C-10 min; 100°C-1.5 min and 5.2 min) were studied on C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores and vegetative cells. Vegetative cells or heat-treated spores were inoculated in PYGm broth at 30 °C for 48 days in anaerobic conditions. Vegetative cells growth (pH 4.6-pH 4.5; 7%-8% NaCl) range is larger than the spore one (pH 5.2-pH 5.0; 6%-7% NaCl). Spores germination and outgrowth rage is decreased if the spores are heat-treated at 100 °C for 1.5 min (pH 5.5-5.3; 4%-5% NaCl) and 5.2 min (pH 5.7-5.3; 4%-5% NaCl). The C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores germination and outgrowth is impacted by their physiological state. The synergic interaction between environmental factors (pH and NaCl) and the physiological state (vegetative cells and spores) opening new possibilities for optimizing food formulation processes to manage the risks of C. sporogenes spoilage.


Assuntos
Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos em Conserva/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium botulinum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium botulinum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viabilidade Microbiana , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
5.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103690, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397631

RESUMO

Spores from 21 strains from different genera were heat-treated and stored in different sets of process conditions (4 temperatures and 3 pH levels) defined to prevent growth. In these conditions, spores surviving the heat treatment progressively lost viability during storage. Different inactivation curve shapes (linear, shoulder and tailing) and different sensitivities to storage were observed. B. coagulans showed the fastest inactivation kinetics, with more than 4-log reduction of spore population within 24 h after heating and G. stearothermophilus displayed slower inactivation kinetics, whereas all the anaerobic strains studied (M. thermoacetica and Thermoanaerobacterium spp.) proved resistant to storage conditions, with no destruction detected during 90 days in most cases. Inactivation rates were relatively unaffected by sub-lethal pH but sharply accelerated by temperature: Inactivation became faster as temperature increased (in the 8 °C-55 °C temperature range), with growth blocked by low pH in sub-lethal temperatures. There were changes in surviving spore numbers after the heat-treatment phase. This has implications and applications in canned food industries, as the probability of a retorted sample testing as non-stable, meaning possible spoilage, may decrease with time. In simple terms, a batch of low-acid canned food that tests as non-shelf-stable after an incubation test i.e. positive growth conditions, may later become negative if stored at room temperature (below the minimal growth temperature for thermophilic spores), which may change the marketability of the batch.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Bacterianos/química , Bactérias/química , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Viabilidade Microbiana , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 337: 108915, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152569

RESUMO

Spore-forming bacteria are implicated in cases of food spoilage or food poisoning. In their sporulated form, they are resistant to physical and chemical treatments applied in the food industry and can persist throughout the food chain. The sporulation leads to an increase in the concentration of resistant forms in final products or food processing equipment. In order to identify sporulation environments in the food industry, it is necessary to be able to predict bacterial sporulation according to environmental factors. As sporulation occurs after bacterial growth, a kinetic model of growth-sporulation was used to describe the evolution of vegetative cells and spores through time. The effects of temperature, pH and water activity on the growth and the sporulation abilities of Bacillus subtilis BSB1 were modelled. The values of the growth boundaries were used as inputs to predict these effects. The good description of the sporulation kinetics by growth parameters suggests that the impact of the studied environmental factors is the same on both physiological process. Suboptimal conditions for growth delay the appearance of the first spores, and spores appear more synchronously in suboptimal conditions for growth. The developed model was also applicable to describe the growth and sporulation curves in changing temperature and pH conditions over time.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Água/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(10)2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902849

