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1.
Heliyon ; 10(6): e27874, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545180

RESUMO

Saxitoxin (STX) represents a marine toxin of significant concern due to its deleterious implications for aquatic ecosystems and public food safety. As a potent paralytic agent, the role of STX in obstructing voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) is well-characterized. Yet, the mechanistic details underlying its low-dose toxicity remain largely enigmatic. In the current study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were subjected to subchronic exposure of graded STX concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 µg/L) until the 7th day post-fertilization. A tactile stimulus-based assay was employed to evaluate potential behavioral perturbations resulting from STX exposure. Both behavioral and transcription level analyses unveiled a compromised tactile response, which was found to be associated with a notable upregulation in the mRNA of two distinct VGSC isoforms, specifically the scn8aa/ab and scn1Laa/ab transcripts, even at the minimal STX dose. Notably, exposure to this lowest STX concentration also resulted in alterations in the transcriptional patterns of pivotal genes for cholinergic and GABAergic pathways, including ache and gabra1. Furthermore, STX induced a marked decrease in the levels of the neurotransmitter GABA. Our findings underscore that prolonged low-dose STX exposure during early development can significantly compromise the tactile response behavior in zebrafish. This study reveals that chronic low-dose STX exposure of developing zebrafish alters neurotransmission pathways that converge on altered tactile behavior.

2.
Neurology ; 102(2): e207961, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Red blood cell (RBC) concentrations are known to associate with ischemic stroke. It is unclear whether RBC concentrations associate specifically with small vessel disease lacunar infarcts. We investigated the hypothesis that RBC concentrations associate with both chronic covert and acute symptomatic brain MRI lacunar infarcts. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational analysis was performed across 2 cohorts with available hematocrit (as the assessment of RBC concentration exposure) and MRI outcome data. The primary setting was a population-based cohort of stroke-free, older adult (>50 years) participants from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) enrolled between 2003 and 2009. A second replication sample consisted of patients admitted with acute stroke and enrolled into the Columbia Stroke Registry (CSR) between 2005 and 2020. Associations of hematocrit with (1) chronic, covert lacunar infarcts and (2) symptomatic (i.e., acute) lacunar strokes were separately assessed from the NOMAS and CSR cohorts, respectively, using general additive models after adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Of 1,218 NOMAS participants analyzed, 6% had chronic, covert lacunar infarcts. The association between hematocrit and these covert lacunar infarcts was U-shaped (χ2 = 9.21 for nonlinear associations; p = 0.03), with people with hematocrit extremes being more likely to have covert lacunar infarcts. Of the 1,489 CSR patients analyzed, 23% had acute lacunar strokes. In this sample, only the relationships of increased hematocrit concentrations and lacunar strokes were replicated (adjusted coefficient ß = 0.020; SE = 0.009; p = 0.03). DISCUSSION: We identified relationships of hematocrit with MRI lacunar infarcts in both stroke-free and ischemic stroke cohorts, respectively. The relationship between increased hematocrit concentrations with lacunar infarcts was replicated in both cohorts. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms behind the relationships of hematocrit with ischemic cerebral small vessel disease.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Noma , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Hematócrito , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Dev Dyn ; 253(6): 606-623, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bothrops atrox is a pit viper with a loreal pit organ, and its embryological development remains undescribed. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the embryology of B. atrox, focusing on the loreal pit organ and cephalic scales. RESULTS: We characterized 13 developmental stages of B. atrox based on external features consistent with the embryogenesis of previously described snake species. The loreal pit organ originates from the circumorbital region and migrates to its final position. In Crotalinae, the pit organ first becomes visible at stage 28, whereas in Pythonidae labial, pit organs appear at Stage 35. Pit organs evolved independently three times in Serpentes, encompassing Boidae, Pythonidae, and Crotalinae. Boidae lacks embryological information for pit organs. Furthermore, we observed that head scalation onset occurs at Stage 33 in B. atrox, with fusion of scales surrounding the loreal pit organ. CONCLUSIONS: The embryology of pit organs in Pythonidae and Boidae species remains poorly understood. Our detailed embryological descriptions are critical for proposing developmental scenarios for pit organs and guiding future research on these structures.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Bothrops , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Morfogênese , Bothrops atrox
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 22(4): 1056-1068, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38160724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood clots are primarily composed of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets/thrombocytes, and fibrin. Despite the similarities observed between mammals and zebrafish, the composition of fish thrombi is not as well known. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the formation of zebrafish blood clots ex vivo and arterial and venous thrombi in vivo. METHODS: Transgenic zebrafish lines and laser-mediated endothelial injury were used to determine the relative ratio of RBCs and thrombocytes in clots. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy provided high-resolution images of the structure of adult and larval clots. Adult and larval thrombocyte spreading on fibrinogen was evaluated ex vivo. RESULTS: RBCs were present in arterial and venous thrombi, making up the majority of cells in both circulations. However, bloodless mutant fish demonstrated that fibrin clots can form in vivo in the absence of blood cells. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy showed that larval and adult zebrafish thrombi and mammalian thrombi look surprisingly similar externally and internally, even though the former have nucleated RBCs and thrombocytes. Although adult thrombocytes spread on fibrinogen, we found that larval cells do not fully activate without the addition of plasma from adult fish, suggesting a developmental deficiency of a plasma activating factor. Finally, mutants lacking αIIbß3 demonstrated that this integrin mediates thrombocyte spreading on fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: Our data showed strong conservation of arterial and venous and clot/thrombus formation across species, including developmental regulation of thrombocyte function. This correlation supports the possibility that mammals also do not absolutely require circulating cells to form fibrin clots in vivo.


