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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 303, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, this indicates that lncRNAs can serve as potential targets for gene therapy. Stable expression is a fundamental technology in the study of lncRNAs. The lentivirus is one of the most widely used delivery systems for stable expression. However, it was initially designed for mRNAs, and the applicability of lentiviral vectors for lncRNAs is largely unknown. RESULTS: We found that the lentiviral vector produces lncRNAs with improper termination, appending an extra fragment of ~ 2 kb to the 3'-end. Consequently, the secondary structures were changed, the RNA-protein interactions were blocked, and the functions were impaired in certain lncRNAs, which indicated that lentiviral vectors are not ideal delivery systems of lncRNAs. Here, we developed a novel lncRNA delivery method called the Expression of LncRNAs with Endogenous Characteristics using the Transposon System (ELECTS). By inserting a termination signal after the lncRNA sequence, ELECTS produces transcripts without 3'-flanking sequences and retains the native features and function of lncRNAs, which cannot be achieved by lentiviral vectors. Moreover, ELECTS presents no potential risk of infection for the operators and it takes much less time. ELECTS provides a reliable, convenient, safe, and efficient delivery method for stable expression of lncRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that improper transcriptional termination from lentiviral vectors have fundamental effects on molecular action and cellular function of lncRNAs. The ELECTS system developed in this study will provide a convenient and reliable method for the lncRNA study.

2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1623-1630, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane-4 Beta(Laptm4b) deletion on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) homeostasis in mice. METHODS: The hematopoietic system specific Laptm4b-deficient mice were constructed. The number and proportion of HSPCs (LSK, LT, ST, MPP, etc) in Laptm4b-deficient mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. Single SLAM-HSC cell was sorted by flow sorter and cultured in vitro to measure the effect of Laptm4b deletion on the colony forming ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The effect of Laptm4b-deficient on the reconstitution ability of HSCs in mice was detected by competitive transplantation experiment of SLAM-HSC cells. RESULTS: Laptm4b deficiency could moderately upregulate the proportion of T cells in the peripheral blood of the mice, but showed no significant effect on the proportion and number of HSPCs. Laptm4b deletion showed no effect on the reconstruction ability of HSCs after competitive transplantation, but it could inhibit the colony formation of HSCs in vitro. CONCLUSION: LAPTM4B may play a role in HSCs under the proliferation stress. Laptm4b-deficient in mice hematopoietic system showed no significant effect on the HSPCs homeostasis maintenance and reconstruction ability.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Citometria de Fluxo , Homeostase , Camundongos
3.
Esophagus ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT is the most commonly used method to stage esophageal cancer (EC). However, the reported CT T-staging criteria for EC are controversial. PURPOSE: To determine and validate the optimal esophageal wall thickness (EWT) threshold on CT to distinguish lesions with different T stages in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. METHODS: One thousand, one hundred-two consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed ESCC between July 2014 and April 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative CT examination and surgical treatment. The maximal EWT of the lesions on CT was measured. Patients were divided into pT1, pT2, pT3 and pT4 subgroups according to the pathologic stage. We employed the support vector machine, where linear kernels were leveraged to determine the optimal threshold to classify samples with different T stages. 90% of samples from each subgroup were randomly selected as the training set, while the remainder comprised the testing set. RESULTS: The mean EWTs of the pT1, pT2, pT3 and pT4 subgroups were 4.9 ± 2.6 mm, 8.1 ± 2.3 mm, 12.4 ± 3.6 mm, and 18.6 ± 4.4 mm, respectively. Differences in the EWT between the four subgroups or between adjacent subgroups were significant (p < 0.001), and esophageal wall became thicker with increasing pT stage. We utilized MATLAB 2020a to implement the SVM model and ran the code 10 times. The accuracy of the model was 60.29 ± 2.33%. The thresholds between samples from pT1/pT2, pT2/pT3 and pT3/pT4 lesions were 5.5 ± 0.3 mm, 10.8 ± 0.8 mm and 15.9 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Possibility of predicting T stage of ESCC by EWT on CT scans was limited to 60% by model examination with large sample size.

