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1.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 26(2): 102350, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487275

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Hematology and Hemotherapy Institute of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Hemosul) to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) exposure among volunteer blood donors in Central Brazil. Two-hundred fifty samples from the biorepository were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM using the Wantai HEV ELISA test. The seroprevalence of HEV exposure was 6.4% (95% CI: 3.9-10.2). Being born in another state of Brazil, mainly in the Southeast and South regions, was associated with a higher risk of HEV exposure (p < 0.001).

2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eAO6175, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the first COVID-19 pandemic at Casa Ondina Lobo, a philanthropic nursing home in São Paulo city, and the containment measures against the pandemic that proved to be effective. METHODS: Several preventive measures were taken before and during the pandemic, with emphasis on universal testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. All residents and employees were tested twice in a D9 period. RESULTS: Among the 62 residents and 55 employees, in both testing, eight residents and nine employees tested positive for COVID-19. Of 22% of employees and 75% of residents evolved asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of universal testing for the detection and isolation of these cases. A quarter of residents evolved without any symptoms, however, with COVID-19 signs, reinforcing the importance of monitoring vital signs. The second testing did not detect any new cases among residents, demonstrating the effectiveness of the containment measures, however, it found four new cases among employees. This emphasized their role in COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes. Only one patient died, a 12.5% lethality among those known to be infected and a 1.6% mortality in the total population of residents were seen. CONCLUSION: The adoption of appropriate containment measures enabled to contain an COVID-19 pandemic in studied nursing home. Universal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for COVID-19 has proved to be particularly important and effective.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6175, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364792

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the first COVID-19 pandemic at Casa Ondina Lobo, a philanthropic nursing home in São Paulo city, and the containment measures against the pandemic that proved to be effective. Methods: Several preventive measures were taken before and during the pandemic, with emphasis on universal testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. All residents and employees were tested twice in a D9 period. Results: Among the 62 residents and 55 employees, in both testing, eight residents and nine employees tested positive for COVID-19. Of 22% of employees and 75% of residents evolved asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of universal testing for the detection and isolation of these cases. A quarter of residents evolved without any symptoms, however, with COVID-19 signs, reinforcing the importance of monitoring vital signs. The second testing did not detect any new cases among residents, demonstrating the effectiveness of the containment measures, however, it found four new cases among employees. This emphasized their role in COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes. Only one patient died, a 12.5% lethality among those known to be infected and a 1.6% mortality in the total population of residents were seen. Conclusion: The adoption of appropriate containment measures enabled to contain an COVID-19 pandemic in studied nursing home. Universal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for COVID-19 has proved to be particularly important and effective.

5.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(6): 101655, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843707

