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1.
Yeast ; 40(11): 511-539, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37921426

RESUMO

Tropical rainforests and related biomes are found in Asia, Australia, Africa, Central and South America, Mexico, and many Pacific Islands. These biomes encompass less than 20% of Earth's terrestrial area, may contain about 50% of the planet's biodiversity, and are endangered regions vulnerable to deforestation. Tropical rainforests have a great diversity of substrates that can be colonized by yeasts. These unicellular fungi contribute to the recycling of organic matter, may serve as a food source for other organisms, or have ecological interactions that benefit or harm plants, animals, and other fungi. In this review, we summarize the most important studies of yeast biodiversity carried out in these biomes, as well as new data, and discuss the ecology of yeast genera frequently isolated from tropical forests and the potential of these microorganisms as a source of bioinnovation. We show that tropical forest biomes represent a tremendous source of new yeast species. Although many studies, most using culture-dependent methods, have already been carried out in Central America, South America, and Asia, the tropical forest biomes of Africa and Australasia remain an underexplored source of novel yeasts. We hope that this review will encourage new researchers to study yeasts in unexplored tropical forest habitats.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Plantas
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 309, 2023 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37884896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress-tolerant yeasts are highly desirable for cost-effective bioprocessing. Several strategies have been documented to develop robust yeasts, such as genetic and metabolic engineering, artificial selection, and natural selection strategies, among others. However, the significant drawbacks of such techniques have motivated the exploration of naturally occurring stress-tolerant yeasts. We previously explored the biodiversity of non-conventional dung beetle-associated yeasts from extremophilic and pristine environments in Botswana (Nwaefuna AE et.al., Yeast, 2023). Here, we assessed their tolerance to industrially relevant stressors individually, such as elevated concentrations of osmolytes, organic acids, ethanol, and oxidizing agents, as well as elevated temperatures. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that these dung beetle-associated yeasts tolerate various stresses comparable to those of the robust bioethanol yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ethanol Red™). Fifty-six percent of the yeast isolates were tolerant of temperatures up to 42 °C, 12.4% of them could tolerate ethanol concentrations up to 9% (v/v), 43.2% of them were tolerant to formic acid concentrations up to 20 mM, 22.7% were tolerant to acetic acid concentrations up to 45 mM, 34.0% of them could tolerate hydrogen peroxide up to 7 mM, and 44.3% of the yeasts could tolerate osmotic stress up to 1.5 M. CONCLUSION: The ability to tolerate multiple stresses is a desirable trait in the selection of novel production strains for diverse biotechnological applications, such as bioethanol production. Our study shows that the exploration of natural diversity in the search for stress-tolerant yeasts is an appealing approach for the development of robust yeasts.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Leveduras , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Temperatura , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Fermentação
3.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 13(7)2023 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37267305

RESUMO

The large-scale and nonaseptic fermentation of sugarcane feedstocks into fuel ethanol in biorefineries represents a unique ecological niche, in which the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant organism. Several factors, such as sugarcane variety, process design, and operating and weather conditions, make each of the ∼400 industrial units currently operating in Brazil a unique ecosystem. Here, we track yeast population dynamics in 2 different biorefineries through 2 production seasons (April to November of 2018 and 2019), using a novel statistical framework on a combination of metagenomic and clonal sequencing data. We find that variation from season to season in 1 biorefinery is small compared to the differences between the 2 units. In 1 biorefinery, all lineages present during the entire production period derive from 1 of the starter strains, while in the other, invading lineages took over the population and displaced the starter strain. However, despite the presence of invading lineages and the nonaseptic nature of the process, all yeast clones we isolated are phylogenetically related to other previously sequenced bioethanol yeast strains, indicating a common origin from this industrial niche. Despite the substantial changes observed in yeast populations through time in each biorefinery, key process indicators remained quite stable through both production seasons, suggesting that the process is robust to the details of these population dynamics.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharum , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Brasil , Ecossistema , Microbiologia Industrial , Fermentação
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 10567, 2023 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37386049