RESUMO

Spore-forming bacteria are natural contaminants of food raw materials, and sporulation can occur in many environments from farm to fork. In order to characterize and to predict spore formation over time, we developed a model that describes both the kinetics of growth and the differentiation of vegetative cells into spores. The model is based on a classical growth model and enables description of the kinetics of sporulation with the addition of three parameters specific to sporulation. Two parameters are related to the probability of each vegetative cell to commit to sporulation and to form a spore, and the last one is related to the time needed to form a spore once the cell is committed to sporulation. The goodness of fit of this growth-sporulation model was assessed using growth-sporulation kinetics at various temperatures in laboratory medium or in whey for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis The model accurately describes the kinetics in these different conditions, with a mean error lower than 0.78 log10 CFU/ml for the growth and 1.08 log10 CFU/ml for the sporulation. The biological meaning of the parameters was validated with a derivative strain of Bacillus subtilis 168 which produces green fluorescent protein at the initiation of sporulation. This model provides physiological information on the spore formation and on the temporal abilities of vegetative cells to differentiate into spores and reveals the heterogeneity of spore formation during and after growth.IMPORTANCE The growth-sporulation model describes the progressive transition from vegetative cells to spores with sporulation parameters describing the sporulation potential of each vegetative cell. Consequently, the model constitutes an interesting tool to assess the sporulation potential of a bacterial population over time with accurate parameters such as the time needed to obtain one resistant spore and the probability of sporulation. Further, this model can be used to assess these data under various environmental conditions in order to better identify the conditions favorable for sporulation regarding the time to obtain the first spore and/or the concentrations of spores which could be reached during a food process.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus licheniformis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos
8.
Food Microbiol ; 77: 21-25, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297052

RESUMO

Predicting the microbial safety of food products stored in modified atmosphere packaging implies taking into account the effect of oxygen reduction on microbial growth. According to their respiratory-type, the micro-organisms are not impacted similarly by the oxygen concentration. The aim of this article was to quantify and model the oxygen effect on the growth rates of 5 bacterial species: Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus weihenstephanensis (facultative anaerobic), Pseudomonas fluorescens (strict aerobic), Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes (strict anaerobic). The results showed the oxygen concentration doesn't modify the behavior of both facultative anaerobic strains. The growth rate of P. fluorescens decreased with the oxygen concentration, but the effect is only noticeable when the oxygen concentration fell below 3% in the gaseous phase. Conversely, the oxygen acted as a growth inhibitor for both Clostridium species. But total inhibition is reached only for 3.26% and 6.61% respectively for C. sporogenes and C. perfringens. Two models have been fitted for both respiratory-types, the first is the Monod model considering oxygen as a substrate for growth, and the second is the classic inhibitory model based on minimal inhibitory concentration.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Atmosfera , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium perfringens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Embalagem de Alimentos , Cinética , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas fluorescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Food Res Int ; 109: 288-297, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803452

RESUMO

In foodstuffs, physico-chemical interactions and/or physical constraints between spores, inhibitors and food components may exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate such interactions using a model emulsion as a microbial medium in order to improve bacterial spore control with better knowledge of the interactions in the formulation. Emulsions were prepared with hexadecane mixed with nutrient broth using sonication and were stabilized by Tween 80 and Span 80. The hexadecane ratio was either 35% (v/v) or 50% (v/v) and each emulsion was studied in the presence of organic acid (acetic, lactic or hexanoic) at two pH levels (5.5 and 6). Self-diffusion coefficients of emulsion components and the organic acids were measured by Pulsed Field Gradient-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PFG-NMR). The inhibition effect on the spore germination and cell growth of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 was characterized by the measure of the probability of growth using the most probable number methodology, and the measure of the time taken for the cells to germinate and grow using a single cell Bioscreen® method and using flow cytometry. The inhibition of spore germination and growth in the model emulsion depended on the dispersed phase volume fraction and the pH value. The effect of the dispersed phase volume fraction was due to a combination of (i) the lipophilicity of the biocide, hexanoic acid, that may have had an impact on the distribution of organic acid between hexadecane and the aqueous phases and (ii) the antimicrobial activity of the emulsifier Tween 80 detected at the acidic pH value. The interface phenomena seemed to have a major influence. Future work will focus on the exploration of these phenomena at the interface.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissorbatos/química , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Acético/química , Bacillus/classificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Caproatos/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Emulsões , Citometria de Fluxo , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Hexoses/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/química , Esporos Bacterianos/classificação
10.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 2109, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163403