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) affects 20 million people worldwide, with 3.3 million cases and 56,000 deaths. The transmission is mainly by the fecal-oral route. Several studies have reported increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in association with viral hepatitis. This study evaluated the diagnosis of HEV infection among patients attending the emergency room (ER) of Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa (HBP) and Hospital São Paulo (HSP) in São Paulo, Brazil increased ALT levels (≥ 200 IU/L). From October 2018 to July 2019, 400 sera samples were collected from patients treated at the ER of HBP (n=200) and HSP (n=200). All samples were screened for HEV by RT-qPCR. 200 samples from HSP were tested for IgM of anti-Hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) viruses, and total antibodies of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Ninety samples (45 from each hospital), were tested for anti-HEV IgM antibodies. Patients aged under 1 to 91 years (mean = 46.29 ± 24.17, median = 48). ALT levels varied from 200 to 8,974 IU/l. 16 patients (4%) turned out positive for HEV by RT-qPCR (ALT levels = 299 to 698 IU/L). Of the 200 HSP patients, 18 (9%) were anti-HAV IgM reactive, 9 (4.5%) for anti-HBV IgM, and 7 (3.5%) for anti-HCV antibodies (ALT levels = 833 to 1918 IU/L). Two of 90 BPH patients (2.22%) were anti-HEV IgM reactive (ALT levels = 1502 to 3831 IU/L). This is the first Brazilian study evaluating patients with suspected HEV infection with increased ALT levels, which were higher than 12 and 60 times the normal upper limit, in the acute phase or for patients reactive for antibody detection, respectively. Liver damage could be minimized by implementing molecular diagnostic tests in the hospital routine.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(4): 101604, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: São Paulo city has been one of the regions most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Frequent asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic infections and poor access to diagnostic tests make serosurveys crucial to monitor the magnitude of the epidemic and to inform public health policies, such as vaccination plans. OBJECTIVES: To estimate, early in the epidemic, the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in adults living in the six most affected districts in São Paulo city, and to assess potential associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based survey of 1,152 households randomly selected from 72 census tracts. During the period May 4-12, 2020, 463 participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and history of symptoms in the past two weeks, and provided a blood sample. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was the outcome of interest and was estimated based on results of two immunoassays, Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 chemiluminescence assay Immunoglobulin (Ig) M (IgM) and IgG, and Roche electrochemiluminescence assay total Ig. Serum samples reactive to either assay were considered positive. RESULTS: Weighted overall seroprevalence was 6% (95%CI 3.9-8.3%). No association was observed between seropositivity and sex, age group or education level. Participants who reported black and brown skin color showed a 2.7 fold higher prevalence than people with white skin (p = 0.007). Among the 30 seropositive individuals, 14 (46.6%) reported no COVID-19 compatible symptoms in the past two weeks. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first assessment of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the city of São Paulo and 6% is the baseline estimate of a series of population-based seroprevalence surveys. Serological screening using sound serological assays is the key tool to monitoring temporal and geographic changes in the spread of the virus through an important epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Ultimately, it may inform prevention and control efforts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Pandemias , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(5): e13706, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have higher COVID-19 associated mortality compared to the general population. However, as only symptomatic patients seek medical attention, the current level of exposure, the main sources of acquisition, and the behavior of humoral immunity over time are poorly understood. METHODS: This cross-sectional prospective single-center study recruited kidney transplant recipients of any age living in Sao Paulo. A sample size of 401 patients was calculated considering the 17.2% seroprevalence in the municipality population from a published survey, a 95% confidence interval and an absolute error of 2%. RESULTS: Of the 2636 eligible patients, 416 were included. The seroprevalence for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 8.2%. Seroconversion rate decreased with increasing age, from 15.7% (18-35 years) to 8.3% (36-60 years) and 4.2% (>60 years, p = 0.042). Seropositivity among previously confirmed COVID-19 patients was 68.4%, followed by 9.4% in those with flu-like symptoms and only 4.6% among asymptomatic patients (p < 0.0001). Seroprevalence was significantly higher among patients reporting household contact (p = 0.018). Twenty-seven from the 34 IgG+ patients had a second test after 59 (IQR 50-63) days, and, in 33%, the IgG index became below the positivity threshold. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of kidney transplant recipients, the seroprevalence for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was lower than that of the general population, decreased with ageing, and was associated with household contacts. In a considerable proportion of the patients, there was a significant decay in the IgG levels in a short period of time. Therefore, preventive strategies, such as prioritization for vaccination, should be urgently considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Rim , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Transplantados , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 381-385, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285164

RESUMO

ABSTRACT In recent years the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D, a steroid hormone, have been extensively studied. In 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the question arose as to 25(OH)D status would be related to susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, since several studies pointed out a higher prevalence and severity of the disease in populations with low levels of 25(OH)D. Thus, we investigated the 25(OH)D levels in adults "Detected" positive for SARS CoV-2 by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) test, and in negative controls, "not Detected", using the Fleury Group's examination database, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Of a total of 14.692 people with recent assessments of 25(OH)D and RT-PCR tests for COVID-19, 2.345 were positive and 11.585 were negative for the infection. The groups did not differ in the percentage of men and women, or in the age distribution. There were no differences in the distribution of 25(OH)D between the two groups (p = 0.08); mean 25(OH)D of 28.8 ± 21.4 ng/mL and 29.6 ± 18.1 ng/mL, respectively. In the specific population studied, clinical, environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors should have greater relevance than 25(OH)D in determining the susceptibility to COVID-19.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25495, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847662