4.
J Virol ; : JVI0148121, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643426

RESUMO

Porcine parvovirus (PPV) NS1, the major nonstructural protein of this virus, plays an important role in PPV replication. We show, for the first time, that NS1 dynamically shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, although its subcellular localization is predominantly nuclear. NS1 contains two nuclear export signals (NESs) at amino acids 283-291 (designated NES2) and 602-608 (designated NES1). NES1 and NES2 are both functional and transferable NESs, and their nuclear export activity is blocked by leptomycin B (LMB), suggesting that the export of NS1 from the nucleus is dependent upon the chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) pathway. Deletion and site-directed mutational analyses showed that NS1 contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at amino acids 256-274. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that NS1 interacts with importins α5 and α7 through its NLS. The overexpression of CRM1, importins α5 and α7 significantly promoted PPV replication, whereas the inhibition of CRM1 and importin α/ß-mediated transport by specific inhibitors (LMB, importazole and ivermectin) clearly blocked PPV replication. The mutant viruses of delete NESs or NLS motif of the NS1 by using reverse genetics could not be rescued, suggesting that NESs and NLS are essential for PPV replication. Collectively, these findings suggest that NS1 shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, mediated by its functional NESs and NLS, via the CRM1-dependent nuclear export pathway and the importin α/ß-mediated nuclear import pathway, and PPV proliferation was inhibited if blocking NS1 nuclear import or export. Importance PPV replicates in the nucleus, and the nuclear envelope is a barrier to its entry into and egress from the nucleus. PPV NS1 is a nucleus-targeting protein that is important for viral DNA replication. Because the NS1 molecule is large (> 50 kDa), it cannot pass through the nuclear pore complex by diffusion alone, and requires specific transport receptors to permit its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In this study, the two functional NESs in the NS1 protein were identified, and its dependence on the CRM1 pathway for nuclear export demonstrated. The nuclear import of NS1 utilizes importins α5 and α7 in the importin α/ß nuclear import pathway.

5.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682211035363, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628966

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to present current applications of machine learning (ML) in spine domain to clinicians. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search of peer-reviewed articles that were published between 2006 and 2020 using terms (spine, spinal, lumbar, cervical, thoracic, machine learning) to examine ML in spine. Then exclude research of other domain, case report, review or meta-analysis, and which without available abstract or full text. RESULTS: Total 1738 articles were retrieved from database, and 292 studies were finally included. Key findings of current applications were compiled and summarized in this review. Main clinical applications of those techniques including image processing, diagnosis, decision supporting, operative assistance, rehabilitation, surgery outcomes, complications, hospitalization and cost. CONCLUSIONS: ML had achieved excellent performance and hold immense potential in spine. ML could help clinical staff to improve medical level, enhance work efficiency, and reduce adverse events. However more randomized controlled trials and improvement of interpretability are essential to clinicians accepting models' assistance in real work.

6.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; : 103096, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607057

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been utilized to assess outcomes after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, most are not specifically designed for UKA and the measurement properties of these PROMs have never been elucidated in the setting of UKA. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of commonly used PROMs after UKA, which includes the Oxford knee score (OKS), Knee Society Score (KSS)-function score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). HYPOTHESIS: The four commonly used PROMs after UKA are of good reliability and validity, but with different floor/ceiling effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively collected postoperative follow-up PROMs scores of patients after medial UKA cases for osteoarthritis between May 2015 and June 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. All of the PROMs were finished on the same electronic questionnaires. Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error), construct validity and floor/ceiling effects were assessed. RESULTS: The whole cohort was composed of 207 cases, with a median age of 62.0 years and a male ratio of 59/207 (28.50%). Internal consistency was high in the OKS, weak in the KSS-function score and with redundancy in the WOMAC and KOOS scores (Cronbach alpha=0.915, 0.610, 0.953, 0.961, respectively). Each of the four PROMs had a high test-retest reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.97). Convergent validity of the four PROMs with the physical component score of the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 PCS) were proven (all r >0.5; p<0.001). While no ceiling effect occurred in the OKS, one was detected in the KSS-function score with 19.81% of patients achieving the best possible score, as well as in the WOMAC sub-score for pain (54.11%) and stiffness (50.72%), in addition to the KOOS sub-score for symptoms (27.54%) and pain (38.16%). DISCUSSION: The four commonly used PROMs after UKA showed good test-retest reliability and construct validity. The OKS is more recommended for its better performance in internal consistency and ceiling effect than the KSS-function score, the WOMAC and KOOS scores. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III; Diagnostic study.