RESUMO

Fully defined laboratory media have the advantage of allowing for reproducibility and comparability of results among different laboratories, as well as being suitable for the investigation of how different individual components affect microbial or process performance. We developed a fully defined medium that mimics sugarcane molasses, a frequently used medium in different industrial processes where yeast is cultivated. The medium, named 2SMol, builds upon a previously published semi-defined formulation and is conveniently prepared from some stock solutions: C-source, organic N, inorganic N, organic acids, trace elements, vitamins, Mg + K, and Ca. We validated the 2SMol recipe in a scaled-down sugarcane biorefinery model, comparing the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different actual molasses-based media. We demonstrate the flexibility of the medium by investigating the effect of nitrogen availability on the ethanol yield during fermentation. Here we present in detail the development of a fully defined synthetic molasses medium and the physiology of yeast strains in this medium compared to industrial molasses. This tailor-made medium was able to satisfactorily reproduce the physiology of S. cerevisiae in industrial molasses. Thus, we hope the 2SMol formulation will be valuable to researchers both in academia and industry to obtain new insights and developments in industrial yeast biotechnology.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Fermento Seco , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Melaço , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Meios de Cultura , Grão Comestível
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2126, 2023 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36746999

RESUMO

Both the identity and the amount of a carbon source present in laboratory or industrial cultivation media have major impacts on the growth and physiology of a microbial species. In the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sucrose is arguably the most important sugar used in industrial biotechnology, whereas glucose is the most common carbon and energy source used in research, with many well-known and described regulatory effects, e.g. glucose repression. Here we compared the label-free proteomes of exponentially growing S. cerevisiae cells in a defined medium containing either sucrose or glucose as the sole carbon source. For this purpose, bioreactor cultivations were employed, and three different strains were investigated, namely: CEN.PK113-7D (a common laboratory strain), UFMG-CM-Y259 (a wild isolate), and JP1 (an industrial bioethanol strain). These strains present different physiologies during growth on sucrose; some of them reach higher specific growth rates on this carbon source, when compared to growth on glucose, whereas others display the opposite behavior. It was not possible to identify proteins that commonly presented either higher or lower levels during growth on sucrose, when compared to growth on glucose, considering the three strains investigated here, except for one protein, named Mnp1-a mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit, which had higher levels on sucrose than on glucose, for all three strains. Interestingly, following a Gene Ontology overrepresentation and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, an inverse pattern of enriched biological functions and pathways was observed for the strains CEN.PK113-7D and UFMG-CM-Y259, which is in line with the fact that whereas the CEN.PK113-7D strain grows faster on glucose than on sucrose, the opposite is observed for the UFMG-CM-Y259 strain.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(5): e0206821, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044803

RESUMO

Ethanolic fermentation is frequently performed under conditions of low nitrogen. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nitrogen limitation induces macroautophagy, including the selective removal of mitochondria, also called mitophagy. Previous research showed that blocking mitophagy by deletion of the mitophagy-specific gene ATG32 increased the fermentation performance during the brewing of Ginjo sake. In this study, we tested if a similar strategy could enhance alcoholic fermentation in the context of fuel ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazilian biorefineries. Conditions that mimic the industrial fermentation process indeed induce Atg32-dependent mitophagy in cells of S. cerevisiae PE-2, a strain frequently used in the industry. However, after blocking mitophagy, no significant differences in CO2 production, final ethanol titers, or cell viability were observed after five rounds of ethanol fermentation, cell recycling, and acid treatment, which is commonly performed in sugarcane biorefineries. To test if S. cerevisiae's strain background influenced this outcome, cultivations were carried out in a synthetic medium with strains PE-2, Ethanol Red (industrial), and BY (laboratory) with and without a functional ATG32 gene and under oxic and oxygen restricted conditions. Despite the clear differences in sugar consumption, cell viability, and ethanol titers, among the three strains, we did not observe any significant improvement in fermentation performance related to the blocking of mitophagy. We concluded, with caution, that the results obtained with Ginjo sake yeast were an exception and cannot be extrapolated to other yeast strains and that more research is needed to ascertain the role of autophagic processes during fermentation. IMPORTANCE Bioethanol is the largest (per volume) ever biobased bulk chemical produced globally. The fermentation process is well established, and industries regularly attain nearly 85% of maximum theoretical yields. However, because of the volume of fuel produced, even a small improvement will have huge economic benefits. To this end, besides already implemented process improvements, various free energy conservation strategies have been successfully exploited at least in laboratory strains to increase ethanol yields and decrease byproduct formation. Cellular housekeeping processes have been an almost unexplored territory in strain improvement. It was previously reported that blocking mitophagy by deletion of the mitophagy receptor gene ATG32 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to a 2.1% increase in final ethanol titers during Japanese sake fermentation. We found in two commercially used bioethanol strains (PE-2 and Ethanol Red) that ATG32 deficiency does not lead to a significant improvement in cell viability or ethanol levels during fermentation with molasses or in a synthetic complete medium. More research is required to ascertain the role of autophagic processes during fermentation conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Etanol , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Mitofagia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
7.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 21(8)2021 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902032