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: While the new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly spread across the world, South America was reached later in relation to Asia, Europe and the United States of America (USA). Brazil concentrates now the largest number of cases in the continent and, as the disease speedily progressed throughout the country, prompt and challenging operational strategies had to be taken by institutions caring for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients in order to assure optimal workflows, triage, and management. Although hospitals in the USA, Europe and Asia have shared their experience on this subject, little has been discussed about such strategies in South America or by the perspective of outpatient centers, which are paramount in the radiology field. This article shares the guidelines adopted early in the pandemic by a nationwide outpatient healthcare center composed by a network of more than 200 patient service centers and nearly 2,000 radiologists in Brazil, discussing operational and patient management strategies, staff protection, changes adopted in the fellowship program, and the effectiveness of such measures.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , COVID-19 , Gestão de Mudança , Defesa Civil , Procedimentos Clínicos , Planejamento Estratégico , Tecnologia Radiológica , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Defesa Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Procedimentos Clínicos/tendências , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Planejamento Estratégico/normas , Planejamento Estratégico/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia Radiológica/métodos , Tecnologia Radiológica/organização & administração , Tecnologia Radiológica/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 65(3): 381-385, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740339

RESUMO

In recent years the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D, a steroid hormone, have been extensively studied. In 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the question arose as to 25(OH)D status would be related to susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, since several studies pointed out a higher prevalence and severity of the disease in populations with low levels of 25(OH)D. Thus, we investigated the 25(OH)D levels in adults "Detected" positive for SARS CoV-2 by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) test, and in negative controls, "not Detected", using the Fleury Group's examination database, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Of a total of 14.692 people with recent assessments of 25(OH)D and RT-PCR tests for COVID-19, 2.345 were positive and 11.585 were negative for the infection. The groups did not differ in the percentage of men and women, or in the age distribution. There were no differences in the distribution of 25(OH)D between the two groups (p = 0.08); mean 25(OH)D of 28.8 ± 21.4 ng/mL and 29.6 ± 18.1 ng/mL, respectively. In the specific population studied, clinical, environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors should have greater relevance than 25(OH)D in determining the susceptibility to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
11.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 57: e2772021, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279284

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Poliomyelitis is still an endemic disease in Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan despite the efforts to eradicate the disease. Therefore, there is a potential risk of international spread. Since the start of the polio eradication program by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the incidence of polio has been reduced by 99%. In the last decade, wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) was eliminated and declared eradicated in 2015. Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) was last reported in November 2012. These changes have allowed the removal of Sabin poliovirus type 2 from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in April 2016 and countries either introduced bivalent OPV (bOPV) containing Sabin types 1 + 3 poliovirus or added at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into their routine immunization schedule. Many efforts are needed to eradicate polio, and new strategies should be implemented such as the development and approval of new genetically stable OPV, and vaccines that do not require infectious processes for virus growth, such as virus-like particles (VLPs), or packing-cell technology. IPV will increasingly be produced from Sabin strains, and further attenuated or genetically modified strains. Furthermore, there is also a need for the development of antiviral drugs to treat immunodeficient patients who are long-term excretors infected with poliovirus, thus avoiding contamination of individuals susceptible to polioviruses, due to reversal of pathogenicity. If all these measures are successfully implemented, the world will be close to the global


