Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 224
Filtrar
1.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115884, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569443

RESUMO

Nearly 3,000 Australians tragically end their lives by suicide each year, underscoring a major national public health challenge with substantial socio-economic ramifications. Australia's National Mental Health Plans (NMHPs) aim to improve mental health and reduce suicide rates. This study investigates their effectiveness by analyzing how age-standardized suicide rates across Australian jurisdictions have fluctuated alongside the implementation of five NMHPs from 1987 to 2021. Findings reveal mixed impacts, with some plans linked to decreases and others associated with increases in suicide rates across different periods and regions. Notably, the recent decline in 2020 requires careful consideration amidst COVID-19 pandemic influences. These insights not only provide valuable evidence for shaping future mental health policies and initiatives but also for future health services research.

2.
BJPsych Open ; 10(3): e78, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brief intervention services provide rapid, mobile and flexible short-term delivery of interventions to resolve mental health crises. These interventions may provide an alternative pathway to the emergency department or in-patient psychiatric services for children and young people (CYP), presenting with an acute mental health condition. AIMS: To synthesise evidence on the effectiveness of brief interventions in improving mental health outcomes for CYP (0-17 years) presenting with an acute mental health condition. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted, and the studies' methodological quality was assessed. Five databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles between January 2000 and September 2022. RESULTS: We synthesised 30 articles on the effectiveness of brief interventions in the form of (a) crisis intervention, (b) integrated services, (c) group therapies, (d) individualised therapy, (e) parent-child dyadic therapy, (f) general services, (g) pharmacotherapy, (h) assessment services, (i) safety and risk planning and (j) in-hospital treatment, to improve outcomes for CYP with an acute mental health condition. Among included studies, one study was rated as providing a high level of evidence based on the National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence hierarchy scale, which was a crisis intervention showing a reduction in length of stay and return emergency department visits. Other studies, of moderate-quality evidence, described multimodal brief interventions that suggested beneficial effects. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence to substantiate the benefits of brief interventions, in different settings, to reduce the burden of in-patient hospital and readmission rates to the emergency department.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1324220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510802

RESUMO

Background: Long term intervention services have proven to be effective in improving mental health (MH) outcomes and the quality of life for children and young people (CYP). Aim: To synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of long-term interventions in improving MH outcomes for CYP, 0-17 years, presenting with MH conditions. Methods: A systematic search was carried out and the methodological quality of included long term MH intervention studies were assessed. Six databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles between January 2000 and September 2022. Results: We found 30 studies that reported on the effectiveness of a range of long-term MH interventions in the form of (i) group therapy, (ii) multisystemic behavior therapy, (iii) general services, (iv) integrated services, (v) psychotherapy, (vi) intensive intervention services, (vii) comprehensive collaborative care, (viii) parent training, and (ix) home outreach service. Among the included studies, seven were rated as high level of evidence based on the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) levels of evidence hierarchy scale and seven were of moderate quality evidence. Others were rated as lower-quality evidence. Among the studies providing high quality evidence, most were reported for group therapy, general services, and psychotherapy studies demonstrating beneficial effects. Conclusion: This systematic review provides evidence to demonstrate the benefits of a range of long-term interventions, in a range of settings, can be effective in improving MH outcomes for CYP and their families. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42022323324.

4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0282818, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346053

RESUMO

Atypical visual attention in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been utilised as a unique diagnosis criterion in previous research. This paper presents a novel approach to the automatic and quantitative screening of ASD as well as symptom severity prediction in preschool children. We develop a novel computational pipeline that extracts learned features from a dynamic visual stimulus to classify ASD children and predict the level of ASD-related symptoms. Experimental results demonstrate promising performance that is superior to using handcrafted features and machine learning algorithms, in terms of evaluation metrics used in diagnostic tests. Using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach, we obtained an accuracy of 94.59%, a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 76.47% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 96% for ASD classification. In addition, we obtained an accuracy of 94.74%, a sensitivity of 87.50%, a specificity of 100% and an AUC of 99% for ASD symptom severity prediction.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Aprendizado de Máquina , Gravação de Videoteipe , Algoritmos
5.
Biomolecules ; 14(2)2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397434