7.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649825

RESUMO

AIMS: Aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) can reduce blood glucose and type 2 diabetes risk, and increase muscle mass for prediabetes patients. However, the impact of long-term AT and RT on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AT and RT on CVD risk reduction in prediabetes patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 248 prediabetes patients were enrolled in this multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: RT (n = 82), aerobic training (AT (n = 83)), and control group (n = 83). Participants in RT and AT groups had moderate RT or AT 3 times a week (150 min/week) under supervision in 3 research centers for 24 months. Primary outcome was CVD risk measured by Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and The Chinese 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk assessment tool. Secondary outcomes included in HOMA2-IR, HbA1c, blood pressure and serum lipid profile. RESULTS: Both RT and AT groups experienced a significant reduction in HOMA2-IR, HbA1c, LDL-C, TC, SBP, and DBP at the end of 12 and 24 months. Compared to the control group, Both RT and AT groups had significant reduction of the Chinese 10-year ICVD risk (P < 0.05), but FRS CVD risk declined significantly only in the AT group (all P < 0.05). Although FRS CVD risk decreased more in the RT group than in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. After adjusting for age, gender, statin use, BMI, and WHR, in COX's proportional hazard model, RT (HR = 0.419, P = 0.037) and AT (HR = 0.310, P = 0.026) were protective factors for CVD risk in prediabetes patients. 24-month RT and AT decreased respectively 58.1% and 69.0% of CVD risk (10-year ICVD risk assessment) in prediabetes patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that 24-month moderate AT reduces the Chinese 10-year ICVD risk and FRS CVD risk in prediabetes patients. RT groups had significant reduction of CVD risk (10-year ICVD risk assessment) in prediabetes patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number: NCT02561377. DATE OF REGISTRATION: 24/09/2015.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 1073458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650661

RESUMO

Aims. Accumulating evidence reported that the microRNA (miRNA) took an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). In this study, we revealed a novel miRNA regulatory mechanism in IDD. Main Methods. The miRNA microarray analyses of human degenerated and normal disc samples were employed to screen out the target miRNA. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to verify the regulatory effect of miR-101-3p. Key Findings. The expression level of miR-101-3p was significantly decreased in the degenerated disc samples which were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Moreover, the miR-101-3p expression level was changed dynamically according to the disc degeneration grade. Upregulation of miR-101-3p expression level inhibited cell apoptosis. Furthermore, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) was selected to be the target gene of miR-101-3p according to the bioinformatic algorithms. Mechanically, upregulation of miR-101-3p significantly decreased the expression of STC1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and MAPK pathway expression levels. Therapeutically, in vivo experiment on IDD rat model illustrated that agomir-101-3p could effectively suspend IDD. Significance. Our findings demonstrated that miR-101-3p alleviated IDD process through the STC1/VEGF/MAPK pathway.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150784, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624282

RESUMO

The effects of multiple antibiotics on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) process were investigated. The resistance of the anammox system to high-concentration antibiotics was also demonstrated through gradual acclimation experiments. Inhibition of the anammox process (R1) occurred when the concentrations of erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and tetracycline (TC) were 0.1, 5.0 and 0.1 mg L-1, respectively. The nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of R1 was reduced from 97.2% to 60.7% within 12 days and then recovered to 88.9 ± 9.5% when the nitrogen loading declined from 4.52 ± 0.69 to 2.11 ± 0.58 kg N m-3 d-1. Even when the concentrations of ERY, SMX and TC were as high as 1.0, 15.0 and 1.0 mg L-1, respectively, R1 maintained stable operation. The increases in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content showed that the anammox process alleviated stress from multiple antibiotics mainly by producing ARGs and secreting EPS. The molecular docking simulation results illustrated the potential binding sites between ammonium transporter and different antibiotics. The upregulation of functional gene expression and the stable abundance of Candidatus Kuenenia in R1 compared with that in the control suggested that the R1 reactor generally maintained more stable long-term operation. This work provides a new understanding of the application of the anammox process to treat wastewater containing multiple antibiotics.

