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1.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(213): 20230659, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565158

RESUMO

The flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along perivascular spaces (PVSs) is an important part of the brain's system for clearing metabolic waste. Astrocyte endfeet bound the PVSs of penetrating arteries, separating them from brain extracellular space. Gaps between astrocyte endfeet might provide a low-resistance pathway for fluid transport across the wall. Recent studies suggest that the astrocyte endfeet function as valves that rectify the CSF flow, producing the net flow observed in pial PVSs by changing the size of the gaps in response to pressure changes. In this study, we quantify this rectification based on three features of the PVSs: the quasi-circular geometry, the deformable endfoot wall, and the pressure oscillation inside. We provide an analytical model, based on the thin-shell hoop-stress approximation, and predict a pumping efficiency of about 0.4, which would contribute significantly to the observed flow. When we add the flow resistance of the extracellular space (ECS) to the model, we find an increased net flow during sleep, due to the known increase in ECS porosity (decreased flow resistance) compared to that in the awake state. We corroborate our analytical model with three-dimensional fluid-solid interaction simulations.


Assuntos
Sistema Glinfático , Sistema Glinfático/fisiologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Artérias/fisiologia , Pressão , Transporte Biológico , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo
2.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(1): e13262, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284577

RESUMO

The growing emphasis on dietary health has facilitated the development of plant-based foods. Plant proteins have excellent functional attributes and health-enhancing effects and are also environmentally conscientious and animal-friendly protein sources on a global scale. The addition of plant proteins (including soy protein, pea protein, zein, nut protein, and gluten protein) to diverse cheese varieties and cheese analogs holds the promise of manufacturing symbiotic products that not only have reduced fat content but also exhibit improved protein diversity and overall quality. In this review, we summarized the utilization and importance of various plant proteins in the production of hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs. Meanwhile, classification and processing methods related to these cheese products were reviewed. Furthermore, the impact of different plant proteins on the microstructure, textural properties, physicochemical attributes, rheological behavior, functional aspects, microbiological aspects, and sensory characteristics of both hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs were discussed and compared. Our study explores the potential for the development of cheeses made from full/semi-plant protein ingredients with greater sustainability and health benefits. Additionally, it further emphasizes the substantial chances for scholars and developers to investigate the optimal processing methods and applications of plant proteins in cheeses, thereby improving the market penetration of plant protein hybrid cheeses and cheese analogs.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Dieta
3.
Biodivers Data J ; 11: e105888, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37886662

RESUMO

Background: This dataset contributes to the knowledge of macro- and megafaunal Mollusca associated with a range of benthic habitat types in the South Orkney Islands, Antarctica, an exceptionally diverse region of the Southern Ocean. The information presented is derived from Agassiz trawl samples collected on the archipelago's shelf plateau and slope, within and outside of the South Orkney Islands Southern Shelf Marine Protected Area (SOISS MPA). Sampling was conducted in the framework of the British Antarctic Survey/SCAR "South Orkneys - State of the Antarctic Ecosystem" (SO-AntEco) project aboard RRS James Clark Ross during expedition JR15005 in Austral summer 2016. This dataset is published by the British Antarctic Survey under the licence CC-BY 4.0. We would appreciate it if you could follow the guidelines from the SCAR Data Policy (SCAR 2023) when using the data. If you have any questions regarding this dataset, do not hesitate to contact us via the contact information provided in the metadata or via data-biodiversity-aq@naturalsciences.be. Issues with the dataset can be reported at https://github.com/biodiversity-aq/data-publication/. This dataset is part of the Biodiversity, Evolution and Adaptation Project of the Environmental Change and Evolution Program of the British Antarctic Survey. The cruise report of the expedition is available at https://www.bodc.ac.uk/resources/inventories/cruise_inventory/reports/jr15005.pdf. New information: We report occurrences of Mollusca from individual samples taken with a 2 m-wide Agassiz trawl (AGT) in the framework of the February - March 2016 research expedition JR15005 of RRS James Clark Ross to the SOISS MPA and adjacent shelf and slope areas. Of 78 successful AGT deployments, 44 trawls at depths ranging from 235-2194 m yielded living Mollusca, totalling 2276 individuals, 67 morphospecies and 163 distributional records. One hundred and fifteen empty shells were also collected and recorded in the dataset. Three morphospecies (one Bivalvia and two Gastropoda) were sampled exclusively as empty shells, yielding a total of 70 morphospecies and 2391 specimens represented in the dataset. All specimens were preserved in 96% undenatured ethanol and are stored as vouchers in the collections of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Cambridge, United Kingdom. The publication of this dataset aims at increasing the knowledge on the biodiversity, abundance and geographical and bathymetric distribution of larger-sized epi- and shallow infaunal Mollusca of the South Orkney Islands.