RESUMO

Adversity during early life, a critical period for brain development, increases vulnerability and can have a lasting impact on the brain and behaviour of a child. However, the long-term effects of cumulative early-life stressors on brain and behaviour are not well known. We studied a 2-hit rat model of early-life adversity using maternal separation (MS) and immune activation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Rat pups underwent MS for 15 (control) or 180 (MS) minutes per day from postnatal day (P)2-14 and were administered saline or LPS (intraperitoneal) on P3. Open-field (OFT) and object-place recognition tests were performed on rat offspring at P33-35 and P42-50, respectively. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus were removed at the experimental endpoint (P52-55) for mRNA expression. MS induced anxiety-like behaviour in OFT in male and reduced locomotor activity in both male and female offspring. LPS induced a subtle decline in memory in the object-place recognition test in male offspring. MS increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in PFC and ionised calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 expression in male hippocampus. MS and LPS resulted in distinct behavioural phenotypes in a sex-specific manner. The combination of MS and LPS had a synergistic effect on the anxiety-like behaviour, locomotor activity, and GFAP mRNA expression outcomes.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Privação Materna , Humanos , Criança , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256063

RESUMO

'Inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2 like' (IMMP2L) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial peptidase that has been conserved through evolutionary history, as has its target enzyme, 'mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase 2' (GPD2). IMMP2L is known to cleave the mitochondrial transit peptide from GPD2 and another nuclear-encoded mitochondrial respiratory-related protein, cytochrome C1 (CYC1). However, it is not known whether IMMP2L peptidase activates or alters the activity or respiratory-related functions of GPD2 or CYC1. Previous investigations found compelling evidence of behavioural change in the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse, and in this study, EchoMRI analysis found that the organs of the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse were smaller and that the KO mouse had significantly less lean mass and overall body weight compared with wildtype littermates (p < 0.05). Moreover, all organs analysed from the Immp2lKD-/- KO had lower relative levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS). The kidneys of the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse displayed the greatest decrease in mitoROS levels that were over 50% less compared with wildtype litter mates. Mitochondrial respiration was also lowest in the kidney of the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse compared with other tissues when using succinate as the respiratory substrate, whereas respiration was similar to the wildtype when glutamate was used as the substrate. When glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) was used as the substrate for Gpd2, we observed ~20% and ~7% respective decreases in respiration in female and male Immp2lKD-/- KO mice over time. Together, these findings indicate that the respiratory-related functions of mGpd2 and Cyc1 have been compromised to different degrees in different tissues and genders of the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse. Structural analyses using AlphaFold2-Multimer further predicted that the interaction between Cyc1 and mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome b (Cyb) in Complex III had been altered, as had the homodimeric structure of the mGpd2 enzyme within the inner mitochondrial membrane of the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse. mGpd2 functions as an integral component of the glycerol phosphate shuttle (GPS), which positively regulates both mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. Interestingly, we found that nonmitochondrial respiration (NMR) was also dramatically lowered in the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse. Primary mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines derived from the Immp2lKD-/- KO mouse displayed a ~27% decrease in total respiration, comprising a ~50% decrease in NMR and a ~12% decrease in total mitochondrial respiration, where the latter was consistent with the cumulative decreases in substrate-specific mediated mitochondrial respiration reported here. This study is the first to report the role of Immp2l in enhancing Gpd2 structure and function, mitochondrial respiration, nonmitochondrial respiration, organ size and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Atrofia Bulboespinal Ligada ao X , Glicerol , Glicerofosfatos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Fibroblastos , Ácido Glutâmico , Glicerolfosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Fosfatos
7.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 20: 35-48, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38223372

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to assess changes in the receptive and expressive language skills and to determine if the baseline characteristics such as communication, cognitive and motor skills, predict outcomes in preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) following early intervention. Methods: We recruited 64 children participating in the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) early intervention program at an Autism Specific Early Learning and Care Center (ASELCC) in Australia. Baseline characteristics across various developmental domains was measured using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, 2nd Edition (VABS-II), and the ESDM Curriculum Checklist. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the effects of the intervention on outcomes. Fixed-effects such as time, groups (verbal and minimally verbal), and time-by-group interactions were assessed whilst adjusting for covariates. Further, multiple linear regression models were used to determine if the baseline characteristics were significant predictors of the outcomes following the early intervention. Results: Among the 64 children who participated in this study, 38 children were verbal, whereas 26 were deemed to have minimal verbal skills. The mean age of the sample was 4.1 years with a significant male predilection (83%) and from a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background (64%). Findings of the linear mixed effects model showed significant within and between group differences in the ESDM subscales, indicating higher magnitude of changes in the verbal group compared to the minimally verbal group. Finally, the multiple linear regression models suggested that baseline MSEL visual reception and expressive language scores were predictive of changes in the ESDM receptive and expressive communication scores. Conclusion: Understanding a child's baseline skill levels may provide valuable clues regarding what interventions would work best, or which interventions may be less suitable for individual preschool-aged children with ASD.