10.
Bioconjug Chem ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491734

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a challenging bone disease which is commonly associated with critically sized bone defects and cancer recurrence. Here, we designed and developed a multifunctional, hierarchical structured bone scaffold which can meet the demanding requirements for osteosarcoma management. The 3D printed Ti6Al4V scaffold with hydrothermally induced TiO2/TiP coating can offer a unique photothermal conversion property for in vitro bone cancer ablation. The scaffold is also infused with drug-laden gelatin/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite, which provides the ideal porous structure for cell adhesion/bone ingrowth and promotes bone regeneration. The scaffold has been thoroughly characterized by SEM/EDX, TEM, XPS, XRD, TGA, and UV-vis, and its in vitro bone cancer ablation efficiency has been validated using MG-63 cells. The hybrid scaffold showed excellent biocompatibility, and its osteointegration function has been demonstrated using an animal model.

11.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523244

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) is used as an adjunctive treatment for depression. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of EA in the depressive rat model induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in male adult Wistar rats. The underlying mechanisms were explored by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis of the proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and observing the number of the PFC neurons stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and synaptic morphological changes under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that EA plus paroxetine (EA + Par) for 1 week significantly relieved depression-like anhedonia symptoms and improved anxiety-like behavior, accompanied by the improvements in synaptic morphology and a significant increase of PFC neurons. Moreover, EA or paroxetine alone significantly alleviated anhedonia symptoms after 2 weeks of intervention. Additionally, iTRAQ analysis showed that dopaminergic signaling was significantly altered in CUMS rats after 1 week of EA treatment. As the critical enzyme of this pathway, aromatic-l-amino-acid decarboxylase (DDC) was significantly upregulated after the treatment with EA + Par for 1 week. These findings suggested that the dopaminergic signaling pathway in PFC may be involved in the antidepressant mechanisms of EA.

12.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 637-649, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472225

RESUMO

The insect brain is the central part of the neurosecretory system, which controls morphology, physiology, and behavior during the insect's lifecycle. Lepidoptera are holometabolous insects, and their brains develop during the larval period and metamorphosis into the adult form. As the only fully domesticated insect, the Lepidoptera silkworm Bombyx mori experienced changes in larval brain morphology and certain behaviors during the domestication process. Hormonal regulation in insects is a key factor in multiple processes. However, how juvenile hormone (JH) signals regulate brain development in Lepidoptera species, especially in the larval stage, remains elusive. We recently identified the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant 1 ( Met1) as a putative domestication gene. How artificial selection on Met1 impacts brain and behavioral domestication is another important issue addressing Darwin's theory on domestication. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Bombyx Met1 caused developmental retardation in the brain, unlike precocious pupation of the cuticle. At the whole transcriptome level, the ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling and downstream pathways were overactivated in the mutant cuticle but not in the brain. Pathways related to cell proliferation and specialization processes, such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and tyrosine metabolism pathways, were suppressed in the brain. Molecular evolutionary analysis and in vitro assay identified an amino acid replacement located in a novel motif under positive selection in B. mori, which decreased transcriptional binding activity. The B. mori MET1 protein showed a changed structure and dynamic features, as well as a weakened co-expression gene network, compared with B. mandarina. Based on comparative transcriptomic analyses, we proposed a pathway downstream of JH signaling (i.e., tyrosine metabolism pathway) that likely contributed to silkworm larval brain development and domestication and highlighted the importance of the biogenic amine system in larval evolution during silkworm domestication.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica
13.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Resection of high-grade glioma with sodium fluorescein can improve the resection rate of the glioma and improve survival. However, it is unclear whether the yellow fluorescence boundary of the high-grade glioma is consistent with the actual boundary of the tumor. This study explores the yellow fluorescence boundary and the actual tumor boundary in high-grade glioma surgery. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 10 patients with high-grade gliomas who underwent tumor visualization with sodium fluorescein. After staining of the tumor, random selections of both developed and non-developed yellow fluorescent border tissue at the fluorescence chromogenic boundary were made, followed by pathological examination. Claudin-5, an important component of the tight connections between vascular endothelial cells, was assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR in the tumor and surrounding tissues in order to determine the tumor cell content of the tissue, blood-brain barrier damage, and vascular proliferation. The yellow fluorescence boundary was compared with the actual tumor boundary and the results analyzed. RESULTS: Tumor cells were still detected outside the yellow fluorescence boundary during high-grade glioma surgery (P < 0.05). Claudin-5 expression was higher in high-grade gliomas than in adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.05), while disconnected Claudin-5 expression was associated with intraoperative yellow fluorescence imaging (r = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: There is a difference between the yellow fluorescence boundary and the actual boundary of the tumor in high-grade glioma, and there are glioma cell infiltrations in the brain tissue of the undeveloped yellow fluorescent border. To ensure patient recovery and function, it is recommended that tumor resection be expanded based on yellow fluorescence visualization. Claudin-5 is overall up-regulated in high-grade gliomas, but some Claudin-5 expression is disconnected. This Claudin-5 expression pattern may be related to the development of yellow fluorescence.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125829, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492790