4.
Biodivers Data J ; 11: e112420, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37829294

RESUMO

The standardization of data, encompassing both primary and contextual information (metadata), plays a pivotal role in facilitating data (re-)use, integration, and knowledge generation. However, the biodiversity and omics communities, converging on omics biodiversity data, have historically developed and adopted their own distinct standards, hindering effective (meta)data integration and collaboration. In response to this challenge, the Task Group (TG) for Sustainable DwC-MIxS Interoperability was established. Convening experts from the Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) and the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) alongside external stakeholders, the TG aimed to promote sustainable interoperability between the Minimum Information about any (x) Sequence (MIxS) and Darwin Core (DwC) specifications. To achieve this goal, the TG utilized the Simple Standard for Sharing Ontology Mappings (SSSOM) to create a comprehensive mapping of DwC keys to MIxS keys. This mapping, combined with the development of the MIxS-DwC extension, enables the incorporation of MIxS core terms into DwC-compliant metadata records, facilitating seamless data exchange between MIxS and DwC user communities. Through the implementation of this translation layer, data produced in either MIxS- or DwC-compliant formats can now be efficiently brokered, breaking down silos and fostering closer collaboration between the biodiversity and omics communities. To ensure its sustainability and lasting impact, TDWG and GSC have both signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on creating a continuous model to synchronize their standards. These achievements mark a significant step forward in enhancing data sharing and utilization across domains, thereby unlocking new opportunities for scientific discovery and advancement.

5.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(206): 20230288, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37727070

RESUMO

The flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along perivascular spaces (PVSs) is an important part of the brain's system for clearing metabolic waste. Experiments reveal that arterial motions from cardiac pulsations and functional hyperaemiadrive CSF in the same direction as the blood flow, but the mechanism producing this directionality is unclear. Astrocyte endfeet bound the PVSs of penetrating arteries, separating them from brain extracellular space (ECS) and potentially regulating flow between the two compartments. Here, we present two models, one based on the full equations of fluid dynamics and the other using lumped parameters, in which the astrocyte endfeet function as valves, regulating flow between the PVS and the ECS. In both models, cardiac pulsations drive a net CSF flow consistent with prior experimental observations. Functional hyperaemia, acting with cardiac pulsation, increases the net flow. We also find, in agreement with experiments, a reduced net flow during wakefulness, due to the known decrease in ECS permeability compared to the sleep state. We present in vivo imaging of penetrating arteries in mice, which we use to measure accurately the amplitude of their constrictions and dilations during both cardiac pulsation and functional hyperaemia, an important input for the models. Our models can be used to explore the effects of changes in other input parameters, such as those caused by ageing or disease, as better measurements of these parameters become available.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Animais , Camundongos , Encéfalo , Artérias , Envelhecimento , Hidrodinâmica
7.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37546970