RESUMEN La poliomielitis sigue siendo una enfermedad endémica en Afganistán, Nigeria y Pakistán a pesar de los esfuerzos por erradicar la enfermedad. Por lo tanto, existe un riesgo de propagación mundial. Desde el inicio del programa de erradicación de la poliomielitis por la Iniciativa de Erradicación Mundial de la Poliomielitis [Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI)] en 1988, la incidencia de la poliomielitis se ha reducido en un 99%. En la última década, el poliovirus salvaje tipo 2 (WPV2) fue eliminado y declarado erradicado en 2015. El poliovirus salvaje tipo 3 (WPV3) se informó por última vez en noviembre de 2012. Estos cambios han permitido la eliminación del poliovirus Sabin tipo 2 de la vacuna antipoliomielítica oral (VPO) en abril de 2016, y los países introdujeron la VPO de tipo bivalente (bVPO), que contiene poliovirus Sabin tipos 1 y 3, o agregaron al menos una dosis de vacuna antipoliomielítica inactivada (VPI) al programa de inmunización de rutina. Se necesitan muchos esfuerzos para erradicar la poliomielitis y se deben implementar nuevas estrategias, como el desarrollo y aprobación de nuevas VPO genéticamente estables y vacunas que no requieren procesos infecciosos para el crecimiento del virus, como partículas pseudovirales (VLP) o tecnología de células empaquetadas (packing-cell). La VIP se producirá cada vez más a partir de cepas Sabin y otras cepas más atenuadas o modificadas genéticamente. Además, también es necesario desarrollar fármacos antivirales para tratar a pacientes inmunodeficientes que son excretores a largo plazo, evitando así la contaminación de individuos susceptibles a poliovirus, debido a la reversión de la patogenicidad. Si todas estas medidas se implementan con éxito, el mundo estará cerca de la interrupción global de la transmisión del WPV y la erradicación de la poliomielitis.


RESUMO A poliomielite ainda é uma doença endêmica no Afeganistão, na Nigéria e no Paquistão, apesar dos esforços para erradicá-la. Portanto, há risco de propagação mundial. Desde o início do programa de erradicação da poliomielite pela Iniciativa de Erradicação Global da Pólio [Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI)], em 1988, a incidência da doença foi reduzida em 99%. Na última década, o poliovírus selvagem do tipo 2 (WPV2) foi eliminado e declarado erradicado em 2015. O poliovírus selvagem do tipo 3 (WPV3) foi reportado pela última vez em novembro de 2012. Essas mudanças promoveram a remoção do poliovírus Sabin tipo 2 da vacina oral antipólio (VOP) em abril de 2016, e os países introduziram a vacina oral bivalente (VOPb), que contém os poliovírus Sabin tipos 1 + 3, ou adicionaram pelo menos uma dose da vacina inativada contra o poliovírus (VIP) no calendário de imunização. É necessário muito empenho para erradicar a poliomielite. Novas estratégias devem ser implementadas, como o desenvolvimento e a aprovação de novas VOPs geneticamente estáveis e vacinas que não requerem processos infecciosos para o crescimento do vírus, como partículas pseudovirais (VLP), ou tecnologia de células de empacotamento (packing-cell). A VIP será cada vez mais produzida a partir de cepas Sabin, de outras cepas atenuadas ou geneticamente modificadas. Além disso, é imprescindível o desenvolvimento de medicamentos antivirais para tratar os pacientes imunodeficientes que são excretores de longo prazo, evitando assim a contaminação de indivíduos suscetíveis aos poliovírus, devido à reversão da patogenicidade. Se todas essas medidas forem implementadas com sucesso, o mundo estará próximo da interrupção global de transmissão do WPV e da erradicação da poliomielite.