RESUMO

Enhancing the performance of adsorbents to the utmost extent is an objective but challenging in applying adsorption technology to wastewater treatment. In this work, novel quaternary ammonium polymers (QAPs) with high density adsorption site (i.e., quaternized N, confirmed by FT-IR results) were designed and prepared for rapid selective removal of Cr(VI) from water. The results of EDS analysis indicated the maximum exposure rate of N on the surface of QAPs was as high as 86.1%, which almost doubled comparing to that of Cr(VI) ions imprinted polymers (Cr(VI)-IIP) (46.2%). Interestingly, the maximum adsorption capacity (211.8 mg/g) and initial adsorption rate (h0, 66.6 mg/ (g·min)) of QAPs (i.e., 5:1(TRIM)) for Cr(VI) are about 3.6 times and 4.9 times those of Cr(VI)-IIP (63.0 mg/g and 13.5 mg/(g·min)), respectively. Impressively, flow-through adsorption experiments demonstrated 5:1(TRIM) can completely remove 5 mg/L of Cr(VI) within five seconds. Additionally, 5:1(TRIM) exhibited a remarkable selectivity for Cr(VI) adsorption, and high purity (100%) of chromium can be readily obtained. The proposed idea of high exposure effect of the adsorption site can provide a valuable guidance for designing rapid selective adsorbents to remove and reclaim Cr(VI) from wastewater.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Cromo/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Polímeros , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507519

RESUMO

Four new compounds, basjoochromene A (1), basjoochromene B (2), basjoochromene C (3) and basjoochromene D (4) were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Musa basjoo using column chromatography techniques. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, mass spectrometric analyses.

16.
Sci Prog ; 104(3_suppl): 368504211041497, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533074

RESUMO

The generator is the most popular mobile power device and backup power device in the world. It is very important for human life. Therefore, it is important to develop more efficient combustion technology in order to save energy and reduce air pollution. In this paper, a novel technology of hydrogen and oxygen compound gasoline fuel is developed. Hydrogen and oxygen gases are produced from an electrolytic cell and then mixed with the intake gasoline and air. The compound fuel is sucked into the engine combustion chamber. The hydrogen and oxygen gases can be produced immediately without any storage device of hydrogen. The experimental results show that this technology can increase the power generation and decrease emission pollution due to promoting combustion efficiency. In addition, the spark plug seat temperature increases due to higher heat value of hydrogen. This technique can reduce carbon monoxide and HC, but increase carbon dioxide. The research and development of this technique can achieve the goals of energy saving, emission reduction, relative safety, easy refitting and low refitting expense. Moreover, this research possesses academic innovation and industrial application.