Assuntos
Hemostáticos , Tromboembolia , Trombose , Animais , Peixe-Zebra , Trombose/genética , Plaquetas , Fibrina/química , Fibrinogênio/genética , Mamíferos
5.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 307(1): 66-80, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37365957

RESUMO

Anilius scytale is the sister lineage of all other alethinophidian snakes. Morphology of the hind limb complex in adult A. scytale (Aniliidae) has been documented. We herein, for the first time, describe the embryology of the skeletal elements of its hind limb and pelvic girdle and contextualize the evolution of these structures. We identified pregnant females of A. scytale in the Herpetology Collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi and separated 40 embryos. The embryos were sequentially staged using external and internal anatomy, collectively comprising a developmental series representing six stages. We cleared-stained one specimen of stages 31, 34, 36, and 37. Using the embryological information gleaned from A. scytale, we reinterpret evidence relating to the ossification of the pelvis and hindlimbs. In A. scytale hindlimb buds develop as transient structures that developed before Stage 30 and regresses in subsequent stages. There is no external or internal evidence of the forelimb or scapular girdle. From Stage 31 onwards the ischium, pubis, ilium, femur and zeugopodial cartilages are visible. Pubis and femur ossify towards the end of embryonic life, and cloacal spurs do not develop in the embryo. Skeletal elements of the hindlimb and pelvic girdle develop initially in the ventral zone of the cloaca-tail region. In subsequent stages the hindlimb and pelvic girdle elements migrate dorsally, with the pubis/ischium positioned medial to the ribs. A similar process may be associated with the achievement of the condition of the pelvic girdle in adults of scolecophidians, pythonids and boids.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Pelve , Animais , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Membro Posterior , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Serpentes/anatomia & histologia
6.
Salud ment ; 46(2): 69-82, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450417

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic caused the cessation of academic activities from the face-to-face format to confinement and virtual classes, in which little is studied about its effect on mental health. Objective Determine levels of depression, anxiety, and stress in medical students in Mexico and Colombia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, depression, anxiety, and stress were compared by gender, education status, and country. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out with 426 medical students. Data was collected using an online survey containing the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) questionnaire. Results Overall scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were 6.7 ± 1.2, 8.8 ± 1.2, and 5.6 ± 1.2, respectively. Females had significantly higher overall scores for depression (.24-fold increase), anxiety (.25-fold increase), and stress (.40-fold increase) than males (p ≤ .01). The risk for anxiety and stress by school year showed that basic years were associated with higher scores than advanced years (.25 and .38-fold increase, respectively). For females, starting medical school did show an increased risk of depression when compared to male students in their basic years (.38-fold increase). Lastly, students from Mexico had an increased risk for depression and anxiety (p ≤ .022 and p ≤ .004, respectively) but not for stress (p ≤ .402), when compared to students from Colombia. Discussion and conclusion Significant anxiety and depression were observed in medical students from Mexico and Colombia. Factors associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety are students in their basic years as well as being female.


Resumen Introducción La pandemia de COVID-19 provocó el cese de las actividades académicas desde el formato presencial al confinamiento de las clases virtuales, de las que poco se ha estudiado sobre su efecto en la salud mental. Objetivo Determinar los niveles de depresión, ansiedad y estrés en estudiantes de medicina de México y Colombia durante la pandemia de COVID-19; además de comparar depresión, ansiedad y estrés por género, nivel educativo y país. Método Se realizó un estudio transversal con 426 estudiantes de medicina. Los datos se recopilaron mediante una encuesta en línea que contenía el cuestionario DASS-21. Resultados Las puntuaciones generales de depresión, ansiedad y estrés fueron 6.7 ± 1.2, 8.8 ± 1.2 y 5.6 ± 1.2, respectivamente. Las mujeres tuvieron puntajes generales significativamente más altos para depresión (.24-fold increase), ansiedad (.25-fold increase) y estrés (.40-fold increase). El riesgo de ansiedad y estrés por año escolar mostró que los años básicos se asociaron con puntajes más altos que los estudiantes en años los avanzados (.25 y .38-fold increase). Para las mujeres, cursar años básicos mostró un mayor riesgo de depresión en comparación con los estudiantes varones (.38-fold increase). Por último, los estudiantes mexicanos tuvieron un mayor riesgo de depresión y ansiedad (p ≤ .022 y p ≤ .004, respectivamente) pero no de estrés (p ≤ .402) en comparación con los estudiantes Colombianos. Discusión y conclusión Se observó ansiedad y depresión significativas en estudiantes de medicina mexicanos y colombianos. Los factores asociados a un mayor riesgo de depresión y ansiedad fueron; ser estudiante en años básicos además de ser mujer.

