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1.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 212(5): 261-269, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416406

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The associations between social support and stress with internalizing symptoms (depressive symptoms and hopelessness) and hazardous drinking were tested in an inpatient sample of suicidal military personnel. Baseline data from a randomized clinical trial were analyzed. Different sources of support and stressors in the social context of military personnel were differentially linked to internalizing symptoms and hazardous drinking. In the full sample ( n = 192), family and nonfamily support were both inversely associated with internalizing symptoms but not hazardous drinking. Family stress was positively associated with internalizing symptoms. In a subsample of service members who had a history of deployment ( n = 98), postdeployment social support was protective against internalizing symptoms, whereas deployment harassment was associated with increased odds of hazardous drinking. Results underscore the need for assessment of various dimensions of social support and stress to guide case formulation and optimize strategies to support patients' mental well-being and adaptive coping.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Ideação Suicida , Pacientes Internados , Saúde Mental , Apoio Social
2.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 4(2): e0002762, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363789

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) experience unique stressors that contribute to emotional distress, and PLWH are more than twice as likely to die by suicide when compared to the general population. In countries like Tanzania, there is a relatively high burden of HIV but few resources to support mental health needs. To gain a better understanding of mental health challenges experienced by PLWH in northern Tanzania and identify opportunities for intervention, we interviewed 12 mental health professionals working in the Kilimanjaro region. Thematic analysis was used to explore drivers and impacts of emotional distress, community influences on mental health, and gaps and barriers to existing mental health care. Perspectives from mental health workers highlight the compounding effects of stress related to HIV status, family conflict, finances, and other social challenges, which can lead to poor HIV treatment outcomes and suicidal ideation. Cultural beliefs and stigma surrounding both mental health and HIV limit care-seeking behavior for mental health issues. Those who do seek care often encounter barriers related to poor mental health infrastructure, including a lack of providers, limited financial resources, and little integration into other health services. There is a clear need for investment in the mental health care system, as well as interventions to improve knowledge and perceptions of mental health and comprehensively address stressors. We describe feedback on a proposed telehealth counseling intervention integrated into routine HIV services, which shows strong potential to mitigate barriers to mental health treatment, reduce suicidal ideation, and support the wellbeing of PLWH.

3.
Addiction ; 119(1): 113-124, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37724052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recently, we demonstrated that a distinct pattern of structural covariance networks (SCN) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived measurements of brain cortical thickness characterized young adults with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and predicted current and future problematic drinking in adolescents relative to controls. Here, we establish the robustness and value of SCN for identifying heavy alcohol users in three additional independent studies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using data from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition and Genetics (PING) study (n = 400, age range = 14-22 years), the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) (n = 272, age range = 17-22 years) and the Human Connectome Project (HCP) (n = 375, age range = 22-37 years). CASES: Cases were defined based on heavy alcohol use patterns or former alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses: 50, 68 and 61 cases were identified. Controls had none or low alcohol use or absence of AUD: 350, 204 and 314 controls were selected. MEASUREMENTS: Graph theory metrics of segregation and integration were used to summarize SCN. FINDINGS: Mirroring our prior findings, and across the three data sets, cases had a lower clustering coefficient [area under the curve (AUC) = -0.029, P = 0.002], lower modularity (AUC = -0.14, P = 0.004), lower average shortest path length (AUC = -0.078, P = 0.017) and higher global efficiency (AUC = 0.007, P = 0.010). Local efficiency differences were marginal (AUC = -0.017, P = 0.052). That is, cases exhibited lower network segregation and higher integration, suggesting that adjacent nodes (i.e. brain regions) were less similar in thickness whereas spatially distant nodes were more similar. CONCLUSION: Structural covariance network (SCN) differences in the brain appear to constitute an early marker of heavy alcohol use in three new data sets and, more generally, demonstrate the utility of SCN-derived metrics to detect brain-related psychopathology.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Conectoma , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/patologia , Conectoma/métodos
4.
Glob Ment Health (Camb) ; 10: e67, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024799