RESUMO

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is commonly applied to extend food shelf-life. Despite growth of a wide variety of fungal contaminants has been previously studied in relation to modified-atmospheres, few studies aimed at quantifying the effects of dioxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures on conidial germination in solid agar medium. In the present study, an original culture method was developed, allowing microscopic monitoring of conidial germination under modified-atmospheres in static conditions. An asymmetric model was utilized to describe germination kinetics of Paecilomyces niveus, Mucor lanceolatus, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium roquefoti, using two main parameters, i.e., median germination time (τ) and maximum germination percentage (Pmax ). These two parameters were subsequently modeled as a function of O2 partial pressure ranging from 0 to 21% and CO2 partial pressure ranging from 0.03 to 70% (8 tested levels for both O2 and CO2). Modified atmospheres with residual O2 or CO2 partial pressures below 1% and up to 70%, respectively, were not sufficient to totally inhibit conidial germination,. However, O2 levels < 1% or CO2 levels > 20% significantly increased τ and/or reduced Pmax , depending on the fungal species. Overall, the present method and results are of interest for predictive mycology applied to fungal spoilage of MAP food products.

11.
Food Microbiol ; 68: 89-96, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800830

RESUMO

The effect of carbon dioxide, temperature, and pH on growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied, following a protocol to monitor microbial growth under a constant gas composition. In this way, the CO2 dissolution didn't modify the partial pressures in the gas phase. Growth curves were acquired at different temperatures (8, 12, 22 and 37 °C), pH (5.5 and 7) and CO2 concentration in the gas phase (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100% of the atmospheric pressure, and over 1 bar). These three factors greatly influenced the growth rate of L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens, and significant interactions have been observed between the carbon dioxide and the temperature effects. Results showed no significant effect of the CO2 concentration at 37 °C, which may be attributed to low CO2 solubility at high temperature. An inhibitory effect of CO2 appeared at lower temperatures (8 and 12 °C). Regardless of the temperature, the gaseous CO2 is sparingly soluble at acid pH. However, the CO2 inhibition was not significantly different between pH 5.5 and pH 7. Considering the pKa of the carbonic acid, these results showed the dissolved carbon under HCO3- form didn't affect the bacterial inhibition. Finally, a global model was proposed to estimate the growth rate vs. CO2 concentration in the aqueous phase. This dissolved concentration is calculated according to the physical equations related to the CO2 equilibriums, involving temperature and pH interactions. This developed model is a new tool available to manage the food safety of MAP.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas fluorescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Atmosfera , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Biológicos , Temperatura
12.
Food Microbiol ; 64: 126-134, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213016

RESUMO

Although heat treatment is probably the oldest and the most common method used to inactivate spores in food processes, the specific mechanism of heat killing of spores is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolution of the permeabilization and the viability of heat-treated spores during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated under various conditions of temperature and pH, and then stored under conditions of temperature and pH that prevent growth. Spore survival was evaluated by count plating immediately after heat treatment, and then during storage over a period of months. Flow cytometry analyses were performed to investigate the Syto 9 permeability of heat-treated spores. Sub-lethally heat-treated spores of G. stearothermophilus were physically committed to permeabilization after heat treatment. However, prolonged heat treatment may abolish the spore permeabilization and block heat-treated spores in the refractive state. However, viability loss and permeabilization during heat treatment seem to be two different mechanisms that occur independently, and the loss of permeabilization properties takes place at a much slower rate than spore killing. Under growth-preventing conditions, viable heat-treated spores presumably lose their viability due to the permeabilization phenomena, which makes them more susceptible to the action of adverse conditions precluding growth.


Assuntos
Geobacillus stearothermophilus/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Lineares , Viabilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Res Microbiol ; 168(4): 369-378, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810476

RESUMO

Spore-forming bacteria are able to grow under a wide range of environmental conditions, to form biofilms and to differentiate into resistant forms: spores. This resistant form allows their dissemination in the environment; consequently, they may contaminate raw materials. Sporulation can occur all along the food chain, in raw materials, but also in food processes, leading to an increase in food contamination. However, the problem of sporulation during food processing is poorly addressed and sporulation niches are difficult to identify from the farm to the fork. Sporulation is a survival strategy. Some environmental factors are required to trigger this differentiation process and others act by modulating it. The efficiency of sporulation is the result of the combined effects of these two types of factors on vegetative cell metabolism. This paper aims to explain and help identify sporulation niches in the food chain, based on features of spore-former physiology.