7.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 123(6): 933-952.e1, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbiome therapies (probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotics) have been proposed as adjuvants in the control of central obesity; however, their results for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of microbiome therapies on central obesity as measured by waist circumference (WC), and to evaluate the effect of microbiome therapies for glycemic parameters (fasting glucose [FPG], fasting insulin [FPI], hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], and insulin resistance [HOMA1-IR]) in patients with T2D. METHODS: SCOPUS, Pubmed, EBSCO, and LILACS databases were searched for studies that investigated the effect of microbiome therapies on WC up to June 1, 2022. Heterogeneity was determined using Cochran's Q test and quantified using the inconsistency index. The random effects model was used to calculate the pooled difference in means (DM) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Egger's test and Beggs-Muzamar's test were used to assess publication bias. RESULTS: Fifteen reports were included (443 treated and 387 controls). Overall, a significant decrease in WC was found (DM = -0.97 cm; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = -1.74 to -0.20; P = 0.014); however, when stratified by type of microbiome therapy, only probiotics significantly decreased WC (DM = -0.62 cm; 95%CI = -1.00 to -0.24; P = 0.002). No effect was observed for prebiotics and synbiotics. With respect to glycemic parameters, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA1-IR significantly decrease with microbiome therapies (P ≤ 0.001). When stratified by the type of therapy, for probiotic treatments, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA1-IR scores decrease (P < 0.001). For prebiotic treatments, HbA1c and FPG (P ≤ 0.001) levels decrease, whereas FPI increased (P = 0.012). Synbiotic treatments were only associated with an increase in FPI (P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that using probiotics alone improved WC in patients with T2D. Both probiotics and prebiotics decreased HbA1c and FPG; however, prebiotics and synbiotics resulted in an increase in FPI. The formulation of the therapy (single vs multi) had no difference on the effect.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbiota , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Obesidade Abdominal/terapia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Circunferência da Cintura , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Prebióticos , Obesidade
8.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 47(4): 5-10, dic. 26, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451314

RESUMO

Introducción: los pacientes pediátricos y sus padres sienten ansiedad antes de una cirugía, síntoma que afecta la inducción anestésica, el dolor y el comportamiento postoperatorio. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la educación preoperatoria estructurada en el nivel de ansiedad de niños sometidos a cirugía electiva y de sus padres. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, aleatorio, doble ciego, en niños de 2-12 años, ASA I-II. Los participantes fueron aleatorizados en grupo control (información habitual) y grupo experimental (información estructurada). Se registraron variables demográficas, nivel de ansiedad en unidad preoperatoria y en pabellón en niños y padres; se evaluó el comportamiento de los niños durante la inducción anestésica. Análisis estadístico: t-test, x2; valores expresados en media y desviación estándar; significancia p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: se reclutaron 34 pacientes, 18 en grupo control y 16 en grupo experimental. Los valores ansiedad en niños pre-pabellón fueron 37,7 ± 21,4 en grupo control y 31,9 ± 11,5 en grupo experimental (p= 0,35); durante pre-inducción fue 43,2 ± 25,3 y 36 ± 15,5 respectivamente (p= 0,33). Los niveles de ansiedad en padres pre-pabellón fueron 42,5 ± 15,5 para grupo control y 37,6 ± 6,9 en grupo experimental (p= 0,25), y al retirarse del pabellón fueron de 45,1 ± 16,6 y 43,9 ± 9,8 respectivamente (p= 0,82). No hubo diferencias en el comportamiento durante la inducción anestésica entre ambos grupos (p= 0,24). Conclusiones: no fue posible demostrar efectos de información estructurada en niveles de ansiedad en niños que van a ser operados y en sus padres.