8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Parents of autistic individuals have been known to have a lower overall quality of life (QQL) than those of typically developing children. We present the first Hungarian large-sample study whose objective was to explore the differences in QOL between parents of autistic individuals (AS) and those of neurotypical (NT) persons. METHODS: Based on the ABCX model we developed a questionnaire comprising standardized scales to characterize the life of parents involved. Our data came from parents of 842 individuals (ASD = 521, NT = 321) between 0 and 49 years. Battery deployed standardized instruments to examine quality of life (WHO-QQL BREF and Quality of Life in Autism questionnaire, QOLA). We assessed the families' socio-economic/demographic characteristics, parents' psychological well-being, the autistic/neurotypical individuals' characteristics, and the interventions. RESULTS: Our data showed significantly lower QOL in parents of autistic individuals in all domains of questionnaires. We analyzed 20 relevant factors to uncover the predictors of parental QOL. We confirmed the existence of most but not all predictors present in earlier literature and identified intervention-related predictors. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the importance of supporting parents in their role, and of providing health and social supports that focus on quality of life, in addition to child care.

10.
Community Ment Health J ; 60(3): 581-588, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991577

RESUMO

ForWhen is an Australia-based national navigation service aimed at helping parents and carers navigate the perinatal mental health service landscape and connect them with appropriate support and clinical services. The current study forms part of a mixed-methods evaluation of the ForWhen program. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ForWhen navigators during the early design and implementation phases of the service. Results were used to characterise the ForWhen navigator activities and responsibilities, identify navigator core competencies, and examine facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of a large-scale navigation program for perinatal and infant mental health. Further research will be crucial for evidencing the utility and potential of navigation models in addressing identified issues with access to treatment for perinatal and infant mental health issues.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Navegação de Pacientes , Feminino , Gravidez , Lactente , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Atenção à Saúde , Austrália , Pais , Navegação de Pacientes/métodos
11.
Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol ; 52(2): 223-236, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37581855

RESUMO

Understanding the developmental psychopathology of child conduct problems (CP) has been advanced by differentiating subtypes based on levels of internalizing problems (INT) and/or callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., low empathy/guilt, poor motivation, shallow/deficient affect). The current study sought to elucidate prior inconsistencies in the role of warm/positive and harsh/negative parenting subcomponents in CP by differentiating subtypes on the basis of INT and CU traits. Parents of 135 young children (M age = 4.21 years, SD = 1.29) referred to specialty clinics for the treatment of CP completed pre-treatment measures of parenting and rated their child's levels of CP, INT, and CU traits. Results of planned comparisons revealed that mothers of children classified as secondary CU variants (high CU/ high INT) reported fewer overall warm attributions toward their child, compared with CP-only (low CU) children. They also reported a more negative dyadic relationship characterized by feelings of anger/hostility, active avoidance and/or a desire to do harm to their child relative to primary CU variants (high CU/ low INT). Mothers of primary CU variants attributed fewer good and altruistic intentions towards others in their child, relative to CP-only children. Subtypes were undifferentiated on observed positive and negative parenting behaviors, indicative of a disconnect between parenting behaviors and cognitions for mothers of children high on CU traits. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and practice implications, and in guiding future research.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Empatia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia
12.
Public Health Res Pract ; 33(4)2023 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38052201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: By 2030, 60% of the global population is expected to live in urban areas. Exposure to urban environments during the first 2000 days of life can have positive or negative health outcomes across the life course. Understanding the types of urban exposures that influence health outcomes is needed to guide research priorities for public health and urban planning. This review aims to summarise the published research examining the health outcomes of all urban environmental exposures during the first 2000 days of life, identify the quantity and characteristics of research in this area, methods used, and knowledge gaps. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review using the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. Eight databases were searched for peer-reviewed primary studies. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured maternal, infant and child exposure to everyday urban environment features and conditions in cities/metropolitan areas during the first 2000 days of life and reported offspring health outcomes across the life course, including embryo, fetal/newborn, infant, child, adolescent, and adult outcomes. We used Covidence software for data screening and extraction. Study characteristics and findings were summarised using tables and narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We reviewed 235 articles, which included studies conducted across 41 countries, the majority in the US (n = 63). A broad range of environmental exposures were studied, spanning seven categories: air pollution; energy-based pollution; atmosphere, chemical and metal exposure; neighbourhood-built and natural environment features; neighbourhood community conditions; and residential living conditions. Air pollution was the most studied exposure type (n = 153 studies). Health outcomes were reported for all life stages except adults, with fetal/newborn outcomes the most studied life stage (n = 137). CONCLUSIONS: We found that most research investigating urban environmental exposures in the first 2000 days and health outcomes across the life course focused on air pollution exposures and fetal/newborn health outcomes, using correlational retrospective cohort designs. Few studies included multiple environmental exposures. There is a clear need for more longitudinal research to determine the health impacts of multiple urban environmental exposures across the life course. This will assist in developing urban design and planning strategies and population health to mitigate health risks across the life course.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Criança , Adulto , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Meio Ambiente , Família
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127204