RESUMO

The ethanol yield on sugar during alcoholic fermentation allows for diverse interpretation in academia and industry. There are several different ways to calculate this parameter, which is the most important one in this industrial bioprocess and the one that should be maximized, as reported by Pereira, Rodrigues, Sonego, Cruz and Badino (A new methodology to calculate the ethanol fermentation efficiency at bench and industrial scales. Ind Eng Chem Res 2018; 57: 16182-91). On the one hand, the various methods currently employed in industry provide dissimilar results, and recent evidence shows that yield has been consistently overestimated in Brazilian sugarcane biorefineries. On the other hand, in academia, researchers often lack information on all the intricate aspects involved in calculating the ethanol yield in industry. Here, we comment on these two aspects, using fuel ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazilian biorefineries as an example, and taking the work of Pereira, Rodrigues, Sonego, Cruz and Badino (A new methodology to calculate the ethanol fermentation efficiency at bench and industrial scales. Ind Eng Chem Res 2018; 57: 16182-91.) as a starting point. Our work is an attempt to demystify some common beliefs and to foster closer interaction between academic and industrial professionals from the fermentation sector. Pereira, Rodrigues, Sonego, Cruz and Badino (A new methodology to calculate the ethanol fermentation efficiency at bench and industrial scales. Ind Eng Chem Res 2018; 57: 16182-91).


Assuntos
Etanol , Saccharum , Brasil , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial
8.
Essays Biochem ; 65(2): 147-161, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156078

RESUMO

Fuel ethanol is produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mainly from corn starch in the United States and from sugarcane sucrose in Brazil, which together manufacture ∼85% of a global yearly production of 109.8 million m3 (in 2019). While in North America genetically engineered (GE) strains account for ∼80% of the ethanol produced, including strains that express amylases and are engineered to produce higher ethanol yields; in South America, mostly (>90%) non-GE strains are used in ethanol production, primarily as starters in non-aseptic fermentation systems with cell recycling. In spite of intensive research exploring lignocellulosic ethanol (or second generation ethanol), this option still accounts for <1% of global ethanol production. In this mini-review, we describe the main aspects of fuel ethanol production, emphasizing bioprocesses operating in North America and Brazil. We list and describe the main properties of several commercial yeast products (i.e., yeast strains) that are available worldwide to bioethanol producers, including GE strains with their respective genetic modifications. We also discuss recent studies that have started to shed light on the genes and traits that are important for the persistence and dominance of yeast strains in the non-aseptic process in Brazil. While Brazilian bioethanol yeast strains originated from a historical process of domestication for sugarcane fermentation, leading to a unique group with significant economic applications, in U.S.A., guided selection, breeding and genetic engineering approaches have driven the generation of new yeast products for the market.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharum , Etanol , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharum/genética
9.
Yeast ; 38(8): 453-470, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844327

RESUMO

Populations of microbes are constantly evolving heterogeneity that selection acts upon, yet heterogeneity is nontrivial to assess methodologically. The necessary practice of isolating single-cell colonies and thus subclone lineages for establishing, transferring, and using a strain results in single-cell bottlenecks with a generally neglected effect on the characteristics of the strain itself. Here, we present evidence that various subclone lineages for industrial yeasts sequenced for recent genomic studies show considerable differences, ranging from loss of heterozygosity to aneuploidies. Subsequently, we assessed whether phenotypic heterogeneity is also observable in industrial yeast, by individually testing subclone lineages obtained from products. Phenotyping of industrial yeast samples and their newly isolated subclones showed that single-cell bottlenecks during isolation can indeed considerably influence the observable phenotype. Next, we decoupled fitness distributions on the level of individual cells from clonal interference by plating single-cell colonies and quantifying colony area distributions. We describe and apply an approach using statistical modeling to compare the heterogeneity in phenotypes across samples and subclone lineages. One strain was further used to show how individual subclonal lineages are remarkably different not just in phenotype but also in the level of heterogeneity in phenotype. With these observations, we call attention to the fact that choosing an initial clonal lineage from an industrial yeast strain may vastly influence downstream performances and observations on karyotype, on phenotype, and also on heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Genoma Fúngico , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces/classificação , Saccharomyces/genética , Variação Genética , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(9): 3859-3871, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860834