Introduction: Pediatric patients and their parents experience anxiety before surgery, a symptom that affects anesthetic induction, pain and postoperative behavior. The objective was to evaluate the effect of structured preoperative education on the anxiety level in children undergoing elective surgery and their parents. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in children aged 2-12 years, ASA I-II. Patients were randomized into a control group (usual preoperative information) and an experimental group (structured information). Demographic variables, anxiety level in the preoperative unit and in operating room in children and parents were recorded; the behavior of children during anesthetic induction was evaluated. Statistical analysis: t-test, x2; values expressed as mean and standard deviation; significance p ≤ 0.05. Results: 34 patients were recruited, 18 in the control group and 16 in the experimental group. The anxiety levels in children in preoperative unit were 37.7 ± 21 and 31.9 ± 11.5.4 in control and experimental group, respectively (p = 0.35), and in operating room were 43.2 ± 25.3 and 36 ± 15.5 respectively (p = 0.33). Parental anxiety levels in preoperative unit were 42.5 ± 15.5 in control group and 37.6 ± 6.9 in experimental group (p = 0.25), and when they leaving operating room were 45.1 ± 16.6 and 43.9 ± 9.8 respectively (p = 0.82). There were no differences in the behavior during anesthetic induction between both groups (p = 0.24). Conclusions: It was not possible to demonstrate effects of structured information on anxiety levels in children undergoing surgery and in their parents.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232479

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays an important role in vascular complications observed in patients with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Xanthine oxidase (XO) breaks down purine nucleotides into uric acid and contributes to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the relationship between XO activity and glucose homeostasis in T2D subjects with obesity is unclear. We hypothesized that disordered glucose levels are associated with serum XO activity in overweight women and men with T2D and without hyperuricemia. We studied serum XO activity in women and men with and without T2D. Our results show that serum XO activity was greater in T2D patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 than in those with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (p < 0.0001). Sex-based comparative analyses of overweight T2D patients showed that serum XO activity correlated with homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-ß), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and hemoglobin A1C in overweight T2D women but not in overweight T2D men. In addition, as compared to overweight T2D men, women had higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. However, overweight T2D men had higher XO activity and uric acid levels than women. Our results suggest that XO activity is higher in overweight T2D patients, especially in men, but is more sensitive to disordered glucose levels in overweight women with T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sobrepeso , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Nucleotídeos de Purina , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
10.
Lasers Med Sci ; 37(9): 3537-3549, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063232

RESUMO

Undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains a major public health concern. The global estimation of undiagnosed diabetes is about 46%, being this situation more critical in developing countries. Therefore, we proposed a non-invasive method to quantify glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose in vivo. We developed a technique based on Raman spectroscopy, RReliefF as a feature selection method, and regression based on feed-forward artificial neural networks (FFNN). The spectra were obtained from the forearm, wrist, and index finger of 46 individuals. The use of FFNN allowed us to achieve an error in the predictive model of 0.69% for HbA1c and 30.12 mg/dL for glucose. Patients were classified according to HbA1c values into three categories: healthy, prediabetes, and T2D. The proposed method obtained a specificity and sensitivity of 87.50% and 80.77%, respectively. This work demonstrates the benefit of using artificial neural networks and feature selection techniques to enhance Raman spectra processing to determine glycated hemoglobin and glucose in patients with undiagnosed T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Glucose , Glicemia , Análise Espectral Raman , Redes Neurais de Computação
11.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684061

RESUMO

Endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs) are promising strategies for the treatment of obesity. However, there is still great variability in its effectiveness in weight loss. Thus, we investigated whether adherence to healthy lifestyle habits is a significant determinant of weight loss effectiveness among patients undergoing EBTs. Additionally, the role of eating behaviors and psychological traits in the effectiveness of weight loss was studied. A cohort of 361 participants (81.4% women; age 41.8 ± 9.5 years; BMI 37.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) was followed for 1 year after EBT. Anthropometric parameters, adherence to healthy lifestyle habits, emotional eating, and psychological traits (anxiety and depression) were evaluated. General linear models were used to compare outcome variables according to weight loss effectiveness groups (poor vs. good weight-loss-responders). Additionally, a hierarchical linear regression model was used to determine whether adherence to healthy lifestyle habits, emotional eating, or psychological traits were significant predictors of excess weight loss (%EWL). One year after EBT, weight loss differed significantly between good and poor weight-loss-responders (67.5% EWL [95% CI: 64.2, 70.8] vs. 28.2% EWL [95% CI: 25.5, 30.9], p < 0.001). Participants who adhered to good lifestyle habits had 4.37 more odds [95% CI: 2.19, 8.88] of being good weight-loss-responders. We also observed that eating four to five meals/day and practicing muscle-strengthening activities >2 times/week were the two lifestyle habits that most significantly determined weight loss response. Furthermore, our results revealed that while adherence to healthy lifestyle habits was a significant determinant of %EWL 3, 6, and 12 months after EBT (p < 0.001), emotional eating was a significant determinant of %EWL only 3 and 6 months after the intervention (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Regarding psychological traits, we observed that neither anxiety nor depression were significant determinants of %EWL. Our results revealed that adherence to healthy lifestyle habits is a significant determinant for weight loss effectiveness among patients with obesity undergoing EBT. These findings highlight the importance of implementing an adequate nutritional intervention program, especially since patients who adhere to good lifestyle habits are able to achieve a weight loss that would be comparable with bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Feminino , Hábitos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Redução de Peso/fisiologia
12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 76(12): 1646-1656, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418606