RESUMO

There has been a growing interest in research examining the relationship between parenting and child callous-unemotional (CU) traits, particularly in early childhood. This study reviewed evidence from studies that investigated the relationship between parenting characteristics (e.g., caregiving beliefs, attitudes, behaviour or quality, or parental mental health) and callous-unemotional traits in children aged 0 to 6 years. A systematic search conducted according to PRISMA guidelines yielded 27 peer-reviewed articles. Analysis of the included articles suggested that there was strong evidence to support links between child CU traits and parenting characteristics (particularly, parental feelings about their child, warm parenting, and harsh/ inconsistent parenting). Taken together, the results of this review demonstrate the links between both positive and negative dimensions of parenting and CU traits in early childhood; however, mixed findings highlight the need for further research.

14.
JMIR Form Res ; 7: e51398, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitals are insufficiently resourced to appropriately support young people who present with suicidal crises. Digital mental health innovations have the potential to provide cost-effective models of care to address this service gap and improve care experiences for young people. However, little is currently known about whether digital innovations are feasible to integrate into complex hospital settings or how they should be introduced for sustainability. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explored the potential benefits, barriers, and collective action required for integrating digital therapeutics for the management of suicidal distress in youth into routine hospital practice. Addressing these knowledge gaps is a critical first step in designing digital innovations and implementation strategies that enable uptake and integration. METHODS: We conducted a series of semistructured interviews with young people who had presented to an Australian hospital for a suicide crisis in the previous 12 months and hospital staff who interacted with these young people. Participants were recruited from the community nationally via social media advertisements on the web. Interviews were conducted individually, and participants were reimbursed for their time. Using the Normalization Process Theory framework, we developed an interview guide to clarify the processes and conditions that influence whether and how an innovation becomes part of routine practice in complex health systems. RESULTS: Analysis of 29 interviews (n=17, 59% young people and n=12, 41% hospital staff) yielded 4 themes that were mapped onto 3 Normalization Process Theory constructs related to coherence building, cognitive participation, and collective action. Overall, digital innovations were seen as a beneficial complement to but not a substitute for in-person clinical services. The timing of delivery was important, with the agreement that digital therapeutics could be provided to patients while they were waiting to be assessed or shortly before discharge. Staff training to increase digital literacy was considered key to implementation, but there were mixed views on the level of staff assistance needed to support young people in engaging with digital innovations. Improving access to technological devices and internet connectivity, increasing staff motivation to facilitate the use of the digital therapeutic, and allowing patients autonomy over the use of the digital therapeutic were identified as other factors critical to integration. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating digital innovations into current models of patient care for young people presenting to hospital in acute suicide crises is challenging because of several existing resource, logistical, and technical barriers. Scoping the appropriateness of new innovations with relevant key stakeholders as early as possible in the development process should be prioritized as the best opportunity to preemptively identify and address barriers to implementation.