RESUMO

Agroindustrial by-products and residues can be transformed into valuable compounds in biorefineries. Here, we present a new concept: production of fuel ethanol, whey protein, and probiotic yeast from cheese whey. An initial screening under industrially relevant conditions, involving thirty Kluyveromyces marxianus strains, was carried out using spot assays to evaluate their capacity to grow on cheese whey or on whey permeate (100 g lactose/L), under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, in the absence or presence of 5% ethanol, at pH 5.8 or pH 2.5. The four best growing K. marxianus strains were selected and further evaluated in a miniaturized industrial fermentation process using reconstituted whey permeate (100 g lactose/L) with cell recycling (involving sulfuric acid treatment). After five consecutive fermentation cycles, the ethanol yield on sugar reached 90% of the theoretical maximum in the best cases, with 90% cell viability. Cells harvested at this point displayed probiotic properties such as the capacity to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and capacity to modulate the innate immune response of intestinal epithelium, both in vitro. Furthermore, the CIDCA 9121 strain was able to protect against histopathological damage in an animal model of acute colitis. Our findings demonstrate that K. marxianus CIDCA 9121 is capable of efficiently fermenting the lactose present in whey permeate to ethanol and that the remaining yeast biomass has probiotic properties, enabling an integrated process for the obtainment of whey protein (WP), fuel ethanol, and probiotics from cheese whey.Key points• K. marxianus-selected strains ferment whey permeate with 90% ethanol yield.• Industrial fermentation conditions do not affect selected yeast probiotic capacity.• Whey permeate, fuel ethanol, and probiotic biomass can be obtained in a biorefinery.


Assuntos
Queijo , Kluyveromyces , Probióticos , Animais , Etanol , Fermentação , Lactose , Soro do Leite , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
11.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 21(3)2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826723

RESUMO

Present knowledge on the quantitative aerobic physiology of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during growth on sucrose as sole carbon and energy source is limited to either adapted cells or to the model laboratory strain CEN.PK113-7D. To broaden our understanding of this matter and open novel opportunities for sucrose-based biotechnological processes, we characterized three strains, with distinct backgrounds, during aerobic batch bioreactor cultivations. Our results reveal that sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae is a strain-specific trait. Each strain displayed distinct extracellular hexose concentrations and invertase activity profiles. Especially, the inferior maximum specific growth rate (0.21 h-1) of the CEN.PK113-7D strain, with respect to that of strains UFMG-CM-Y259 (0.37 h-1) and JP1 (0.32 h-1), could be associated to its low invertase activity (0.04-0.09 U/mgDM). Moreover, comparative experiments with glucose or fructose alone, or in combination, suggest mixed mechanisms of sucrose utilization by the industrial strain JP1, and points out the remarkable ability of the wild isolate UFMG-CM-259 to grow faster on sucrose than on glucose in a well-controlled cultivation system. This work hints to a series of metabolic traits that can be exploited to increase sucrose catabolic rates and bioprocess efficiency.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
12.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 20(4)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401320

RESUMO

First-generation (1G) fuel ethanol production in sugarcane-based biorefineries is an established economic enterprise in Brazil. Second-generation (2G) fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic materials, though extensively investigated, is currently facing severe difficulties to become economically viable. Some of the challenges inherent to these processes could be resolved by efficiently separating and partially hydrolysing the cellulosic fraction of the lignocellulosic materials into the disaccharide cellobiose. Here, we propose an alternative biorefinery, where the sucrose-rich stream from the 1G process is mixed with a cellobiose-rich stream in the fermentation step. The advantages of mixing are 3-fold: (i) decreased concentrations of metabolic inhibitors that are typically produced during pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials; (ii) decreased cooling times after enzymatic hydrolysis prior to fermentation; and (iii) decreased availability of free glucose for contaminating microorganisms and undesired glucose repression effects. The iSUCCELL platform will be built upon the robust Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains currently present in 1G biorefineries, which offer competitive advantage in non-aseptic environments, and into which intracellular hydrolyses of sucrose and cellobiose will be engineered. It is expected that high yields of ethanol can be achieved in a process with cell recycling, lower contamination levels and decreased antibiotic use, when compared to current 2G technologies.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharum/microbiologia , Brasil , Celobiose/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo
13.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 19(6)2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425576

RESUMO

We sought to investigate how far the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under full anaerobiosis is dependent on the widely used anaerobic growth factors (AGF) ergosterol and oleic acid. A continuous cultivation setup was employed and, even forcing ultrapure N2 gas through an O2 trap upstream of the bioreactor, neither cells from S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D (a lab strain) nor from PE-2 (an industrial strain) washed out after an aerobic-to-anaerobic switch in the absence of AGF. S. cerevisiae PE-2 seemed to cope better than the laboratory strain with this extremely low O2 availability, since it presented higher biomass yield, lower specific rates of glucose consumption and CO2 formation, and higher survival at low pH. Lipid (fatty acid and sterol) composition dramatically altered when cells were grown anaerobically without AGF: saturated fatty acid, squalene and lanosterol contents increased, when compared to either cells grown aerobically or anaerobically with AGF. We concluded that these lipid alterations negatively affect cell viability during exposure to low pH or high ethanol titers.