Assuntos
Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bacillus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais , Percepção de Quorum/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Verduras/microbiologia
14.
Food Microbiol ; 56: 87-95, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919821

RESUMO

Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores are recognized as one of the most wet-heat resistant among aerobic spore-forming bacteria and are responsible for 35% of canned food spoilage after incubation at 55 °C. The purpose of this study was to investigate and model the fate of heat-treated survivor spores of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 in growth-preventing environment. G. stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated at four different conditions to reach one or two decimal reductions. Heat-treated spores were stored in nutrient broth at different temperatures and pH under growth-preventing conditions. Spore survival during storage was evaluated by count plating over a period of months. Results reveal that G. stearothermophilus spores surviving heat treatment lose their viability during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Two different subpopulations were observed during non-thermal inactivation. They differed according to the level of their resistance to storage stress, and the proportion of each subpopulation can be modulated by heat treatment conditions. Finally, tolerance to storage stress under growth-preventing conditions increases at refrigerated temperature and neutral pH regardless of heat treatment conditions. Such results suggest that spore inactivation due to heat treatment could be completed by storage under growth-preventing conditions.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viabilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterilização/métodos
15.
Food Microbiol ; 55: 64-72, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26742617

RESUMO

Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are potential contaminants in several industrial sectors involving high temperatures (40-65 °C) in the manufacturing process. Among those thermophilic spore-forming bacteria, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, called "the swelling canned food spoiler", has generated interest over the last decade in the food sector. The aim of this study was to investigate and to model pH effect on growth, heat resistance and recovery abilities after a heat-treatment of T. thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571. Growth and sporulation were conducted on reinforced clostridium media and liver broth respectively. The highest spore heat resistances and the greatest recovery ability after a heat-treatment were obtained at pH condition allowing maximal growth rate. Growth and sporulation boundaries were estimated, then models using growth limits as main parameters were extended to describe and quantify the effect of pH on recovery of injured spores after a heat-treatment. So, cardinal values were used as a single set of parameters to describe growth, sporulation and recovery abilities. Besides, this work suggests that T. thermosaccharolyticum preserve its ability for germination and outgrowth after a heat-treatment at a low pH where other high resistant spore-forming bacteria like Geobacillus stearothermophilus are unable to grow.


Assuntos
Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Thermoanaerobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viabilidade Microbiana , Esporos Bacterianos/química , Thermoanaerobacterium/química
16.
Food Microbiol ; 48: 153-62, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25791003

RESUMO

Geobacillus stearothermophilus is recognized as one of the most prevalent micro-organism responsible for flat sour in the canned food industry. To control these highly resistant spore-forming bacteria, the heat treatment intensity could be associated with detrimental conditions for germination and outgrowth. The purpose of this work was to study successively the impact of temperature and pH on the growth rate of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980, its sporulation ability, its heat resistance in response to various sporulation conditions, and its recovery ability after a heat treatment. The phenotypic investigation was carried out at different temperatures and pHs on nutrient agar and the heat resistance was estimated at 115 °C. The greatest spore production and the highest heat resistances were obtained at conditions of temperature and pH allowing maximal growth rate. The current observations also revealed that growth, sporulation and recovery boundaries are close. Models using growth boundaries as main parameters were extended to describe and quantify the effect of temperature and pH throughout the life cycle of G. stearothermophilus as vegetative cells or as spore after a heat treatment and during recovery.


Assuntos
Geobacillus stearothermophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/química , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Esporos Bacterianos/química , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Food Microbiol ; 45(Pt B): 266-75, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25500392

RESUMO

The process of dried fermented sausages is recognized to be favourable to the reduction of the Salmonella population. The objective of this study was to develop a model describing the evolution of Salmonella during the fabrication process of dried sausages and to optimize the food formulation to prevent pathogen presence at the end of the process. An experimental design was set to investigate the effects of the fermentation and drying process for several formulations, taking into account the type of starter culture, the sodium chloride concentration, the dextrose and lactose concentration on the Salmonella Typhimurium strain behaviour. A growth-inactivation model based on the gamma concept was then developed to quantify Salmonella behaviour in dynamic process conditions of temperature, pH, lactic acid and water activity. This behaviour was characterized by a first growth step, followed by an inactivation step. The Salmonella fate was well described by the model in terms of population size variation and transition from growth to inactivation. The Salmonella behaviour was influenced by the initial sugar concentration and the starter type but not by sodium chloride content. This model can be a valuable tool to design the food process and formulation to control Salmonella.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Fermentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Viabilidade Microbiana , Modelos Teóricos , Salmonella typhimurium/química , Suínos , Água/análise
18.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 14(1): 1-21, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401814