RESUMO

Probiotics are shown to alter the microbiota, leading to a favorable environment, in which weight loss and metabolic parameters are improve. However, the results on probiotics' effect on specific types of central adipose tissues, mainly visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), are conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review, aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotics on VAT and SAT. PubMed, SCOPUS, EBSCO, and LILACS databases were searched for studies that investigated the effect of probiotics on VAT and SAT. Fixed effects were used to calculate the pooled difference in means (DM) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Fourteen publications met the inclusion criteria, which consisted of 1523 participants. For VAT, overall, there was a significant decrease (DM = -3.63 cm2, 95% CI: -5.08 to -2.17, p < 0.001). When stratified by type of probiotic, single Bifidobacterium (DM = -4.49 cm2, 95% CI:-7.37 to -1.61, p = 0.002) and single Lactobacillus probiotics (DM = -3.84 cm2, 95% CI:-5.74 to -1.93, p < 0.001) resulted in significant reductions. Mixed probiotics had no effect. For SAT, overall, there was a significant decrease (DM = -2.91 cm2, 95% CI:-4.82 to -1.01, p = 0.003), and when stratified by type of probiotic, single Lactobacillus (DM = -3.39 cm2, 95% CI:-5.90 to -0.88, p = 0.008) and mixed probiotics (DM = -5.97 cm2, 95% CI:-10.32 to -1.62, p = 0.007) resulted in a significant decrease. Single Bifidobacterium probiotics had no effect. Using meta-regression, no association was observed between the total daily probiotic dose and VAT or SAT reduction. This study shows that probiotics have a beneficial effect on central adiposity. Single Lactobacillus-based probiotics reduced VAT and SAT, whereas Bifidobacterium-based probiotics reduce VAT.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Probióticos , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Gordura Subcutânea , Tecido Adiposo
13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 16(2): 531-540, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the effects of the Pedernales earthquake (April 2016) on Ecuador's health care system. METHODS: A research was carried out in Chone Canton, which combined documentary, quantitative, and qualitative techniques. Epidemiological and service production information taken from official documents was analyzed systematically. In-depth interviews and surveys were conducted with health care program directors and technicians from the Health Centres of the Ministry of Public Health and the users. RESULTS: Deficiencies in the health care system were already observed in Chone Canton prior to the earthquake mainly due to the lack of doctors, nurses, and hospital beds. According to the interviewees, the health district was not prepared for an emergency like the earthquake. Some buildings fell after the earthquake, and Chone Hospital was disabled. These problems coupled with preventive action failures at the community level led to an increase in diseases after the earthquake. CONCLUSIONS: The shortage of personnel and physical infrastructure, weaknesses in primary health care in the Ecuadorian health system, the lack of preparation, and limited availability of information on health indicators were the causes of the sharp increase in pre-existing diseases in the area, and of new epidemic outbreaks after the earthquake.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Atenção à Saúde , Equador , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 16(1): 51-54, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the relevance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive case detection policy or model implemented by the Ministry of Public Health (MPH) of Ecuador and to compare it with the experiences of other countries. METHODS: Data contained the daily reports publicized by the MPH. The formulations were carried out under the Conditioned Probability modality applying Bayes' Theorem. All the COVID-19 tests applied in relation to the confirmed cases per million inhabitants were considered to obtain their level of positivity, and compared with the experience of Iceland and South Korea. RESULTS: The probability of detecting positive cases of COVID-19 in Ecuador was higher than Iceland and South Korea, because the diagnostic tests were aimed at symptomatic patients, without identifying asymptomatic or mild symptomatic, who play an important role in the transmission of the disease. In addition, many symptomatic patients were examined but will remain undiagnosed due to the unavailability of tests and the low quality of many of them. CONCLUSIONS: The daily reports on the behavior of the COVID-19 issued by the Ecuadorian government do not adequately represent the growth in the number of those infected each day, nor the actual behavior of the epidemic, affecting possible control measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Obes Surg ; 32(1): 142-151, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664149