Assuntos
Ergosterol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Sobrevivência Celular , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Yeast ; 35(12): 639-652, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221387

RESUMO

Knowledge on the genetic factors important for the efficient expression of plant transporters in yeast is still very limited. Phaseolus vulgaris sucrose facilitator 1 (PvSuf1), a presumable uniporter, was an essential component in a previously published strategy aimed at increasing ATP yield in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, attempts to construct yeast strains in which sucrose metabolism was dependent on PvSUF1 led to slow sucrose uptake. Here, PvSUF1-dependent S. cerevisiae strains were evolved for faster growth. Of five independently evolved strains, two showed an approximately twofold higher anaerobic growth rate on sucrose than the parental strain (µ = 0.19 h-1 and µ = 0.08 h-1 , respectively). All five mutants displayed sucrose-induced proton uptake (13-50 µmol H+ (g biomass)-1  min-1 ). Their ATP yield from sucrose dissimilation, as estimated from biomass yields in anaerobic chemostat cultures, was the same as that of a congenic strain expressing the native sucrose symporter Mal11p. Four out of six observed amino acid substitutions encoded by evolved PvSUF1 alleles removed or introduced a cysteine residue and may be involved in transporter folding and/or oligomerization. Expression of one of the evolved PvSUF1 alleles (PvSUF1I209F C265F G326C ) in an unevolved strain enabled it to grow on sucrose at the same rate (0.19 h-1 ) as the corresponding evolved strain. This study shows how laboratory evolution may improve sucrose uptake in yeast via heterologous plant transporters, highlights the importance of cysteine residues for their efficient expression, and warrants reinvestigation of PvSuf1's transport mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Phaseolus/enzimologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(13): 5785, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744633

RESUMO

The published online version contains mistake in Figure1. In the x-axis, instead of "1000", the number should be "100".

16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(7): 3411-3424, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29442171

RESUMO

During downstream operations involved in the purification of hydrophobic biofuels produced by microorganisms, undesired stable emulsions may be formed. Understanding the mechanisms behind this stability is a pre-requisite for designing cost-effective strategies to break these emulsions. In this work, we aimed at increasing our knowledge on the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing yeast-containing oil-in-water emulsions. For this purpose, emulsions containing hexadecane and different yeast-based aqueous phases were prepared and analyzed for phase separation, surface charge density, particle size, and rheology. First, we observed that compounds present in fresh tablet baker's yeast contribute to emulsion stability. In order to eliminate this effect, we generated stocks with this yeast in the laboratory, and compared its performance with an industrial fuel ethanol strain, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2. We confirmed that the presence of yeast cells enhances emulsion stability. The cultivation medium (complex or defined) in which cells are grown, as well as the physiological state of the cells (pre- or post-diauxic), prior to emulsion preparation, influenced emulsion stability. The smaller cell size of tablet yeast probably also contributes to more stable emulsions, when compared to those prepared with yeast cells grown in the laboratory. Baker's and fuel ethanol yeast cells in post-diauxic phase promote the formation of more stable emulsions than those with cells in the pre-diauxic physiological state. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain the enhanced emulsion stability due to the presence of yeast cells, with electrostatic repulsion between emulsion droplets having the prevailing effect.


