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1.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366194

RESUMO

Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) are the leading terrestrial animals used for meat production. The gut microbiota significantly affect host nutrition, metabolism, and immunity. Hence, characterization of the gut microbial structure and function will improve our understanding of gut microbial resources and the mechanisms underlying host-microbe interactions. Here, we investigated the gut microbiomes of seven pig breeds using metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We established an expanded gut microbial reference catalog comprising 17 020 160 genes and identified 4910 metagenome-assembled genomes. We also analyzed the gut resistome to provide an overview of the profiles of the antimicrobial resistance genes in pigs. By analyzing the relative abundances of microbes, we identified three core-predominant gut microbes (Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens, Prevotella copri, and Oscillibacter valericigenes) in pigs used in this study. Oral administration of the three core-predominant gut microbes significantly increased the organ indexes (including the heart, spleen, and thymus), but decreased the gastrointestinal lengths in germ-free mice. The three core microbes significantly enhanced intestinal epithelial barrier function and altered the intestinal mucosal morphology, as was evident from the increase in crypt depths in the duodenum and ileum. Furthermore, the three core microbes significantly affected several metabolic pathways (such as "steroid hormone biosynthesis," "primary bile acid biosynthesis," "phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis," and "phenylalanine metabolism") in germ-free mice. These findings provide a panoramic view of the pig gut microbiome and insights into the functional contributions of the core-predominant gut microbes to the host.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Camundongos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Fenilalanina
2.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 33: 1136-1148, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300774

RESUMO

The image-level label has prevailed in weakly supervised semantic segmentation tasks due to its easy availability. Since image-level labels can only indicate the existence or absence of specific categories of objects, visualization-based techniques have been widely adopted to provide object location clues. Considering class activation maps (CAMs) can only locate the most discriminative part of objects, recent approaches usually adopt an expansion strategy to enlarge the activation area for more integral object localization. However, without proper constraints, the expanded activation will easily intrude into the background region. In this paper, we propose spatial structure constraints (SSC) for weakly supervised semantic segmentation to alleviate the unwanted object over-activation of attention expansion. Specifically, we propose a CAM-driven reconstruction module to directly reconstruct the input image from deep CAM features, which constrains the diffusion of last-layer object attention by preserving the coarse spatial structure of the image content. Moreover, we propose an activation self-modulation module to refine CAMs with finer spatial structure details by enhancing regional consistency. Without external saliency models to provide background clues, our approach achieves 72.7% and 47.0% mIoU on the PASCAL VOC 2012 and COCO datasets, respectively, demonstrating the superiority of our proposed approach. The source codes and models have been made available at https://github.com/NUST-Machine-Intelligence-Laboratory/SSC.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 14(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338054

RESUMO

Intestinal bacteria, synchronized with diet and feeding time, exhibit circadian rhythms and anticipate host gut function; however the effect of dietary probiotics on gut bacterial diurnal rhythms remains obscure. In this study, bacteria were sequenced at 6 Zeitgeber times (ZT) from a pig model of ileal T-shaped fistula to test ileal bacterial composition and circadian rhythms after Lactobacillus delbrueckii administration. The results showed that dietary L. delbrueckii enhanced ileal bacterial α-diversity at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 16, evidenced by an increased Simpson index compared with control pigs. At the phylum level, Firmicutes was identified as the largest phyla represented in pigs, but dietary L. delbrueckii only increased the abundance of Tenericutes at ZT16. At the genus level, 11/100 genera (i.e., Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Leptotrichia, Pediococcus, Bifidobacte, Cellulosilyticum, Desulfomicrobium, Sharpea, Eubacterium, Propionivibrio, and Aerococcus) were markedly differentiated in L. delbrueckii-fed pigs and the effect was rhythmicity-dependent. Meanwhile, dietary L. delbrueckii affected six pathways of bacterial functions, such as membrane transport, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, cell motility, the endocrine system, signaling molecules and interaction, and the nervous system. Cosinor analysis was conducted to test bacterial circadian rhythm in pigs, while no significant circadian rhythm in bacterial α-diversity and phyla composition was observed. Lactobacillus, Terrisporobacter, and Weissella exhibited significant rhythmic fluctuation in the control pigs, which was disturbed by probiotic exposure. In addition, dietary L. delbrueckii affected circadian rhythms in ileal Romboutsia, Erysipelatoclostridium, Cellulosilyticum, and Eubacterium abundances. Dietary L. delbrueckii affected both ileal bacterial composition and circadian rhythms, which might further regulate gut function and host metabolism in pigs.