12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(4): 101604, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339443

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: São Paulo city has been one of the regions most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Frequent asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic infections and poor access to diagnostic tests make serosurveys crucial to monitor the magnitude of the epidemic and to inform public health policies, such as vaccination plans. Objectives: To estimate, early in the epidemic, the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in adults living in the six most affected districts in São Paulo city, and to assess potential associated risk factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based survey of 1,152 households randomly selected from 72 census tracts. During the period May 4-12, 2020, 463 participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and history of symptoms in the past two weeks, and provided a blood sample. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was the outcome of interest and was estimated based on results of two immunoassays, Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 chemiluminescence assay Immunoglobulin (Ig) M (IgM) and IgG, and Roche electrochemiluminescence assay total Ig. Serum samples reactive to either assay were considered positive. Results: Weighted overall seroprevalence was 6% (95%CI 3.9-8.3%). No association was observed between seropositivity and sex, age group or education level. Participants who reported black and brown skin color showed a 2.7 fold higher prevalence than people with white skin (p = 0.007). Among the 30 seropositive individuals, 14 (46.6%) reported no COVID-19 compatible symptoms in the past two weeks. Conclusion: This study represents the first assessment of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the city of São Paulo and 6% is the baseline estimate of a series of population-based seroprevalence surveys. Serological screening using sound serological assays is the key tool to monitoring temporal and geographic changes in the spread of the virus through an important epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Ultimately, it may inform prevention and control efforts.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6201, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273458

RESUMO

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pressing public health systems around the world, and large population testing is a key step to control this pandemic disease. Here, we develop a high-throughput targeted proteomics assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein peptides directly from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. A modified magnetic particle-based proteomics approach implemented on a robotic liquid handler enables fully automated preparation of 96 samples within 4 hours. A TFC-MS system allows multiplexed analysis of 4 samples within 10 min, enabling the processing of more than 500 samples per day. We validate this method qualitatively (Tier 3) and quantitatively (Tier 1) using 985 specimens previously analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, and detect up to 84% of the positive cases with up to 97% specificity. The presented strategy has high sample stability and should be considered as an option for SARS-CoV-2 testing in large populations.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas Virais
14.
Science ; 369(6508): 1255-1260, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703910

RESUMO

Brazil currently has one of the fastest-growing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemics in the world. Because of limited available data, assessments of the impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on this virus spread remain challenging. Using a mobility-driven transmission model, we show that NPIs reduced the reproduction number from >3 to 1 to 1.6 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Sequencing of 427 new genomes and analysis of a geographically representative genomic dataset identified >100 international virus introductions in Brazil. We estimate that most (76%) of the Brazilian strains fell in three clades that were introduced from Europe between 22 February and 11 March 2020. During the early epidemic phase, we found that SARS-CoV-2 spread mostly locally and within state borders. After this period, despite sharp decreases in air travel, we estimated multiple exportations from large urban centers that coincided with a 25% increase in average traveled distances in national flights. This study sheds new light on the epidemic transmission and evolutionary trajectories of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Brazil and provides evidence that current interventions remain insufficient to keep virus transmission under control in this country.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Número Básico de Reprodução , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Cidades/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Viagem , População Urbana
15.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-9, dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | Coleciona SUS, LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1147458

RESUMO

A poliomielite é uma doença endêmica no Afeganistão e no Paquistão, apesar dos esforços para ser erradicada, representando uma ameaça para outros países principalmente devido às viagens internacionais. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) tem como objetivo erradicar a poliomielite causada pelo poliovírus selvagem no mundo. O requisito essencial para a erradicação da poliomielite é a eliminação da cepa do poliovírus selvagem, que é empregada no teste padrão-ouro. Com o intuito de auxiliar na erradicação do poliovírus selvagem, o objetivo deste estudo foi modificar o teste padrão-ouro usando o poliovírus derivado da vacina oral atenuada. Foram testados 63 soros pelo ensaio de neutralização utilizando-se antígenos vacinais. A concordância do sorotipo 1 (k=0,74) foi considerada substancial, enquanto o sorotipo 2 (k=1,00) e sorotipo 3 (k= 0,95) foram consideradas quase perfeitas. A sensibilidade dos testes de soroneutralização utilizando os sorotipos 1, 2 e 3 foi de 94,83%, 100,00% e 100,00%, respectivamente. Em conclusão, o ensaio com antígenos vacinais pode ser usado como procedimento laboratorial seguro, especialmente em estudos de vigilância em larga escala. (AU)