15.
BMJ Open ; 13(11): e075651, 2023 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37993153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 'Healthier Wealthier Families' (HWF) seeks to reduce financial hardship in the early years by embedding a referral pathway between Australia's universal child and family health (CFH) services and financial counselling. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and short-term impacts of HWF, adapted from a successful Scottish initiative. METHODS: Setting: CFH services in five sites across two states, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers of children aged 0-5 years experiencing financial hardship (study-designed screen). DESIGN: Mixed methods. With limited progress using a randomised trial (RCT) design in sites 1-3 (March 2020-November 2021), qualitative interviews with service providers identified implementation barriers including stigma, lack of knowledge of financial counselling, low financial literacy, research burden and pandemic disruption. This informed a simplified RCT protocol (site 4) and direct referral model (no randomisation, pre-post evaluation, site 5) (June 2021-May 2022). INTERVENTION: financial counselling; comparator: usual care (sites 1-4). Feasibility measures: proportions of caregivers screened, enrolled, followed up and who accessed financial counselling. Impact measures: finances (quantitative) and other (qualitative) to 6 months post-enrolment. RESULTS: 355/434 caregivers completed the screen (60%-100% across sites). In RCT sites (1-4), 79/365 (19%-41%) reported hardship but less than one-quarter enrolled. In site 5, n=66/69 (96%) caregivers reported hardship and 44/66 (67%) engaged with financial counselling; common issues were utility debts (73%), and obtaining entitlements (43%) or material aid/emergency relief (27%). Per family, financial counselling increased income from government entitlements by an average $A6504 annually plus $A784 from concessions, grants, brokerage and debt waivers. Caregivers described benefits (qualitative) including reduced stress, practical help, increased knowledge and empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: Financial hardship screening via CFH was acceptable to caregivers, direct referral was feasible, but individual randomisation was infeasible. Larger-scale implementation will require careful, staged adaptations where CFH populations and the intervention are well matched and low burden evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000154909.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Pandemias , Criança , Humanos , Austrália , Aconselhamento , Atenção à Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Projetos Piloto
16.
Front Pediatr ; 11: 1265123, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38034832

RESUMO

Introduction: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic saw a global surge in functional tic-like behaviors (FTLBs). FTLBs are unique from primary tic disorders. They are thought to manifest through a complex interplay between environmental and personal factors, including the stress-arousal system, and are characterized by their sudden and explosive onset. Accordingly, common interventions for tic disorders show limited efficacy in this population. We present an Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Functional Tics (I-CBiT) that uses an urge acceptance model to manage tics and related stress and anxiety. Methods: We describe the treatment outcomes of eight young people presenting with new and sudden onset FTLBs who underwent I-CBiT, which integrates traditional behavioral tic interventions with third-wave cognitive behavioral therapies. All cases completed the three-phase intervention involving core components of psychoeducation, exposure and response prevention with urge acceptance, sensory grounding strategies, and cognitive behavioral intervention targeting the stress-arousal system. Tic severity and impairment were assessed prior to treatment and at completion. Results: All cases showed a significant reduction in tic severity post I-CBiT and an improvement in overall daily living function. These cases highlight the role of urge acceptance in managing both tic urges and the underlying stress-arousal system to bring about long-term change. Conclusion: We demonstrated the efficacy of I-CBiT for managing FTLBs. Our findings illustrate the importance of treating underlying stress and anxiety in this population and, therefore, a need for greater interaction between multidisciplinary services in managing FTLBs to comprehensively cover the varied symptom presentations linked to thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations, and stress responses.

17.
BMJ Open ; 13(10): e073893, 2023 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children and adolescents are increasingly prescribed antipsychotic medications off-label in the treatment of behavioural disorders. While antipsychotic medications are effective in managing behavioural issues, they carry a significant risk of adverse events that compromise ongoing physical health. Of particular concern is the negative impact antipsychotic medications have on cardiometabolic health. Interventions that aim to modify lifestyle habits have the potential to alleviate the adverse effects of antipsychotic medication by enhancing weight management, increasing physical activity, promoting better nutritional practices, improving dietary habits and promoting healthier sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. However, a comprehensive review has not been performed to ascertain the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for children and adolescents who are at increased risk of antipsychotic-induced compromises to their physical health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Four databases will be searched without any year constraints to identify randomised controlled trials that are published in the English language and report a lifestyle intervention compared with usual care with any physical health outcome measure. Trial registers and results repositories will be scoured to identify additional studies. Two reviewers will independently conduct screening, data extraction and quality assessment and compare the results. Quantitative data will be synthesised, where appropriate, through a random-effects meta-analysis model. Otherwise, data will be reported in a qualitative (narrative) synthesis. Heterogeneity will be quantified using the I2 statistic. The Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool will be used for risk of bias assessment. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system will be used to evaluate the cumulative body of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required. The publication plan will target high-impact, peer-reviewed journals that fall under the scope of Psychiatry and Mental Health. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022380277.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto , Estilo de Vida , Exercício Físico , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
18.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1147721, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37771827