RESUMO

Coupling gas transfer with predictive microbiology is essential to rationally design modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) strategies to ensure and guarantee food safety. Nowadays, these strategies are generally empirically built and over-sized since packaging material with high barrier properties is often chosen by default even if such a high level of protection is not systematically required. Protection strategies could be improved using rational sizing based on quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling of mass transfer. This paper aims at reviewing the current knowledge available for developing such a tool and the further research needed. First there is a special focus on oxygen (O2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) solubility and diffusivity parameters, which are absolutely indispensable to accurately model mass transfer in MAP systems. Next, the current knowledge of the effect of O2 /CO2 on the growth of microorganisms is explored with an emphasis on predictive microbiology. The last part points out the main bottlenecks and further research needed to be carried out in order to develop an efficient MAP modeling tool for food safety coupling O2 /CO2 transfer and predictive microbiology.

19.
Food Microbiol ; 33(1): 69-76, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23122503

RESUMO

The growth rates of strains covering the seven major phylogenetic groups of Bacillus cereus sensu lato (as defined by Guinebretiere et al., 2008) at a range of temperature (7 °C-55 °C), pH (4.6-7.5) and a(w) (0.929-0.996, with 0.5%-10% NaCl as humectant) were determined. Growth rates were fitted by non-linear regression to determine the cardinal parameters T(min), T(opt), T(max), pH(min), pH(opt), a(wmin) and µ(opt). We showed that cardinal parameters reflected the differences in the temperature adaptation observed between B. cereus phylogenetic groups I to VII. The ability of growing at low pH (up to 4.3) or low a(w) (from a(w) 0.929 and up to 10% NaCl) varied among strains. The strains of groups III and VII, the most tolerant to heat, were also the most adapted to high NaCl (all strains growing at 8% NaCl) and the ones of groups I and VI the least adapted (no growth at 7% NaCl). All strains of groups II and VII were able to grow at pH 4.6, and only a few strains of group VI. Phenotypic differences between the two psychrotrophic groups II and VI were revealed by contrasted acid and salt tolerance. The cardinal values determined in this work were validated by comparing with cardinal parameters of a panel of strains published elsewhere and with predictions of growth in a range of foods.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/classificação , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Bacillus cereus/química , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Microbiologia Ambiental , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura , Água/metabolismo
20.
Food Microbiol ; 32(1): 79-86, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22850377

RESUMO

Sporulation niches in the food chain are considered as a source of hazard and are not clearly identified. Determining the sporulation environmental boundaries could contribute to identify potential sporulation niches. Spore formation was determined in a Sporulation Mineral Buffer. The effect of incubation temperature, pH and water activity on time to one spore per mL, maximum sporulation rate and final spore concentration was investigated for a Bacillus weihenstephanensis and a Bacillus licheniformis strain. Sporulation boundaries of B. weihenstephanensis and of B. licheniformis were similar to, or included within, the range of temperatures, pH and water activities supporting growth. For instance, sporulation boundaries of B. weihenstephanensis were evaluated at 5°C, 35°C, pH 5.2 and a(w) 0.960 while growth boundaries were observed at 5°C, 37°C, pH 4.9 and a(w) 0.950. Optimum spore formation was determined at 30°C pH 7.2 for B. weihenstephanensis and at 45°C pH 7.2 for B. licheniformis. Lower temperatures and pH delayed the sporulation process. For instance, the time to one spore per mL was tenfold longer when sporulation occurred at 10°C and 20°C, for each strain respectively, than at optimum sporulation temperature. The relative effect of temperature and pH on sporulation rates and on growth rates is similar. This work suggests that the influence of environmental factors on the quantitative changes in sporulation boundaries and rates was similar to their influence on changes in growth rate.


Assuntos
Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/química , Bacillus/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Esporos Bacterianos/química , Esporos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Temperatura , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
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