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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 311: 123966, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335591

RESUMO

Potatoes are popular among consumers due to their high yield and delicious taste. However, due to the numerous varieties of potatoes, different varieties are suitable for different processing methods. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish varieties after harvest to meet the needs of processing enterprises and consumers. In this study, a new visible-near-infrared spectroscopic analysis method was proposed, which can achieve detection of five potato varieties. The method measures the transmission and reflection spectra of potatoes using a spectral acquisition system, encodes one-dimensional spectra into two-dimensional images using Gramian Angular Summation Field (GASF), Gramian Angular Difference Field (GADF), Markov Transition Field (MTF) and Recurrence Plot (RP), and improves the coordinated attention mechanism module and embeds the improved module into the ConvNeXt V2 model to build the ConvNeXt V2-CAP model for potato variety classification. The results show that compared with directly using one-dimensional classification models, image encoding of spectral data for classification greatly improves the accuracy. Among them, the best accuracy of 99.54% is achieved by using GADF image encoding of transmission spectra combined with the ConvNeXt V2-CAP model for classification, which is 16.28% higher than the highest accuracy of the one-dimensional classification model. The CAP attention mechanism module improves the performance of the model, especially when the dataset is small. When the training set is reduced to 150 images, the accuracy of the model is improved by 2.33% compared to the original model. Therefore, it is feasible to classify potato varieties using visible-near infrared spectroscopy and image encoding technology.

2.
iScience ; 27(2): 108834, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303703

RESUMO

Current diagnostic methods for diabetic nephropathy (DN) lack precision, especially in early stages and monitoring progression. This study aims to find potential biomarkers for DN progression and evaluate their accuracy. Using serum samples from healthy controls (NC), diabetic patients (DM), early-medium stage DN (DN-EM), and late-stage DN (DN-L), researchers employed quantitative proteomics and Mfuzz clustering analysis revealed 15 proteins showing increased expression during DN progression, hinting at their biomarker potential. Combining Mfuzz clustering with weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) highlighted five candidates (HMGB1, CD44, FBLN1, PTPRG, and ADAMTSL4). HMGB1 emerged as a promising biomarker, closely correlated with renal function changes. Experimental validation supported HMGB1's upregulation under high glucose conditions, reinforcing its potential as an early detection biomarker for DN. This research advances DN understanding and identifies five potential biomarkers, notably HMGB1, as a promising early monitoring target. These findings set the stage for future clinical diagnostic applications in DN.

3.
Heliyon ; 10(2): e24388, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298688

RESUMO

To examine the impact of ginger volatile oil (GVO) on the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) by modulating the diversity of gut microbiota. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were injected subcutaneously into the right armpit of female BALB/c Nude (nu/nu) mice to create a triple negative breast cancer model. Thirty nude mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (distilled water every day), BPA control group (distilled PEG-400+ DMSO + cyclodextrin every day), BPA + GVO (0.25 mL/kg) group, BPA + GVO (0.5 mL/kg) group, BPA + GVO (1 mL/kg) group, 6 mice in each group; The drug was given by gavage once a day for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the changes of tumor mass and tumor volume were observed and compared in 5 groups of tumor-bearing mice. High-throughput sequencing (16S rRNA) was used to detect the changes of gut microflora in each group. RESULTS: The volume and weight of breast cancer decreased in the low, medium and high dose groups of GVO. Among them, the difference between the high-dose group and the BPA group reached a significant level (P < 0.05). The species and abundance of gut flora decreased following BPA treatment, but increased after combined treatment of BPA with GVO. In the tumor control group, the ratio of Firmicutes(F) and Bacteroidea(B) respectively was 0.10:0.79 at the phylum level, while the ratio of BPA group further decreased (0.04:0.88). After feeding GVO, the number of Firmicutes and Bacteroidea increased, the F/B ratio increased, and the level of Lactobacillus and alistipes increased. In the BPA and GVO treatment group, the predominant gut microflora functions are cell membrane biogenesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism. This is followed by amino acid transport and metabolism, and transcription function. After GVO administration, the Gram-positive bacteria (G+) ratio had an increasing trend and the Gram-negative bacteria (G-)ratio had a decreasing trend. CONCLUSION: The species and abundance of gut flora decreased following BPA treatment, but increased after combined treatment of BPA with GVO.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 661: 237-248, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301462