17.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131133, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470170

RESUMO

The rapid development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the field of fish disease control and prevention raises concerns about the toxicity and safe use in fish. This study was performed to assess the effect on histological changes, oxidative stress related markers in response to various concentrations of amine-functionalized single carbon nanotubes (NH2 f-SWCNT) (1, 10 and 100 mg kg-1 fish) in Channel Catfish (Ietalurus Punetaus) for up to 10 days. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and apoptotic genes were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of molecular mechanism of NH2 f-SWCNT induced toxicity. As a result, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of NH2 f-SWCNT caused dose-dependent and time-dependent injuries in the sampled tissues. In comparison with the control groups, decrease of catalase (CAT) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactin dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed in all treatments. Real-time PCR assay showed inflammatory response with dose-dependent increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and transient increase of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) in the liver. NH2 f-SWCNT administration induced increase of p38 as well as caspase-3 in all treatments compared to the control groups, indicating the involvement of p38-MAPK cascade and caspase-3 cascade in liver cell apoptosis. Overall, we conclude that NH2 f-SWCNT exert effects by direct injury and indirectly oxidative stress, resulting in inflammation and apoptosis, which provides data for understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the toxicity of CNTs in fish.


Assuntos
Ictaluridae , Nanotubos de Carbono , Aminas , Animais , Apoptose , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113711, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509812

RESUMO

The pilot-scale partial nitrification-anaerobic ammonia oxidation (PN-Anammox) process for landfill leachate treatment has been running stably for 2 years. The degradation characteristics of nitrogen removal performance of PN-Anammox in this system were discussed during shutdown, and different recovery strategies were analyzed from the perspective of economy and easy implementation. The results showed that during the 166 d dormancy period, the decrease in Anammox bacteria activity occurred earlier than that of Anammox bacteria, and both tended to slow down after 128 d. The recovery strategy of simulated wastewater was the fastest, followed by the pretreated landfill leachate recovery strategy with inoculation of some corresponding functional sludges, while the worst strategy was the direct pretreated landfill leachate recovery strategy. The recovery start-up of the pilot-scale PN-Anammox process further showed that microbial activities were difficult to recover simultaneously during operation using raw wastewater directly due to the presence of high NH4+-N levels and the coupling process, which easily led to the accumulation of NH4+-N or NO2-N, thereby inhibiting microbial activity. The addition of some functional bacteria was more conducive to the rapid recovery of microbial activity. This study provides a new strategy for the rapid recovery of microbial activity for the engineering application of the PN-Anammox process.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos
19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561552

RESUMO

Sepsis is a dysregulated immune response to infection and potentially leads to life-threatening organ dysfunction, which is often seen in serious Covid-19 patients. Disulfiram (DSF), an old drug that has been used to treat alcohol addiction for decades, has recently been identified as a potent inhibitor of the gasdermin D (GSDMD)-induced pore formation that causes pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release. Therefore, DSF represents a promising therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities that acts by neutralizing circulating endotoxins and activating cellular responses. In addition, LF has been well exploited as a drug nanocarrier and targeting ligands. In this study, we developed a DSF-LF nanoparticulate system (DSF-LF NP) for combining the immunosuppressive activities of both DSF and LF. DSF-LF NPs could effectively block pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages. Treatment with DSF-LF NPs showed remarkable therapeutic effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy was also applied to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), and substantial treatment efficacy was achieved in a murine colitis model. The underlying mode of action of these DSF-LF-NPs may contribute to efficiently suppressing macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and ameliorating the complications caused by sepsis and UC. As macrophage pyroptosis plays a pivotal role in inflammation, this safe and effective biomimetic nanomedicine may offer a versatile therapeutic strategy for treating various inflammatory diseases by repurposing DSF.

20.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125935, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571329

RESUMO

At present, sustainable and stable partial nitrification has not been widely achieved in the mainstream PN/ANAMMOX process. Here, the feasibility of sustainable and stable partial nitrification was demonstrated in automatic recycling PN/ANAMMOX reactor under mainstream conditions using both simulation and experimental methods. Stable nitrite accumulation in the aerobic zone could be achieved via regulating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and sludge retention time (SRT). The DO concentrations required for the repression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were lower at longer SRTs. The DO concentrations and SRTs required for NOB repression were lower at lower temperatures. However, NOB repression was diminished by a persistent low DO and short SRT under mainstream conditions. With the introduction of automatic recycling, sustainable and stable partial nitrification was achieved. Effluent recycling could limit the nitrite-nitrogen required for NOB growth. Collectively, effluent recycling may serve as a feasible and useful strategy for NOB inhibition during the PN/ANAMMOX process.

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