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Individuals with obesity frequently regain weigh after endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBT) unless they adhere to healthy habits. The objective was to create and validate a short, self-administered questionnaire (EMOVE) to assess healthy dietary and physical activity (PA) habits' adherence to be used in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, unicentric study, 463 patients completed the short, Spanish EMOVE questionnaire, to be validated following the Medical Outcome Trust Criteria. Conceptual and measurement model, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest [subgroup of 93 patients]), construct validity, responsiveness, interpretability, and burden were evaluated. Patients enrolled from January 2017 through August 2018 and auto-filled the EMOVE at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Patients submitted to intragastric ballon for 6 and 12 months or POSE were 82.7% women with a mean age of 42.7 years, and a mean BMI of 37.1 kg/m2. Four factors were extracted with exploratory factor analysis related to intake frequency, portions and proportions, time and place of eating, and physical activity. EMOVE showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.73), very good test-retest (r = 0.91, CI: 0.86-0.94; p < 0.001), moderate construct validity of dietary (r = 0.24, CI: 0.11-0.37, p < 0.001), and PA habits (r = 0.44, CI 0.30-0.58; p < 0.001). Stable responsiveness, with correlations from 0.29 to 0.39 (p < 0.001) between the EMOVE scores and the % of total weight loss at 3, 6, and 12 months. Participants categorized as having good or excellent habits (score ≥ 30 points) lost significantly more weight (p < 0.05). Finally, the administration burden was 2.96 min. CONCLUSION: The EMOVE is a useful tool in Spanish language to easily assess the level of adherence to healthy dietary and PA habits to be used routinely in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Zool J Linn Soc, zlac059, nov. 2022
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-4704

RESUMO

Morphological stasis is generally associated with relative constancy in ecological pressures throughout time, producing strong stabilizing selection that retains similar shared morphology. Although climate and vegetation are commonly the main key factors driving diversity and phenotypic diversification in terrestrial vertebrates, fossorial organisms have their morphology mostly defined by their fossorial lifestyle. Among these secretive fossorial organisms, blind snakes of the South American genus Amerotyphlops are considered poorly studied when compared to other taxa. Here, we evaluate the cryptic diversity of Amerotyphlops using phylogenetic and multivariate approaches. We based our phylogenetic analysis on a molecular dataset composed of 12 gene fragments (eight nuclear and four mitochondrial) for 109 species of Typhlopidae. The multivariate analysis was implemented using 36 morphological variables for 377 specimens of Amerotyphlops. Additionally, we contrast our phylogenetic result with the morphological variation found in cranial, external and hemipenial traits. Our phylogenetic results recovered with strong support the following monophyletic groups within Amerotyphlops: (1) a clade formed by A. tasymicris and A. minuisquamus; (2) a clade composed of A. reticulatus; (3) a north-eastern Brazilian clade including A. yonenagae, A. arenensis, A. paucisquamus and A. amoipira; and (4) a clade composed of A. brongersmianus and a complex of cryptic species. Based on these results we describe four new species of Amerotyphlops from north-eastern and south-eastern Brazil, which can be distinguished from the morphologically similar species, A. brongersmianus and A. arenensis.

17.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 490-499, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908382

RESUMO

Background: In Mexico there is little information regarding the link between metabolic syndrome (MetS), socioeconomic status (SES) and quality of life (QoL). Objective: To assess the association between subjects who are at high risk of developing MetS with SES and QoL. Material and methods: Patients attending UMF-2 IMSS or Centro Urbano-SSA Clínica-1 were asked to participate. Anthropometric measures were collected, the AMAI, SF12, and ESF-I questionnaire where apply for SES, QoL, and MetS, respectively. Association were determined by calculating Spearman's rho and the risk (odds ratio and 95% confidence-interval) was assessed using logistic regression. Results: The difference of SES (193 ± 53 vs. 124 ± 50) and QoL (86.3 ± 14.8 vs. 56.0±25.4) questionnaires were significantly between low-risk and high-risk groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between ESF-I and SES (rho = -0.623, p < 0.001) as well as the QoL (rho = -0.719, p < 0.001). MetS risk was augmented by decreasing SES (C+: OR = 6.4, 95%IC: 3.2-13.0; D: OR = 66.1, 95%IC: 23.2-188.3), whereas increasing QoL attenuated it (OR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.91-0.94). However, QoL mitigated the effect of SES (C+: OR = 4.5, 95%IC: 2.1-9.6; D: OR = 11.9, 95%IC: 3.8-37.6). Conclusions: Lower QoL and SES increased the risk of MetS in Central Mexico; however, improving the QoL can mitigated the effect SES has on developing MetS.