RESUMO

Over the last decade, there has been a tremendously increased interest in understanding the neurophysiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, which plays a crucial role in clearing metabolic waste from the brain. This growing interest was largely initiated by two significant discoveries: the glymphatic system (a pathway for solute exchange between interstitial fluid deep within the brain and the CSF surrounding the brain) and meningeal lymphatic vessels (lymphatic vessels in the layer of tissue surrounding the brain that drain CSF). These two CSF systems work in unison, and their disruption has been implicated in several neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, stoke, and traumatic brain injury. Here, we present experimental techniques for in vivo quantification of CSF flow via direct imaging of fluorescent microspheres injected into the CSF. We discuss detailed image processing methods, including registration and masking of stagnant particles, to improve the quality of measurements. We provide guidance for quantifying CSF flow through particle tracking and offer tips for optimizing the process. Additionally, we describe techniques for measuring changes in arterial diameter, which is an hypothesized CSF pumping mechanism. Finally, we outline how these same techniques can be applied to cervical lymphatic vessels, which collect fluid downstream from meningeal lymphatic vessels. We anticipate that these fluid mechanical techniques will prove valuable for future quantitative studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of CSF transport and disruption, as well as for other complex biophysical systems.

8.
Nat Neurosci ; 26(6): 1042-1053, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37264158

RESUMO

Functional hyperemia, also known as neurovascular coupling, is a phenomenon that occurs when neural activity increases local cerebral blood flow. Because all biological activity produces metabolic waste, we here sought to investigate the relationship between functional hyperemia and waste clearance via the glymphatic system. The analysis showed that whisker stimulation increased both glymphatic influx and clearance in the mouse somatosensory cortex with a 1.6-fold increase in periarterial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) influx velocity in the activated hemisphere. Particle tracking velocimetry revealed a direct coupling between arterial dilation/constriction and periarterial CSF flow velocity. Optogenetic manipulation of vascular smooth muscle cells enhanced glymphatic influx in the absence of neural activation. We propose that impedance pumping allows arterial pulsatility to drive CSF in the same direction as blood flow, and we present a simulation that supports this idea. Thus, functional hyperemia boosts not only the supply of metabolites but also the removal of metabolic waste.


Assuntos
Sistema Glinfático , Hiperemia , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Camundongos , Animais , Hiperemia/metabolismo , Sistema Glinfático/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica , Encéfalo/metabolismo
9.
J Control Release ; 358: 319-332, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149150

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis is the common pathway for most chronic liver diseases, characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. It has been shown that fibrotic ECM significantly hindered passage of nanoparticles. Efforts have been made by decorating degrading enzymes on surfaces of nanosized delivery vehicles to improve drug delivery. However, these strategies are restricted by limiting shelf-life. Inspired by the application of sonoporation in assisting drug delivery through blood-brain barrier and tumor tissues, we investigated whether sonoporation can be an alternative strategy in improving drug delivery for fibrotic diseases. Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), a potential drug in treating liver fibrosis, was selected as a model drug to evaluate the drug delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect among three delivery strategies, i.e., (1) injection solution, (2) delivery through liposomes, and (3) delivery via sonoporation. Our study showed that in addition to the improved drug delivery efficiency, the combination of HCPT and sonoporation led to synergistic effect and the mechanisms were investigated. The treatment group of HCPT delivered with sonoporation achieved the most significant attenuation in liver fibrosis among the three delivery strategies.


Assuntos
Camptotecina , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lipossomos , Cirrose Hepática , Microbolhas
10.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 404, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831309

RESUMO

The global importance of mesopelagic fish is increasingly recognised, but they remain poorly studied. This is particularly true in the Southern Ocean, where mesopelagic fishes are both key predators and prey, but where the remote environment makes sampling challenging. Despite this, multiple national Antarctic research programs have undertaken regional sampling of mesopelagic fish over several decades. However, data are dispersed, and sampling methodologies often differ precluding comparisons and limiting synthetic analyses. We identified potential data holders by compiling a metadata catalogue of existing survey data for Southern Ocean mesopelagic fishes. Data holders contributed 17,491 occurrence and 11,190 abundance records from 4780 net hauls from 72 different research cruises. Data span across 37 years from 1991 to 2019 and include trait-based information (length, weight, maturity). The final dataset underwent quality control processes and detailed metadata was provided for each sampling event. This dataset can be accessed through Zenodo. Myctobase will enhance research capacity by providing the broadscale baseline data necessary for observing and modelling mesopelagic fishes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Bases de Dados Factuais
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