Poliomyelitis is an endemic disease in Afghanistan and Pakistan in despite of the efforts to eradicate it, and it represents a threat to other countries mainly due to the international trips. The World Health Organization (WHO) aims at eradicating the polio disease worldwide. An essential requirement for eradicating the poliomyelitis is the elimination of the wild poliovirus strain, which is employed in the gold standard test. As a support for the eradication of wild poliovirus, the present study aimed at modifying the gold standard test by using poliovirus derived from the oral attenuated vaccine. Sixty-three sera samples were tested by neutralization assay using vaccine antigens. The degree of agreement of the serotype 1 (k=0.74) was considered substantial, while the serotype 2 (k=1.00) and 3 (k= 0.95) showed almost perfect agreement. The sensitivity of serotypes 1, 2 and 3 was 94.83%, 100.00% and 100.00%, respectively. In conclusion, the assay with the vaccine antigens can be used as a safe application, especially for large-scale surveillance studies. (AU)


Assuntos
Poliomielite , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado , Poliovirus , Anticorpos Antivirais
16.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(1): 45-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients with pre-existing liver disease has shown high morbidity and lethality. The consequences of HEV superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the presence of anti-HEV antibodies, liver cirrhosis, and insulin resistance. METHODS: A total of 618 patients chronically infected with HCV were included from three reference centers for viral hepatitis in São Paulo, Brazil. Presence of anti-HEV IgG was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WANTAI HEV-IgG ELISA). RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV in patients with cirrhosis was significantly higher than in patients without cirrhosis (13.2% vs 8%, OR=1.74, p=0.04). Seropositivity for anti-HEV, adjusted for sex, age, and HCV genotype showed an association trend with hepatic cirrhosis (aOR=1.75, p=0.059). Presence of HEV antibodies, adjusted for age, body mass index and cirrhosis, was shown to be independently associated with insulin resistance (aOR: 4.39; p=0.045). CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic hepatitis C are under risk of hepatitis E virus superinfection in Brazil. The trend toward association between cirrhosis and previous HEV infection suggests that it may accelerate liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition, previous infection by HEV is independently associated with insulin resistance in the studied population, which may be an extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis E that persists after resolution of the active infection, and may contribute to fibrosis progression.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/análise , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite E/imunologia , Resistência à Insulina/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(1): 133-137, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637634

RESUMO

In 2007, the new polyomaviruses WUPyV and KIPyV were identified in patients with acute respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to investigate these viruses in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). A retrospective study was conducted with 251 patients, from April 2009 to November 2010, using nasopharyngeal aspirates, naso- and oropharyngeal swab samples from hospitalized patients (children < 12 years and adults) who had SARI within 7 days of the onset of symptoms, including fever (> 38.8 °C), dyspnea, and cough. Clinical and epidemiological information was obtained through standardized questionnaire. Enrolled patients were initially suspected to have influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections. WUPyV and KIPyV were detected by real-time PCR. Samples were also tested for influenza A and B viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses. WUPyV and KIPyV were detected in 6.77% (4.78% and 1.99%, respectively) of hospitalized patients with SARI. All samples from children showed coinfections (rhinovirus was the most commonly detected). Six adults had polyomavirus infection and four (1.6%) had monoinfection. Of them, 3 reported comorbidities including immunosuppression and 1 patient had worse outcome, requiring ICU admission. These preliminary data may suggest a possible role of polyomaviruses in SARI among immunocompromised adult patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polyomavirus/classificação , Polyomavirus/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 45-52, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001502