Introducción: en México existe escasa información respecto al vínculo entre el síndrome metabólico (MetS), el nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y la calidad de vida (CdV) de la población. Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre sujetos que tienen alto riesgo de desarrollar MetS con NSE y CdV. Material y métodos: se invitó a participar a pacientes de la UMF-2 del IMSS y del Centro Urbano-SSA Clínica-1. Se recolectaron medidas antropométricas y se aplicaron los cuestionarios AMAI, SF12 y ESF-I para NSE, CdV y MetS, respectivamente. La asociación se determinó calculando rho de Spearman. El riesgo se evaluó mediante regresión logística (razon de momios e intervalo de confianza del 95%). Resultados: la diferencia entre NSE (193 ± 53 frente a 124 ± 50) y CdV (86.3 ± 14.8 frente a 56.0 ± 25.4) fue significativa entre los grupos de bajo y alto riesgo, respectivamente (p < 0.001). Hubo una fuerte correlación negativa entre las puntuaciones de la ESF-I y NSE (rho = -0.623, p < 0.001) así como con la CdV (rho = -0.719, p < 0.001). El riesgo de MetS aumentó al disminuir el NSE (C+: OR = 6.4, IC95%: 3.2 - 13.0; D: OR = 66.1, IC95%: 23.2 - 188.3), mientras que el aumento de la CdV lo atenuó (OR = 0.93, IC95%: 0.91 - 0.94). Interesantemente, la CdV mitigó el efecto del NSE (C+: OR = 4.5, IC95%: 2.1 - 9.6; D: OR = 11.9, IC95%: 3.8 - 37.6). Conclusión: Una menor CdV y NSE aumentan el riesgo de MetS en la región centro de México; sin embargo, el aumento en la CdV podría disminuir el efecto que tiene el NSE en el desarrollo de MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , México/epidemiologia , Classe Social
18.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 490-499, dic. 2021. tab, grap
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355275

RESUMO

Introducción: en México existe escasa información respecto al vínculo entre el síndrome metabólico (MetS), el nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y la calidad de vida (CdV) de la población. Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre sujetos que tienen alto riesgo de desarrollar MetS con NSE y CdV. Métodos: se invitó a participar a pacientes de la UMF-2 del IMSS y del Centro Urbano-SSA Clínica-1. Se recolectaron medidas antropométricas y se aplicaron los cuestionarios AMAI, SF12 y ESF-I para NSE, CdV y MetS, respectivamente. La asociación se determinó calculando rho de Spearman. El riesgo se evaluó mediante regresión logística (razon de momios e intervalo de confianza del 95%). Resultados: la diferencia entre NSE (193  53 frente a 124  50) y CdV (86.3  14.8 frente a 56.0  25.4) fue significativa entre los grupos de bajo y alto riesgo, respectivamente (p < 0.001). Hubo una fuerte correlación negativa entre las puntuaciones de la ESF-I y NSE (rho = -0.623, p < 0.001) así como con la CdV (rho = -0.719, p < 0.001). El riesgo de MetS aumentó al disminuir el NSE (C+: OR = 6.4, IC95%: 3.2 - 13.0; D: OR = 66.1, IC95%: 23.2 - 188.3), mientras que el aumento de la CdV lo atenuó (OR = 0.93, IC95%: 0.91 - 0.94). Interesantemente, la CdV mitigó el efecto del NSE (C+: OR = 4.5, IC95%: 2.1 - 9.6; D: OR = 11.9, IC95%: 3.8 - 37.6). Conclusión: Una menor CdV y NSE aumentan el riesgo de MetS en la región centro de México; sin embargo, el aumento en la CdV podría disminuir el efecto que tiene el NSE en el desarrollo de MetS.


Background: In Mexico there is little information regarding the link between metabolic syndrome (MetS), socioeconomic status (SES) and quality of life (QoL) Objective: To assess the association between subjects who are at high risk of developing MetS with SES and QoL. Methods: Patients attending UMF-2 IMSS or Centro Urbano-SSA Clínica-1 were asked to participate. Anthropometric measures were collected, the AMAI, SF12, and ESF-I questionnaire where apply for SES, QoL, and MetS, respectively. Association were determined by calculating Spearman's rho and the risk (odds ratio and 95% confidence-interval) was assessed using logistic regression. Results: The difference of SES (193  53 vs. 124  50) and QoL (86.3  14.8 vs. 56.025.4) questionnaires were significantly between low-risk and high-risk groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between ESF-I and SES (rho = -0.623, p < 0.001) as well as the QoL (rho = -0.719, p < 0.001). MetS risk was augmented by decreasing SES (C+: OR = 6.4, 95%IC: 3.2-13.0; D: OR = 66.1, 95%IC: 23.2-188.3), whereas increasing QoL attenuated it (OR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.91-0.94). However, QoL mitigated the effect of SES (C+: OR = 4.5, 95%IC: 2.1-9.6; D: OR = 11.9, 95%IC: 3.8-37.6).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Grupos de Risco , Saúde Pública , Síndrome Metabólica , Associação , Modelos Logísticos , México
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768822