4.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 264, 2023 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to that of bacteria, the role of gut fungi in obesity development remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, alterations in gut fungal biodiversity and composition were confirmed in obese pig models and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Antifungal drugs improved diet-induced obesity, while fungal reconstruction by cohousing or fecal microbiota transplantation maintained the obese phenotype in HFD-fed mice. Fungal profiling identified 5 fungal species associated with obesity. Specifically, Ascomycota_sp. and Microascaceae_sp. were reduced in obese mice and negatively correlated with fat content. Oral supplementation with fungi was sufficient to prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. Clec7a, which is involved in fungal recognition, was highly expressed in HFD-fed mice. The Clec7a agonist accelerated diet-induced obesity, while Clec7a deficieny in mice resulted in resistance to diet-induced obesity and blocked the anti-obese effect of antifungal drugs and fungi. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate that gut fungi/Clec7a signaling is involved in diet-induced obesity and may have therapeutic implications as a biomarker for metabolic dysregulation in humans. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Obesidade , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fungos , Lipídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Suínos
5.
Innovation (Camb) ; 4(5): 100486, 2023 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37636278

RESUMO

The gut microbiota consistently shows strong correlations with lipid metabolism in humans and animals, and whether the gut microbiota contributes to muscle fatty acid (FA) deposition and meat traits in farm animals has not been fully resolved. In this study, we aimed to unveil the microbial mechanisms underlying muscle FA deposition in pigs. First, we systematically revealed the correlation between the gut microbiome and muscle FA levels in 43 obese Ningxiang pigs and 50 lean Duroc Landrace Yorkshire (DLY) pigs. Mutual fecal microbial transplantation showed that the obese Ningxiang pig-derived microbiota increased the muscle FA content and improved meat quality by reshaping the gut microbial composition in lean DLY pigs. Lactobacillus reuteri has been identified as a potential microbial biomarker in obese Ningxiang pig-derived microbiota-challenged DLY pigs. A gavage experiment using lean DLY pigs confirmed that L. reuteri XL0930 isolated from obese Ningxiang pigs was the causal species that increased the muscle FA content. Mechanistically, SLC22A5, a carnitine transporter, was downregulated in L. reuteri XL0930-fed DLY pigs, resulting in reduced muscle carnitine levels. Muscle and intestinal L-carnitine levels, which correlated with the muscle FA content, impeded fat synthesis and FA accumulation in in vitro and in vivo models. In conclusion, we uncovered an unexpected and important role of the obese Ningxiang pig-derived microbiota in regulating muscle FA metabolism via the SLC22A5-mediated carnitine system.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37028297

RESUMO

Embodied question answering (EQA) is a recently emerged research field in which an agent is asked to answer the user's questions by exploring the environment and collecting visual information. Plenty of researchers turn their attention to the EQA field due to its broad potential application areas, such as in-home robots, self-driven mobile, and personal assistants. High-level visual tasks, such as EQA, are susceptible to noisy inputs, because they have complex reasoning processes. Before the profits of the EQA field can be applied to practical applications, good robustness against label noise needs to be equipped. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel label noise-robust learning algorithm for the EQA task. First, a joint training co-regularization noise-robust learning method is proposed for noisy filtering of the visual question answering (VQA) module, which trains two parallel network branches by one loss function. Then, a two-stage hierarchical robust learning algorithm is proposed to filter out noisy navigation labels in both trajectory level and action level. Finally, by taking purified labels as inputs, a joint robust learning mechanism is given to coordinate the work of the whole EQA system. Empirical results demonstrate that, under extremely noisy environments (45% of noisy labels) and low-level noisy environments (20% of noisy labels), the robustness of deep learning models trained by our algorithm is superior to the existing EQA models in noisy environments.