Assuntos
Alcanos/química , Emulsões/química , Microbiologia Industrial , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Água/química , Biocombustíveis , Eletricidade Estática
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(5): 2101-2116, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397429

RESUMO

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an important role in biotechnological applications, ranging from fuel ethanol to recombinant protein production. It is also a model organism for studies on cell physiology and genetic regulation. Its ability to grow under anaerobic conditions is of interest in many industrial applications. Unlike industrial bioreactors with their low surface area relative to volume, ensuring a complete anaerobic atmosphere during microbial cultivations in the laboratory is rather difficult. Tiny amounts of O2 that enter the system can vastly influence product yields and microbial physiology. A common procedure in the laboratory is to sparge the culture vessel with ultrapure N2 gas; together with the use of butyl rubber stoppers and norprene tubing, O2 diffusion into the system can be strongly minimized. With insights from some studies conducted in our laboratory, we explore the question 'how anaerobic is anaerobiosis?'. We briefly discuss the role of O2 in non-respiratory pathways in S. cerevisiae and provide a systematic survey of the attempts made thus far to cultivate yeast under anaerobic conditions. We conclude that very few data exist on the physiology of S. cerevisiae under anaerobiosis in the absence of the anaerobic growth factors ergosterol and unsaturated fatty acids. Anaerobicity should be treated as a relative condition since complete anaerobiosis is hardly achievable in the laboratory. Ideally, researchers should provide all the details of their anaerobic set-up, to ensure reproducibility of results among different laboratories.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Etanol/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Oxigênio/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
18.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 111(2): 183-195, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28900755

RESUMO

The yeast Kluyveromyces lactis has received attention both from academia and industry due to some important features, such as its capacity to grow in lactose-based media, its safe status, its suitability for large-scale cultivation and for heterologous protein synthesis. It has also been considered as a model organism for genomics and metabolic regulation. Despite this, very few studies were carried out hitherto under strictly controlled conditions, such as those found in a chemostat. Here we report a set of quantitative physiological data generated during chemostat cultivations with the K. lactis CBS 2359 strain, obtained under glucose-limiting and fully aerobic conditions. This dataset serves [corrected] as a basis for the comparison of K. lactis with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in terms of their elemental compositions, as well as for future metabolic flux analysis and metabolic modelling studies with K. lactis.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Kluyveromyces/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Espaço Extracelular , Kluyveromyces/química , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos
19.
Metab Eng ; 45: 121-133, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196124

RESUMO

Anaerobic industrial fermentation processes do not require aeration and intensive mixing and the accompanying cost savings are beneficial for production of chemicals and fuels. However, the free-energy conservation of fermentative pathways is often insufficient for the production and export of the desired compounds and/or for cellular growth and maintenance. To increase free-energy conservation during fermentation of the industrially relevant disaccharide sucrose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we first replaced the native yeast α-glucosidases by an intracellular sucrose phosphorylase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LmSPase). Subsequently, we replaced the native proton-coupled sucrose uptake system by a putative sucrose facilitator from Phaseolus vulgaris (PvSUF1). The resulting strains grew anaerobically on sucrose at specific growth rates of 0.09 ± 0.02h-1 (LmSPase) and 0.06 ± 0.01h-1 (PvSUF1, LmSPase). Overexpression of the yeast PGM2 gene, which encodes phosphoglucomutase, increased anaerobic growth rates on sucrose of these strains to 0.23 ± 0.01h-1 and 0.08 ± 0.00h-1, respectively. Determination of the biomass yield in anaerobic sucrose-limited chemostat cultures was used to assess the free-energy conservation of the engineered strains. Replacement of intracellular hydrolase with a phosphorylase increased the biomass yield on sucrose by 31%. Additional replacement of the native proton-coupled sucrose uptake system by PvSUF1 increased the anaerobic biomass yield by a further 8%, resulting in an overall increase of 41%. By experimentally demonstrating an energetic benefit of the combined engineering of disaccharide uptake and cleavage, this study represents a first step towards anaerobic production of compounds whose metabolic pathways currently do not conserve sufficient free-energy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Glucosiltransferases , Leuconostoc mesenteroides/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Engenharia Metabólica , Phaseolus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sacarose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Transporte Biológico Ativo/genética , Glucosiltransferases/biossíntese , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Leuconostoc mesenteroides/enzimologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
20.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 111(2): 197, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027144

RESUMO

In the original publication of the article, the below mentioned errors have appeared. The correct text is provided in this erratum, In the abstract section, the sentence "This dataset serve" should be replaced as "This dataset serves". Also, the reference "Basso TO, Gomes FS, Lopes ML, et al (2014) Homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli differently affect sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 105:169-177. doi: 10.1007/s10482-013-0063-6 " should be replaced as "Basso TO, Dario MG, Tonso A, Stambuk BU, Gombert AK (2010) Insufficient uracil supply in fully aerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to respiro-fermentative metabolism and double nutrient-limitation. Biotechnol Lett 32:973-977. doi: 10.1007/s10529-010-0248-2 ". Finally, in the Table 2 footnote, "according to (Heijnen 1981)" should be replaced as "according to Heijnen (1981)".

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