RESUMO

In Tanzania, there are high rates of suicidal thoughts and behavior among people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few instruments exist for effective screening and referral. To address this gap, we developed and validated Swahili translations of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) Screen Version and two accompanying scales assessing self-efficacy to avoid suicidal action and reasons for living. We administered a structured survey to 80 PLWH attending two HIV clinics in Moshi, Tanzania. Factor analysis of the items revealed four subscales: suicide intensity, self-efficacy to avoid suicide, fear and social concern about suicide, and family and spirituality deterrents to suicide. The area under the receiver operating curve showed only suicide intensity, and fear and social concern met the prespecified cutoff of ≥0.7 in accurately identifying patients with a plan and intent to act on suicidal thoughts. This study provides early evidence that brief screening of intensity of suicidality in the past month, assessed by the C-SSRS Screen Version, is a strong, resource-efficient strategy for identifying suicide risk in the Tanzanian setting. Patients who report little fear of dying and low concern about social perceptions of suicide may also be at increased risk.

5.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 63: 101294, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37683327

RESUMO

Subcortical brain morphometry matures across adolescence and young adulthood, a time when many youth engage in escalating levels of alcohol use. Initial cross-sectional studies have shown alcohol use is associated with altered subcortical morphometry. However, longitudinal evidence of sex-specific neuromaturation and associations with alcohol use remains limited. This project used generalized additive mixed models to examine sex-specific development of subcortical volumes and associations with recent alcohol use, using 7 longitudinal waves (n = 804, 51% female, ages 12-21 at baseline) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA). A second, independent, longitudinal dataset, with up to four waves of data (n = 467, 43% female, ages 10-18 at baseline), was used to assess replicability. Significant, replicable non-linear normative volumetric changes with age were evident in the caudate, putamen, thalamus, pallidum, amygdala and hippocampus. Significant, replicable negative associations between subcortical volume and alcohol use were found in the hippocampus in all youth, and the caudate and thalamus in female but not male youth, with significant interactions present in the caudate, thalamus and putamen. Findings suggest a structural vulnerability to alcohol use, or a predisposition to drink alcohol based on brain structure, with female youth potentially showing heightened risk, compared to male youth.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Encéfalo , Tálamo
6.
J Affect Disord ; 339: 698-705, 2023 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37463644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive inflexibility has recently been investigated as potential vulnerability factor for suicidal ideation (SI), but the context in which it may convey risk is unclear. Life stress has also been reliably associated with SI among adolescents, and following a stress-diathesis model, may be a factor that moderates the relationship between cognitive inflexibility and SI. METHODS: Psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (N = 259) at high risk for future SI were followed for 18 months after discharge. Interviews assessing life stress and SI and a neurocognitive task assessing cognitive inflexibility were conducted at six- and 12-months. SI was also assessed at 18-month post-discharge. Linear mixed models were used to determine the moderating effect of stress on the relationship between cognitive inflexibility and SI, accounting for relevant clinical and demographic covariates. RESULTS: Chronic stress moderated the association between cognitive inflexibility and SI, with a stronger association found among youth with greater levels compared to lower levels of chronic stress. This finding was maintained after statistically adjusting for depressive symptoms and relevant demographic covariates. No prospective associations between cognitive inflexibility, life stress, and SI were found. LIMITATIONS: SI was measured at 6-month intervals, precluding evaluation of the relationship on a more proximal timescale. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitively inflexible adolescents under conditions of high chronic stress are more likely to experience increased SI severity, supporting a cognitive inflexibility stress-diathesis model of SI in adolescents. The findings highlight the importance of assessing these modifiable factors among adolescents at a high risk for SI.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Adolescente , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Alta do Paciente , Hospitalização , Cognição , Estresse Psicológico , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 18(7): e0289119, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37498916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicidal ideation is strikingly common among people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide, leading to higher burden of disease, poor HIV care engagement, and loss of life. In low- and middle-income countries such as Tanzania, mental health resources are scarce, requiring innovative strategies for treatment. We describe the protocol for a clinical trial of a three-session telehealth counseling intervention to reduce suicidality and improve HIV care engagement in Tanzania. METHODS: In a pilot randomized controlled trial, we will assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a new telehealth intervention, termed "IDEAS for Hope". A total of 60 PLWH will be enrolled from two HIV clinics in the Kilimanjaro region and connected to telehealth counsellors based at a large regional hospital. Participants will be ≥18 years old and speak either Kiswahili or English. Patient screening will occur during routine HIV clinical care to identify PLWH experiencing suicidal ideation. Baseline surveys will be administered upon enrollment and participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive either IDEAS for Hope or the comparison condition, a brief safety planning session. All participants will receive an additional referral for psychiatric treatment. Follow-up assessment will occur at three months. IDEAS for Hope is informed by a Motivational Interviewing-enhanced safety planning intervention (MI-SafeCope) and our formative work in Tanzania. The model consists of Four Pillars: living healthy with HIV, managing HIV stigma, seeking social support, and meeting basic needs. Together, these mechanisms serve as a foundation for developing a sense of safety and hope for the future. Outcome measures will include intervention feasibility, acceptability, participant suicidality, and HIV care engagement. SIGNIFICANCE: Innovative, telehealth-based counseling represents a promising treatment for suicidality among PLWH in low-resource settings. Results from this pilot trial will inform intervention refinement and parameter estimates for a future clinical trial powered to evaluate effectiveness.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Suicídio , Telemedicina , Humanos , Adolescente , Projetos Piloto , Tanzânia , Ideação Suicida , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 93(5): 374-378, 2023 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37159427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide, with suicide deaths occurring twice as frequently among PLWH than among the general public. In Tanzania, resources for mental health care are sorely lacking, with 55 psychiatrists and psychologists providing treatment for 60 million people. In light of this shortage, nonspecialists play a crucial role. The objective of this study was to assess feasibility of implementing task-shifted screening, assessment, and safety planning for suicide risk among PLWH. SETTING: Two adult HIV clinics in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. METHODS: Registered professional nurses in the HIV clinics were trained to administer brief screening of suicidal ideation in the past month. Patients experiencing suicidal ideation were referred to bachelor's-level counselors for further assessment and safety planning, supervised by specialist providers who reviewed audio recordings for quality assurance. RESULTS: During 180 days of implementation, nurses screened patients attending 2745 HIV appointments. Sixty-one (2.2%) endorsed suicidal ideation and were linked to further assessment and safety planning. We cross-checked screening with clinic attendance logs on 7 random days and found high fidelity to screening (206 of 228 screened, 90%). Quality assurance ratings demonstrated key assessment pieces were consistently completed (mean = 9.3/10 possible), with "Good" to "Excellent" counseling skills (mean = 23.7/28) and "Good" to "Excellent" quality (mean = 17.1/20), including appropriate referral for higher levels of care. CONCLUSIONS: Brief screening can be implemented and paired with task-shifted counseling to facilitate high-quality assessment of suicide risk. This model shows excellent potential to extend mental health services for PLWH in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Suicídio , Adulto , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Suicídio/psicologia , Ideação Suicida
9.
J Affect Disord ; 328: 183-190, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36806597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 800,000 people die by suicide each year, with 77 % occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Suicide is underestimated in many African settings due to challenges in data collection, stigma, and policies that promote silence; nonetheless, rates of suicide in Africa are consistently higher than global averages. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of counseling interventions assessing suicide outcomes among adults in Africa using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, African Index Medicus, CABI Global Health, and Proquest databases. Study screening and data extraction was informed by the JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis. RESULTS: Of 2438 abstracts reviewed, 33 studies met criteria for full-text review and 13 were included in the analysis. Interventions served several populations, including people living with HIV, out of school youth, university students, and women undergoing obstetric fistula repair. There was a near-equal split in individual versus group counseling modalities and the use of professional versus lay counselors. The majority of interventions had primary outcomes focused on other mental health or social variables with a secondary focus on suicide. Mechanisms of change for suicide prevention were poorly articulated. LIMITATIONS: The review was limited to English-language studies conducted after 2001 and excluded qualitative studies and those with fewer than 10 participants. CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear paucity of research in this area, particularly in the lack of randomized clinical trials and studies with suicide prevention as their primary outcome. Researchers should seek to develop or adapt evidence-based, culturally-resonant interventions to reduce the burden of suicide on the African continent.