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients with pre-existing liver disease has shown high morbidity and lethality. The consequences of HEV superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the presence of anti-HEV antibodies, liver cirrhosis, and insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 618 patients chronically infected with HCV were included from three reference centers for viral hepatitis in São Paulo, Brazil. Presence of anti-HEV IgG was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WANTAI HEV-IgG ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV in patients with cirrhosis was significantly higher than in patients without cirrhosis (13.2% vs 8%, OR = 1.74, p = 0.04). Seropositivity for anti-HEV, adjusted for sex, age, and HCV genotype showed an association trend with hepatic cirrhosis (aOR = 1.75, p = 0.059). Presence of HEV antibodies, adjusted for age, body mass index and cirrhosis, was shown to be independently associated with insulin resistance (aOR: 4.39; p = 0.045). Conclusion: Patients with chronic hepatitis C are under risk of hepatitis E virus superinfection in Brazil. The trend toward association between cirrhosis and previous HEV infection suggests that it may accelerate liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition, previous infection by HEV is independently associated with insulin resistance in the studied population, which may be an extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis E that persists after resolution of the active infection, and may contribute to fibrosis progression.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Resistência à Insulina/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/análise , Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Curva ROC , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia
19.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(5): 442-448, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serological tests are practical, with low cost, but no noninvasive tests are available for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Brazil. The aim here was to develop and validate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serological tests to detect anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies, based on cultured strains from Brazilian patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study comparing a locally developed and validated ELISA and invasive tests among dyspeptic patients at two public hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An ELISA test was prepared using whole-cell antigen from 56 strains. After genotypic characterization, it was standardized and optical density (OD) cutoffs were determined based on the serum antibody response of 100 H. pylori-negative samples, compared with 82 H. pylori-positive samples. Validation was performed on 174 symptomatic patients. RESULTS: The optimal OD cutoffs established (for monoclonal and polyclonal tests, respectively) were 0.167 and 0.164; overall ELISA sensitivity: 84.3%, 78.9%; specificity: 88.6%, 90.6%; positive predictive value (PPV): 75.4%, 80%; negative predictive value (NPV): 93.1%, 81.8%; accuracy: 87.3%, 86.2%; child and adolescent ELISA sensitivity: 74.2%, 81.8%; specificity: 90.8%, 86.7%; PPV: 66.6%, 84.3%; NPV: 95.8%, 84.8%; accuracy: 88.5%, 84.6; adult ELISA sensitivity: 84.4%, 75%; specificity: 86.9%, 93%; PPV: 81.8%, 78.3%; NPV: 88.9%, 91.8%; accuracy: 85.9%, 88.5%. CONCLUSION: The polyclonal serological test developed using local strains presented better diagnostic performance among children and adolescents, while the monoclonal test was better among adults. The results from both tests suggest that these in-house serological tests could be used to detect anti-H. pylori antibodies in our population, for screening purposes.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Anticorpos Bactericidas Séricos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Oncotarget ; 9(60): 31664-31681, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167086

RESUMO

Breast cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide yet methods for early detection remain elusive. We describe the discovery and validation of biochemical signatures measured by mass spectrometry, performed upon blood samples from patients and controls that accurately identify (>95%) the presence of clinical breast cancer. Targeted quantitative MS/MS conducted upon 1225 individuals, including patients with breast and other cancers, normal controls as well as individuals with a variety of metabolic disorders provide a biochemical phenotype that accurately identifies the presence of breast cancer and predicts response and survival following the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The metabolic changes identified are consistent with inborn-like errors of metabolism and define a continuum from normal controls to elevated risk to invasive breast cancer. Similar results were observed in other adenocarcinomas but were not found in squamous cell cancers or hematologic neoplasms. The findings describe a new early detection platform for breast cancer and support a role for pre-existing, inborn-like errors of metabolism in the process of breast carcinogenesis that may also extend to other glandular malignancies. Statement of Significance: Findings provide a powerful tool for early detection and the assessment of prognosis in breast cancer and define a novel concept of breast carcinogenesis that characterizes malignant transformation as the clinical manifestation of underlying metabolic insufficiencies.

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