7.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 32: 2348-2359, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37074884

RESUMO

Zero-shot video object segmentation (ZS-VOS) aims to segment foreground objects in a video sequence without prior knowledge of these objects. However, existing ZS-VOS methods often struggle to distinguish between foreground and background or to keep track of the foreground in complex scenarios. The common practice of introducing motion information, such as optical flow, can lead to overreliance on optical flow estimation. To address these challenges, we propose an encoder-decoder-based hierarchical co-attention propagation network (HCPN) capable of tracking and segmenting objects. Specifically, our model is built upon multiple collaborative evolutions of the parallel co-attention module (PCM) and the cross co-attention module (CCM). PCM captures common foreground regions among adjacent appearance and motion features, while CCM further exploits and fuses cross-modal motion features returned by PCM. Our method is progressively trained to achieve hierarchical spatio-temporal feature propagation across the entire video. Experimental results demonstrate that our HCPN outperforms all previous methods on public benchmarks, showcasing its effectiveness for ZS-VOS. Code and pre-trained model can be found at https://github.com/NUST-Machine-Intelligence-Laboratory/HCPN.

8.
Anim Nutr ; 11: 350-358, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329682

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary L-theanine supplementation on apparent nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and blood biochemical indices of dairy cows under heat stress. Thirty Chinese Holstein cows (19.84 ± 2.42 kg milk/d, 192.36 ± 40.77 d in milk and 2 ± 0.93 parities) were divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. The control group was fed a basal total mixed ration (TMR) diet, while treatment 1 (LTA16) and treatment 2 (LTA32) groups were fed a basal TMR diet supplemented with L-theanine at 16 and 32 g/cow per day, respectively. The results showed that feeding the dairy cows with LTA16 treatment decreased (P < 0.05) their rectal temperature, whereas feeding with LTA32 treatment decreased (P < 0.05) their rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen content. In comparison to the control group, the supplementation of L-theanine had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration and molar proportion of volatile fatty acid, milk yield, milk composition, feed efficiency and antioxidant capacity of the dairy cows. The triglyceride (TG) content of the LTA32 group was significantly greater (P = 0.014) than that of the control group. With the increase in L-theanine dosage, the serum cholesterol (CHOL) content significantly increased (P = 0.013). The serum albumin (ALB; P = 0.067), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; P = 0.053), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.067) contents showed an upward trend as L-theanine dosage increased. Ultimately, the results of this study show that supplementing dairy cow diet with L-theanine could decrease dairy cow rectal temperature, affect lipid metabolism, and potentially relieve the heat stress of dairy cows to some extent.

9.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 982349, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246311

RESUMO

Gut microbiota and its metabolites play a key role in host metabolism. Our previous study found supplemental Lactobacillus delbrueckii affected lipid metabolism of pigs, however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of L. delbrueckii on colonic bacteria composition and its metabolites, serum lipids and hormone levels, fat metabolism related enzyme activity and gene expression in various tissues of growing-finishing pigs. Twelve pigs were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 6), and pigs in each group were fed diets with (Con + LD) or without (Con) 0.1 % L. delbrueckii for 28 days. Results exhibited the deceased triglyceride (TG) levels and elevated free fatty acid (FFA) contents in serum and increased concentrations of butyric acid in colonic digesta after L. delbrueckii supplementation. Dietary L. delbrueckii increased abundance of Lactobacillus and Butyrivibri and tended to increase abundance of Akkermansia and Megasphaera in colonic digesta. L. delbrueckii consumption up-regulated glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1), monocarboxylate transporter1 (MTC1) and sodium-dependent monocarboxylate transporter1 (SMCT1) expression in colonic tissue. Administration of L. delbrueckii tended to increase lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, up-regulated CPT-1, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angpt14), LPL and triglyceride hydrolase (TGH) expression and down-regulated fatty acid synthetase (FAS), G protein-coupled receptor 41(GPR41) and GPR43 expression in the liver. L. delbrueckii addition increased adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression in longissimus dorsi, upregulated LPL, CPT-1, Angptl4 and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) expression in subcutaneous fat, and enhanced LPL, CPT-1, TGH, adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) expression in leaf lard. These findings suggested that L. delbrueckii might enhance lipolysis and fatty acid ß-oxidation to lower serum TG levels via colonic microbiota modulation and short chain fatty acids-mediated lipid metabolism of growing-finishing pigs.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107890