RESUMO

The feeding behavior in fish is a complex activity that relies on the ability of the brain to integrate multiple signals to produce appropriate responses in terms of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolic activity. Upon stress cues including viral infection or mediators such as the proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and cortisol, both Pomc and Npy/Agrp neurons from the hypothalamus are stimulated, thus triggering a response that controls both energy storage and expenditure. However, how appetite modulators or neuro-immune cues link pathogenesis and energy homeostasis in fish remains poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence of a molecular linkage between inflammation and food intake in Salmon salar. We show that in vivo viral challenge with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) impacts food consumption by activating anorexic genes such as mc4r, crf, and pomcb and 5-HT in the brain of S. salar. At the molecular level, viral infection induces an overall reduction in lipid content in the liver, favoring the production of AA and EPA associated with the increment of elovl2 gene. In addition, infection upregulates leptin signaling and inhibits insulin signaling. These changes are accompanied by a robust inflammatory response represented by the increment of Il-1b, Il-6, Tnfa, and Pge2 as well as an increased cortisol level in vivo. Thus, we propose a model in which hypothalamic neurons respond to inflammatory cytokines and stress-related molecules and interact with appetite induction/inhibition. These findings provide evidence of crosstalk between pathogenesis-driven inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axes in stress-induced food intake behavior in fish.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae , Comportamento Alimentar , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inflamação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Salmo salar/virologia , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 157(9): 409-417, noviembre 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-215646

RESUMO

Objectives: Chronological age confers an increased risk for cardiovascular disease; however, chronological age does not reflect the subject's current health status. Therefore, we assessed whether Metabolic age (Met-age), based on free fat mass, is a predictor of cardiovascular risk (CVR).MethodsSubjects attending either IMSS UMF-2 or CUSC-1 were asked to participate. CVR was assessed using the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), whereas Met-age was determined using the TANITA bio-analyser (model: BC-545F Fitscan). The strengthen of association was determined by calculating Pearson's r and predictability was determined by the area-under-a-receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC).Results284 subjects participated in this study, of which 61.6% had increased CVR. As expected, the chronological age was significantly higher in the CVR(+) group than the CVR(−) group (47.3±14.4 v. 35.2±12.7, respectively, p<.001) as well as Met-age (59.3±15.5 v. 34.3±14.3, respectively, p<.001). There was a strong association between WHtR and Met-age (r=.720, p<.001) and a moderate association for chronological age (r=.407 p<.001); however, the correlation between WHtR and Met-age was significantly better than chronological age (Z=−5.91, p<.01). Met-age was a good predictor of CVR (AUC=.88, 95%CI: .83–.92, p<.001), whereas chronological age was a fair predictor (AUC=.72, 95%CI: .66–.78, p<.001). However, Met-age showed a higher discriminatory capacity for CVR than chronological age (z=−4.597, p<.001).ConclusionsHere, we determined that Met-age correlated with a CVR index, WHtR, and was able to predict subjects with increased CVR better than chronological age. (AU)


Objetivos: La edad cronológica confiere un mayor riesgo a la enfermedad cardiovascular; sin embargo, la edad cronológica no refleja el estado de salud actual del individuo. Por lo tanto, evaluamos si la edad metabólica (Met-age), basada en masa de grasa libre, es un factor predictivo del riesgo cardiovascular (RCV).MétodosSe solicitó su participación a individuos que asistían a IMSS UMF-2 o CUSC-1. Se evaluó el RCV utilizando el índice cintura-altura (ICA), mientras que Met-age se determinó utilizando el bioanalizador TANITA (modelo: Bc-545F Fitscan). La fuerza de asociación se determinó calculando la r de Pearson, y la predictibilidad se determinó mediante el índice de área bajo la curva (AUC).ResultadosDoscientos ochenta y cuatro sujetos participaron en este estudio, de los cuales el 61,6% reflejó un aumento del RCV. Como se esperaba, la edad cronológica fue significativamente mayor en el grupo del RCV+ que en el grupo del RCV− (47,3±14,4 vs. 35,2±12,7, respectivamente; p<0,001), así como en Met-age (59,3±15,5 vs. 34,3±14,3, respectivamente; p <0,001). Se produjo una fuerte asociación entre el ICA y la Met-age (r=0,720; p<0,001) y una asociación moderada con la edad cronológica (r=0,407; p<0,001); sin embargo, la correlación entre el ICA y la Met-age fue significativamente mejor que la edad cronológica (Z=−5,91; p<0,01). La Met-age fue un buen predictor del RCV (AUC=0,88, IC 95%: 0,83-0,92; p<0,001), mientras que la edad cronológica fue un factor predictivo moderado (AUC=0,72; IC 95%: 0,66-0,78; p<0,001). Sin embargo, la Met-age mostró una mayor capacidad discriminatoria para identificar el RCV que la edad cronológica (z=−4,597; p<0,001).ConclusionesEn este estudio determinamos que la Met-age se correlacionó con el índice ICA del RCV, y fue capaz de predecir sujetos con RCV mejor que la edad cronológica. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Cardiopatias , Circunferência da Cintura , Fatores de Risco , México
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