RESUMO

Background: Unaddressed family adversity has potentially modifiable, negative biopsychosocial impacts across the life course. Little is known about how Australian health and social practitioners identify and respond to family adversity in community and primary health settings. Objective: To describe, in two Australian community health services: (1) the number of adversities experienced by caregivers, (2) practitioner identification of caregivers experiencing adversity, (3) practitioner response to caregivers experiencing adversity, and (4) caregiver uptake of referrals. Methods: Survey of caregivers of children aged 0-8 years attending community health services in Victoria and New South Wales (NSW). Analysis described frequencies of caregiver self-reported: (1) experiences of adversity, (2) practitioner identification of adversity, (3) practitioner response to adversity, and (4) referral uptake. Analyses were sub-grouped by three adversity domains and site. Results: 349 caregivers (Victoria: n = 234; NSW: n = 115) completed the survey of whom 88% reported experiencing one or more family adversities. The median number of adversities was 4 (2-6). Only 43% of participants were directly asked about or discussed an adversity with a practitioner in the previous 6 months (Victoria: 30%; NSW: 68%). Among caregivers experiencing adversity, 30% received direct support (Victoria: 23%; NSW: 43%), and 14% received a referral (Victoria: 10%; NSW: 22%) for at least one adversity. Overall, 74% of caregivers accepted referrals when extended. Conclusion: The needs of Australian families experiencing high rates of adversity are not systematically identified nor responded to in community health services. This leaves significant scope for reform and enhancement of service responses to families experiencing adversity.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Criança , Humanos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cuidadores/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psychol Assess ; 35(12): 1085-1097, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768639

RESUMO

This study evaluated the interrater reliability, convergent and divergent validity, incremental validity, and clinical prognostic utility of the Clinical Assessment of Prosocial Emotions (CAPE; Frick, 2013) for assessing limited prosocial emotions (LPE). Participants were 232 young children (Mage = 3.94 years, SD = 1.46, range = 2-8; 74.6% boys) clinic-referred for conduct problems. We scored the CAPE using binary and dimensional scoring approaches and measured outcomes using parent-report and child laboratory measures. CAPE LPE symptom ratings had good interrater reliability. Children diagnosed with pretreatment LPE had more severe externalizing problems and lower empathy than children without LPE but did not differ in emotion recognition accuracy or anxiety. Dimensional CAPE symptom sum scores were associated with criterion variable scores in expected ways and offered incremental validity beyond scores on the parent-report Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits for predicting conduct problem severity, aggression, empathy deficits, and global emotion recognition accuracy. Among children who completed parent management training (n = 44), those diagnosed with LPE ended treatment with more severe aggressive behavior than those without LPE. Overall, children diagnosed with CAPE LPE have severe externalizing problems and achieve reduced benefits from standard parent management training, supporting the need for tailored and intensive interventions to maximize treatment outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Comportamento Problema , Masculino , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Emoções , Empatia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(9)2023 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37761857

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the Inner mitochondrial membrane protein 2-like (IMMP2L) gene is linked to autism inheritance. However, the biological basis of this linkage is unknown notwithstanding independent reports of oxidative stress in association with both IMMP2L and ASD. To better understand IMMP2L's association with behaviour, we developed the Immp2lKD knockout (KO) mouse model which is devoid of Immp2l peptidase activity. Immp2lKD -/- KO mice do not display any of the core behavioural symptoms of ASD, albeit homozygous Immp2lKD -/- KO mice do display increased auditory stimulus-driven instrumental behaviour and increased amphetamine-induced locomotion. Due to reports of increased ROS and oxidative stress phenotypes in an earlier truncated Immp2l mouse model resulting from an intragenic deletion within Immp2l, we tested whether high doses of the synthetic mitochondrial targeted antioxidant (MitoQ) could reverse or moderate the behavioural changes in Immp2lKD -/- KO mice. To our surprise, we observed that ROS levels were not increased but significantly lowered in our new Immp2lKD -/- KO mice and that these mice had no oxidative stress-associated phenotypes and were fully fertile with no age-related ataxia or neurodegeneration as ascertained using electron microscopy. Furthermore, the antioxidant MitoQ had no effect on the increased amphetamine-induced locomotion of these mice. Together, these findings indicate that the behavioural changes in Immp2lKD -/- KO mice are associated with an antioxidant-like phenotype with lowered and not increased levels of ROS and no oxidative stress-related phenotypes. This suggested that treatments with antioxidants are unlikely to be effective in treating behaviours directly resulting from the loss of Immp2l/IMMP2L activity, while any behavioural deficits that maybe associated with IMMP2L intragenic deletion-associated truncations have yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Animais , Camundongos , Anfetamina , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...