RESUMO

Recently, deep metric learning (DML) has achieved great success. Some existing DML methods propose adaptive sample mining strategies, which learn to weight the samples, leading to interesting performance. However, these methods suffer from a small memory (e.g., one training batch), limiting their efficacy. In this work, we introduce a data-driven method, meta-mining strategy with semiglobal information (MMSI), to apply meta-learning to learn to weight samples during the whole training, leading to an adaptive mining strategy. To introduce richer information than one training batch only, we elaborately take advantage of the validation set of meta-learning by implicitly adding additional validation sample information to training. Furthermore, motivated by the latest self-supervised learning, we introduce a dictionary (memory) that maintains very large and diverse information. Together with the validation set, this dictionary presents much richer information to the training, leading to promising performance. In addition, we propose a new theoretical framework that can formulate pairwise and tripletwise metric learning loss functions in a unified framework. This framework brings new insights to society and facilitates us to generalize our MMSI to many existing DML methods. We conduct extensive experiments on three public datasets, CUB200-2011, Cars-196, and Stanford Online Products (SOP). Results show that our method can achieve the state of the art or very competitive performance. Our source codes have been made available at https://github.com/NUST-Machine-Intelligence-Laboratory/MMSI.

11.
Prog Lipid Res ; 88: 101193, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055468

RESUMO

CD36, located on the cell membrane, transports fatty acids in response to dietary fat. It is a critical fatty acid sensor and regulator of lipid metabolism. The interaction between CD36 and lipid dysmetabolism and obesity has been identified in various models and human studies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which CD36 regulates lipid metabolism and the role of CD36 in metabolic diseases remain obscure. Here, we summarize the latest research on the role of membrane CD36 in fat metabolism, with emphasis on CD36-mediated fat sensing and transport. This review also critically discusses the factors affecting the regulation of CD36-mediated fat dysfunction. Finally, we review previous clinical evidence of CD36 in metabolic diseases and consider the path forward.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD36 , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta , Obesidade/metabolismo
12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740199

RESUMO

Pork quality is a factor increasingly considered in consumer preferences for pork. The formation mechanisms determining meat quality are complicated, including endogenous and exogenous factors. Despite a lot of research on meat quality, unexpected variation in meat quality is still a major problem in the meat industry. Currently, gut microbiota and their metabolites have attracted increased attention in the animal breeding industry, and recent research demonstrated their significance in muscle fiber development and fat deposition. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the research on the effects of gut microbiota on pig muscle and fat deposition. The factors affecting gut microbiota composition will also be discussed, including host genetics, dietary composition, antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics. We provide an overall understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and meat quality in pigs, and how manipulation of gut microbiota may contribute to increasing pork quality for human consumption.