Assuntos
Prevenção do Suicídio , Suicídio , Adulto , Adolescente , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Psicoterapia/métodos , Aconselhamento
10.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 19: 261-275, 2023 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716748

RESUMO

The Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act, continuously funded since 2004, has supported comprehensive, community-based youth suicide prevention efforts throughout the United States. Compared to matched communities, communities implementing GLS suicide prevention activities have lower population rates of suicide attempts and lower mortality among young people. Positive outcomes have been more pronounced with continuous years of implementation and in less densely populated communities. Cost analyses indicate that implementation of GLS suicide prevention activities more than pays for itself in reduced health care costs associated with fewer emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Although findings are encouraging, the heterogeneity of community suicide prevention programs and the lack of randomized trials preclude definitive determination of causal effects associated with GLS. The GLS initiative has never been brought fully to scale (e.g., simultaneously impacting all communities in the United States), so beneficial effects on nationwide suicide rates have not been realized.


Assuntos
Prevenção do Suicídio , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
Psychol Med ; 53(5): 2156-2163, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased depression rates, particularly in emerging adults. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in depression risk before and during COVID-19 in a cohort of emerging adults in the U.S. and to determine whether prior drinking or sleep habits could predict the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic. METHODS: Participants were 525 emerging adults from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a five-site community sample including moderate-to-heavy drinkers. Poisson mixed-effect models evaluated changes in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) from before to during COVID-19, also testing for sex and age interactions. Additional analyses examined whether alcohol use frequency or sleep duration measured in the last pre-COVID assessment predicted pandemic-related increase in depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of risk for clinical depression tripled due to a substantial and sustained increase in depressive symptoms during COVID-19 relative to pre-COVID years. Effects were strongest for younger women. Frequent alcohol use and short sleep duration during the closest pre-COVID visit predicted a greater increase in COVID-19 depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The sharp increase in depression risk among emerging adults heralds a public health crisis with alarming implications for their social and emotional functioning as this generation matures. In addition to the heightened risk for younger women, the role of alcohol use and sleep behavior should be tracked through preventive care aiming to mitigate this looming mental health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Saúde Mental
12.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 53(1): 75-88, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Promoting help-seeking is a key suicide prevention strategy. Yet, research on help-seeking patterns by high-risk individuals is limited. This study examined help-seeking among United States military Service members admitted for psychiatric inpatient care. METHODS: Participants were active duty Service members (N = 111) psychiatrically hospitalized for a suicide-related event. Data were collected as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Reported types and perceived helpfulness of resources sought 30 days before hospitalization were examined. Hierarchical binary logistic regressions were used to examine associations among types of helping resources, mental health treatment stigma, and perceived social support. RESULTS: Approximately 90% of participants sought help prior to hospitalization, most frequently from behavioral health providers and friends. Accessed resources were generally considered helpful. Adjusting for covariates, mental health treatment stigma was not associated with seeking help from any resource type. Higher perceived social support was associated with greater likelihood of help-seeking from a friend (OR = 1.08, p = 0.013 [95% CI = 1.02, 1.14]). Marital status, education level, and organizational barriers were associated with specific types of resources, and/or not seeking help. CONCLUSION: Help-seeking is a complex human behavior. Promoting help-seeking among vulnerable subgroups requires further understanding of multiple interconnected factors.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Militares , Suicídio , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Militares/psicologia , Prevenção do Suicídio , Apoio Social , Estigma Social , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia
13.
Death Stud ; 47(5): 618-623, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939644

RESUMO

Cannabis use has been indicated as a risk factor for suicide in veterans. This study of Gulf War veterans tested the relationship between self-report past year cannabis use and (a) past year suicidal ideation and (b) risk for suicidal behavior. Data were from a national sample (N = 1126) of Gulf War veterans. Logistic regression models indicated cannabis use was associated with past year suicidal ideation and elevated risk for suicidal behavior, independent of key covariates. In corroboration with research on other military populations, this study indicates a potentially concerning association between cannabis use and suicide risk in Gulf War veterans.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Suicídio , Veteranos , Humanos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Guerra do Golfo , Ideação Suicida , Fatores de Risco
14.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-15, 2022 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573028

RESUMO

Objective: Pain confers risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Experiential avoidance (EA), which is relevant to both pain and suicide risk, has not been studied as a potential mechanism for this relationship. The present study tested the hypothesis that pain indirectly impacts suicide risk through EA in a national sample of Gulf War veterans.Methods: Participants included a stratified random sample of United States veterans (N = 1,012, 78% male) who had served in the Gulf War region between August 1990 and July 1991. Validated scales were used to quantify levels of pain, EA, and suicide risk.Results: Regression analyses indicated independent associations between pain, EA, and suicide risk; moreover, the association between pain and suicide risk was no longer significant once EA was included in model. Bootstrapping analyses confirmed that EA partially accounted for the cross-sectional association between pain and suicide risk, independent of common co-occurring problems, such as depression, PTSD, and alcohol use disorder symptoms.Conclusions: EA could be a key modifiable risk factor to target in people experiencing pain.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011934