13.
Anim Nutr ; 9: 345-356, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600540

RESUMO

Shaziling pig, a Chinese indigenous breed, has been classified as a fatty pig model. However, the gut microbial development and role in lipid metabolism in Shaziling pigs has been rarely reported. Here, we compared the lipid metabolic and microbial profiles at 30, 60, 90, 150, 210, and 300 d of age between Shaziling and Yorkshire pigs. Predictably, there were marked differences in the liver lipids (i.e., cholesterol, glucose, and low-density lipoprotein) and the lipid related expressions (i.e., SREBP1/2, LXRα/ß, DGAT1/2, and FABP1-3) between Shaziling and Yorkshire pigs. Bacteria sequencing in the ileal digesta and mucosa showed that Shaziling pigs had a higher α-diversity and higher abundances of probiotics, such as Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus amylovorus, and Clostridium butyricum. Thirty-five differentiated metabolites were further identified in the mucosa between Shaziling and Yorkshire pigs, which were enriched in the carbohydrate, protein, glucose and amino acid metabolism and bile acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, 7 differentiated microbial species were markedly correlated with metabolites, indicating the role of gut microbiota in the host metabolism. Next, the role of differentiated L. johnsonii in lipid metabolism was validated in Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs and the results showed that L. johnsonii mono-colonization promoted lipid deposition and metabolism by altering gut microbiota (i.e., Megasphaera elsdenii and L. johnsonii) and DGAT1/DGAT2/CD 36-PPAR γ gene expressions. In conclusion, Shaziling pigs exhibited different metabolic and microbial profiles compared with Yorkshire pigs, which might have contributed to the diverse metabolic phenotypes, and the significant enrichment of L. johnsonii in Shaziling pigs promoted lipid metabolism and obesity of DLY pigs, which provided a novel idea to improve the fat content of lean pigs.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405818

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal catalase (CAT) supplementation on reproductive performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, mineral transport, and mRNA expression of related genes in sows and offspring. A total of 40 pregnant sows at 95 days of gestation with similar parity (3−5 parities) and back-fat thickness were assigned randomly and equally into the control (CON) group (fed a basal diet) and CAT group (fed a basal diet supplemented with 660 mg/kg CAT; CAT activity, 280 U/g). The reproductive performance was recorded, and the placenta and blood samples of sows and neonatal piglets, as well as the jejunum and ileum samples from neonatal boars (eight replicates per group), were collected. Results showed that dietary supplementation with CAT significantly decreased the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) rate and increased the activity of serum CAT in neonatal piglets and umbilical cords (p < 0.05). In addition, CAT supplementation tended to improve total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels in the maternal serum (p = 0.089) and umbilical cords of piglets (p = 0.051). The serum calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) of farrowing sows and Mn concentration in the umbilical cord, and serum Ca, magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), and Mn of neonatal piglets were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the CAT group. CAT supplementation downregulated mRNA expression of TRPV6 and CTR1 (p < 0.05), Cu/Zn SOD (p = 0.086) in the placenta and tended to increase the mRNA expression of the glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) (p = 0.084), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) (p = 0.063), and CAT (p = 0.052) genes in the ileum of piglets. These results showed that the maternal CAT supplementation improved fetal growth by decreasing the IUGR rate, and modulated antioxidant activity, as well as mineral elements in the pregnant sows and their piglets.

15.
Food Funct ; 13(5): 2570-2580, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166282

RESUMO

Lactobacillus delbrueckii (LAB) has been demonstrated to exert versatile beneficial effects on modulating intestinal immunity, increasing gut microbial diversity, promoting growth performance, and even preventing disease onset in pigs. However, the underlying mechanism of LAB-mediated gut immunity regulation in piglets remains unclear. In this study, we found that supplementation of LAB significantly increases serum TNF-α, ileum IL-4, and IL-10 levels compared with the control group. Meanwhile, oral supplementation of LAB-modified gut microbial communities was evidenced by the increased abundance of the Lactobacillus genus in the colon. Mechanistically, LAB induced dendritic cell (DC) maturation and activation, which may be relevant to the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, we found that oral administration of LAB during the suckling period shows long-lasting immunomodulatory impacts on intestinal immunity after weaning. Collectively, this study uncovers the mechanism of LAB in regulating the intestinal immunity of piglets, suggesting that LAB can be developed as an immunoenhancing biological agent during the suckling period.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Suínos
16.
Front Nutr ; 8: 748647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805243

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary addition with Clostridium butyricum (CB) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, carcass trait, and meat quality of pigs. A total of 128 Huanjiang mini-pigs with an initial body weight of 9.5 ± 0.1 kg were randomly assigned to one of four groups. The pigs in control (Con) group were fed a basal diet and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.05% CB (CB group), 0.02% XOS (XOS group), or 0.05% CB + 0.02% XOS (CB + XOS group). Eight replicate pens were used per group with four pigs per pen. On days 28, 56, and 84 of the trial, the growth performance, carcass trait, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed that dietary CB addition decreased (p < 0.05) the average daily gain and increased (p < 0.05) the ratio of feed intake to body weight gain at day 28 of the trial; CB, XOS, and CB + XOS addition increased (p < 0.05) the backfat thickness at day 84 of the trial compared with the Con group. Dietary CB, XOS, and CB + XOS addition increased (p < 0.05) the pH45min, while decreased (p < 0.05) the marbling score at day 28 of the trial compared with the Con group. Dietary CB + XOS addition increased (p < 0.05) the contents of Ala, Arg, Asp, Gly, His, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Tyr, and Val in muscle at day 56 of the trial. At day 84 of the trial, dietary CB addition increased the contents of nonessential amino acid (NEAA), total amino acid (TAA), and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), while decreased (p < 0.05) the percentage of C20:1 in muscle compared with the Con group. Collectively, dietary addition with 0.05% CB and 0.02% XOS could not alter the growth performance, but increase carcass trait, meat quality, and muscular nutrient contents in Huanjiang mini-pigs.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573583

RESUMO

The experiment aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics and Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides on the growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and immune function of weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty weaned pigs (about 7 kg BW, 23 ± 2 d) were allotted to five dietary treatments (CON: antibiotics-free basal diet; ANT: CON + antibiotics; PRO: CON + probiotics; ABPS: CON + Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides; P-ABPS: PRO + ABPS) for a 28-day trial. Compared with CON, pigs in ANT, PRO, ABPS, and P-ABPS had greater (p < 0.05) ADG, ATTD of CP and GE, serum ALB, IgA and IL-2, duodenal intraepithelial lymphocyte, ileal VH and jejunal mucosa sIgA, but lower (p < 0.05) fecal scores, serum BUN, and IL-1ß. Meanwhile, ANT, PRO, ABPS, and P-ABPS exhibited similar beneficial roles on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, serum parameters, and immune function. Interestingly, P-ABPS effects were similar to those obtained with ANT rather than with PRO or ABPS. In conclusion, Dietary PRO or ABPS used alone or in combination (P-ABPS), the combination augmenting the positive effect more than the independent supplement, could improve piglets' growth performance via promoting intestinal nutrient digestion and absorption and enhancing immune function, indicating it had the potential to act as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics used in piglet diets.

18.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 692389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490392

RESUMO

Lactobacillus delbrueckii is a Gram-positive bacterium mostly used in the dairy industry for yogurt and cheese. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on serum biochemical parameters, intestinal morphology, and performance by supplementing at a dietary level of 0.1% in diets for weaned piglets. Eighty healthy weaned piglets (initial body weight: 7.56 ± 0.2 kg) were randomly divided into two feeding groups with four replicates in each group (n = 10 animals per replicate); piglets were fed with basal diet (CON) or basal diet containing 0.1% Lactobacillus delbrueckii (LAC). The results showed that dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii improved growth performance and increased serum HDL and insulin levels in piglets on the 28th day of the experimental time (p < 0.05). The gut microbe analysis revealed that Lactobacillus delbrueckii significantly decreased the relative abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes, but increased the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes. The Lactobacillus delbrueckii also significantly increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at the genus level of the bacterial community in the ileum, but decreased the relative abundance of unclassified Clostridiales. Moreover, Lactobacillus delbrueckii improved mucosal morphology by obtaining higher intestinal villus height (p < 0.05), significantly increasing the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyric acid, and isovaleric acid in colonic chyme of piglets, but decreasing the intestinal pH at the duodenum and ileum on the 28th day of the experimental time. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii in the diet of weaned piglets can improve intestinal morphology and modulate the microbiota community to promote growth performance.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 698213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326826