RESUMO

To determine the persistent effects of the pandemic on mental health in young adults, we categorized depressive symptom trajectories and sought factors that promoted a reduction in depressive symptoms in high-risk individuals. Specifically, longitudinal analysis investigated changes in the risk for depression before and during the pandemic until December 2021 in 399 young adults (57% female; age range: 22.8 ± 2.6 years) in the United States (U.S.) participating in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) was administered multiple times before and during the pandemic. A score ≥10 identified individuals at high-risk for depression. Self-reported sleep behavior, substance use, and coping skills at the start of the pandemic were assessed as predictors for returning to low-risk levels while controlling for demographic factors. The analysis identified four trajectory groups regarding depression risk, with 38% being at low-risk pre-pandemic through 2021, 14% showing persistent high-risk pre-pandemic through 2021, and the remainder converting to high-risk either in June 2020 (30%) or later (18%). Of those who became high-risk in June 2020, 51% were no longer at high-risk in 2021. Logistic regression revealed that earlier bedtime and, for the older participants (mid to late twenties), better coping skills were associated with this declining risk. Results indicate divergence in trajectories of depressive symptoms, with a considerable number of young adults developing persistent depressive symptoms. Healthy sleep behavior and specific coping skills have the potential to promote remittance from depressive symptoms in the context of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Inj Prev ; 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide deaths have been increasing for the past 20 years in the USA resulting in 45 979 deaths in 2020, a 29% increase since 1999. Lack of data linkage between entities with potential to implement large suicide prevention initiatives (health insurers, health institutions and corrections) is a barrier to developing an integrated framework for suicide prevention. OBJECTIVES: Data linkage between death records and several large administrative datasets to (1) estimate associations between risk factors and suicide outcomes, (2) develop predictive algorithms and (3) establish long-term data linkage workflow to ensure ongoing suicide surveillance. METHODS: We will combine six data sources from North Carolina, the 10th most populous state in the USA, from 2006 onward, including death certificate records, violent deaths reporting system, large private health insurance claims data, Medicaid claims data, University of North Carolina electronic health records and data on justice involved individuals released from incarceration. We will determine the incidence of death from suicide, suicide attempts and ideation in the four subpopulations to establish benchmarks. We will use a nested case-control design with incidence density-matched population-based controls to (1) identify short-term and long-term risk factors associated with suicide attempts and mortality and (2) develop machine learning-based predictive algorithms to identify individuals at risk of suicide deaths. DISCUSSION: We will address gaps from prior studies by establishing an in-depth linked suicide surveillance system integrating multiple large, comprehensive databases that permit establishment of benchmarks, identification of predictors, evaluation of prevention efforts and establishment of long-term surveillance workflow protocols.