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the growth performance, serum cytokine profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota in ducks at the growing stage. 300 female Linwu ducks at 28 days of age with similar body weights were randomly divided into five groups. Each group contained six replicates of 10 birds. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean-based diet supplemented with FA at the concentrations of 0 (control), 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg diet. The results demonstrated that dietary FA at the levels of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg increased the average daily gain (P = 0.01), 400 and 800 mg/kg FA increased the final body weight (P = 0.02), 100, 200, and 800 mg/kg FA increased the serum glutathione (P = 0.01), and 100, 400, and 800 mg/kg FA increased the glutathione peroxidase activities in birds (P < 0.01). Additionally, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg dietary FA lowered the serum levels of interleukin-2 (P = 0.02) and interleukin-6 (P = 0.04). Moreover, the morphometric study of the intestines indicated that 400 mg/kg FA decreased the crypt depth in jejunum (P = 0.01) and caecum (P = 0.04), and increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum (P = 0.02). Significant linear and/or quadratic relationships were found between FA concentration and the measured parameters. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that dietary FA increased the populations of genera Faecalibacterium, Paludicola, RF39, and Faecalicoccus in the cecum (P < 0.05), whereas decreased the populations of Anaerofilum and UCG-002 (P < 0.05). The Spearman correlation analysis indicated that phylum Proteobacteria were negatively, but order Oscillospirales, and family Ruminococcaceae were positively related to the parameters of the growth performance. Phylum Bacteroidetes, class Negativicutes and family Rikenellaceae were negatively associated with the parameters of the antioxidative capability. And phylum Cyanobacteria, Elusimicrobia, and Bacteroidetes, class Bacilli, family Rikenellaceae, and genus Prevotella were positively associated with the parameters of the immunological capability. Thus, it was concluded that the supplementations of 400 mg/kg FA in diet was able to improve the growth performance, antioxidative and immunological capabilities, intestinal morphology, and modulated the gut microbial construction of Linwu ducks at the growing stage.

20.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101199, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116351

RESUMO

The present study investigated the dosage and replication effects of lipopolysaccharide challenges on the serum oxidative and immune status, and the intestinal morphology and permeability of Linwu ducks at the growing stage. A total of 500 54-day-old Linwu ducks were randomly assigned into 10 treatments, which included a factorial arrangement of 2 levels of LPS challenge replications (1 and 2 times) × 5 levels of lipopolysaccharide challenging dosages (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of 5 cages and 10 ducks per cage. The results showed significant replication effects of LPS on the body weight gain of ducks, that 2 replicates of LPS challenges significantly decreased the body weight gain than one challenge (P = 0.036). Regarding to the serum oxidative and immune status, dosage effects of lipopolysaccharide were found on the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (P = 0.034) and immunoglobulin A (P = 0.007), that 0.4 mg/kg lipopolysaccharides significantly increased the levels of these 2 parameters. Additionally, replication effects were found in the serum levels of interlukin 1ß, that 2 replicates of LPS challenges significantly increased the interlukin 1ß levels comparing to one challenge (P = 0.010). Regarding to the intestinal conditions, dosage effects of lipopolysaccharides were found on the ratio of villus height and crypt depth (P = 0.005) in duodenum, and the wall thickness of duodenum (P = 0.010) and jejunum (P = 0.001), that lipopolysaccharides at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.8 mg/kg significantly deteriorated the intestinal morphologies, especially in the duodenum and jejunum. Moreover, the dosage effects of lipopolysaccharides and the interactions of dosages and replications significantly influenced the permeabilities of the intestinal segments (P < 0.05). It appeared that 2 replicates of lipopolysaccharides at the dosage at 0.4 mg/kg could trigger oxidative and immunological stress, and damage the intestinal morphology and permeability of Linwu ducks at the growing stage.


Assuntos
Patos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais
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