17.
Addict Behav ; 131: 107313, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drinking and nicotine use through June of 2021 in a community-based sample of young adults. METHOD: Data were from 348 individuals (49% female) enrolled in a long-term longitudinal study with an accelerated longitudinal design: the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) Study. Individuals completed pre-pandemic assessments biannually from 2016 to early 2020, then completed up to three web-based, during-pandemic surveys in June 2020, December 2020, and June 2021. Assessments when individuals were 18.8-22.4 years old (N = 1,458) were used to compare drinking and nicotine use pre-pandemic vs. at each of the three during-pandemic timepoints, adjusting for the age-related increases expected over time. RESULTS: Compared to pre-pandemic, participants were less likely to report past-month drinking in June or December 2020, but there was an increase in drinking days among drinkers in June 2020. By June 2021, both the prevalence of past-month drinking and number of drinking days among drinks were similar to pre-pandemic levels. On average, there were no statistically significant differences between pre-pandemic and during-pandemic time points for binge drinking, typical drinking quantity, or nicotine use. Young adults who reported an adverse financial impact of the pandemic showed increased nicotine use while their peers showed stable or decreased nicotine use. CONCLUSION: Initial effects of the pandemic on alcohol use faded by June 2021, and on average there was little effect of the pandemic on nicotine use.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Nicotina , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 61(4): 508-519, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and predictors of early depression response (EDR) in adolescents with substance use and depression receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use and to test the efficacy of supplemental CBT targeting depression (CBT-D) for non-EDR adolescents in an adaptive treatment approach. METHOD: At 2 sites, 95 youths (ages 14-21, mean [SD] = 17.4 [1.8]) with alcohol or cannabis use and depressive symptoms received up to 12 sessions of CBT for substance use over 14 weeks. Assessments were at baseline and weeks 4, 9, and 14. The Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised was the primary depression measure, with a reduction of 50% or more on this scale at week 4 defining EDR. The primary substance use outcomes of alcohol use, heavy alcohol use, and cannabis use frequency were assessed via interview report on the Alcohol Consumption Questionnaire and the Drug Checklist. Urinalysis provided a secondary measure of cannabis use. Non-EDR adolescents were randomly assigned to supplemental CBT-D or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU). RESULTS: Thirty-five adolescents (37%; 95% CI, 27%-47%) demonstrated EDR. Fewer days of cannabis use (odds ratio 0.977; 95% CI, 0.961-0.992) and absence of conduct disorder (odds ratio 0.149; 95% CI, 0.031-0.716) predicted EDR. Frequency of drinking (F1,82 = 11.09, η2 = 0.119, p = .001), heavy drinking (F1,82 = 19.91, η2 = 0.195, p < .0001), and cannabis use (F1,220 = 35.01, η2 = 0.137, p < .001) decreased over time for EDR, CBT-D, and ETAU adolescents, with EDR adolescents evidencing earlier lower cannabis use (F2,220 = 4.16, η2 = 0.036, p = .0169). Negative (clean) urine screens increased over time (F1,219 = 5.10, η2 = 0.023, p = .0249). Comparison of CBT-D and ETAU indicated that depression significantly decreased over time in both groups (F1,48 = 64.20, η2 = 0.572, p < .001), with no advantage for CBT-D. CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of adolescents with substance use and depression attain EDR during substance use treatment. Less frequent cannabis use facilitates depression response. The relatively small sample may have precluded identification of additional EDR predictors. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Treatment for Teens With Alcohol Abuse and Depression; https://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02227589.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychol Trauma ; 14(4): 653-660, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research shows elevated rates of trauma exposure and traumatic stress among youth with suicidal thoughts and behaviors, underscoring the need for a trauma-informed approach to suicide prevention and intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify, from the perspective of caregivers, clinical practices that are sensitive to the needs of youth with co-occurring traumatic stress and suicidal thoughts and behaviors, as well as common barriers to receiving care. METHOD: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 caregivers of youth with trauma histories and comorbid suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed themes related to the need for caregiver involvement in treatment, the impact of therapist and relationship characteristics such as authenticity and genuineness, and the importance of provider education about trauma. Common barriers included difficulties navigating the mental health system and cost. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide guidance on how mental health providers can effectively recognize and respond to traumatic stress among youth presenting with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. System-level issues related to accessibility also are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Prevenção do Suicídio , Adolescente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ideação Suicida
20.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 52(2): 268-279, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists regarding targets for suicide-focused care among high-risk United States (U.S.) civilian and military sexual minorities. PURPOSE: This study aimed to understand the demographic and clinical characteristics of a suicidal sexual minority sample, psychiatrically hospitalized in military treatment facilities, to advance future targeted care for this vulnerable subgroup. METHODS: Secondary analysis of baseline data from a multisite psychotherapy randomized controlled trial was performed comparing those who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB; n = 39) to heterosexual participants (n = 170). RESULTS: LGB participants were more likely than heterosexual participants to be younger, female, never married, and enlisted rank. LGB participants reported significantly lower family support, higher perceived burdensomeness, lower acquired capability for suicide, and were twice as likely to report that they could not control their suicidal thoughts. LGB and heterosexual participants reported similar levels of other suicide risk indicators and similar lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt histories. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to heterosexual participants, LGB participants reported increased risk indicators for suicide yet similar lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt histories. Suicide prevention programs should address the unique needs of this vulnerable subgroup. Interventions targeting family support, perceived burdensomeness, and controllability of suicidal thoughts may be promising.


Assuntos
Militares , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Ideação Suicida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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