RESUMO

Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) are a new generation of energy storage devices that combine the super energy storage capability of lithium ion batteries with the satisfactory power density of supercapacitors. The development of high-performance LICs still faces great challenges due to the unbalanced reaction kinetics at the anode and cathode. Therefore, it is an inevitable need to enhance the electron/ion transfer capability of the anode materials. In this paper, to obtain a superior-rate and high-capacity Ni3S2-based anode, highly conductive Ti3C2Tx MXene sheets were introduced to sever as the carrier of Ni3S2 nanoparticles and simultaneously an amorphous carbon layer which coats onto the surface of Ni3S2 nanoparticles was in-situ generated by the carbonization of dopamine reactant. The as-synthesized Ni3S2/Ti3C2Tx/C composite exhibits a high specific surface area (112.6 m2/g) because of the addition of Ti3C2Tx that can reduce the aggregation of Ni3S2 nanoparticles and the in-situ generated amorphous carbon layer that can suppress the growth of Ni3S2 nanoparticles. The Ni3S2/Ti3C2Tx/C anode possesses a remarkable reversible discharge specific capacity (626.0 mAh/g under 0.2 A/g current density), which increases to 1150.8 mAh/g after 400-cycle charge/discharge measurement at the same measurement condition indicating eminent cyclability, along with superior rate capability. To construct a superior-performance LIC device, a sterculiae lychnophorae derived porous carbon (SLPC) cathode with an average discharge specific capacity of 73.4 mAh/g@0.1A/g was prepared. The Ni3S2/Ti3C2Tx/C//SLPC LIC device with optimal cathode/anode mass ratio has a satisfactory energy density ranging from 32.8 to 119.1 Wh kg-1 at the corresponding power density of 8799.4 to 157.5 W kg-1, together with a prominent capacity retention (95.5 %@1 A/g after 10,000 cycles).

5.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop an interference-free and rapid method to elucidate Guanxin II (GX II)'s representative vasodilator absorbed bioactive compounds (ABCs) among enormous phytochemicals. METHODS: The contents of ferulic acid, tanshinol, and hydroxysafflor yellow A (FTA) in GX II/rat serum after the oral administration of GX II (30 g/kg) were detected using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Totally 18 rats were randomly assigned to the control group (0.9% normal saline), GX II (30 g/kg) and FTA (5, 28 and 77 mg/kg) by random number table method. Diastolic coronary flow velocity-time integral (VTI), i.e., coronary flow or coronary flow-mediated dilation (CFMD), and endothelium-intact vascular tension of isolated aortic rings were measured. After 12 h of exposure to blank medium or 0.5 mmol/L H2O2, endothelial cells (ECs) were treated with post-dose GX II of supernatant from deproteinized serum (PGSDS, 300 µL PGSDS per 1 mL of culture medium) or FTA (237, 1539, and 1510 mg/mL) for 10 min as control, H2O2, PGSDS and FTA groups. Nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3 kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) were analyzed. PGSDS was developed as a GX II proxy of ex vivo herbal crude extracts. RESULTS: PGSDS effectively eliminates false responses caused by crude GX II preparations. When doses equaled the contents in GX II/its post-dose serum, FTA accounted for 98.17% of GX II -added CFMD and 92.99% of PGSDS-reduced vascular tension. In ECs, FTA/PGSDS was found to have significant antioxidant (lower MDA and higher SOD, P<0.01) and endothelial function-protective (lower VEGF, ET-1, P<0.01) effects. The increases in aortic relaxation, endothelial NO levels and phosphorylated PI3K/Akt/eNOS protein induced by FTA/PGSDS were markedly abolished by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NA, eNOS inhibitor) and wortmannin (PI3K/AKT inhibitor), respectively, indicating an endothelium-dependent vasodilation via the PI3K/AKT-eNOS pathway (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This study provides a strategy for rapidly and precisely elucidating GX II's representative in/ex vivo cardioprotective absorbed bioactive compounds (ABCs)-FTA, suggesting its potential in advancing precision ethnomedicine.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 261(Pt 2): 129834, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302029

RESUMO

The unique stere-complex crystal formed by poly(ʟ-lactide)/poly(ᴅ-lactide) (PLLA/PDLA) has a significant impact on properties of poly-lactide materials and is considered an effective means to improve the barrier properties of poly-lactide (PLA). In this work, poly-lactide films with different aggregate structures were prepared and the relationship of aggregate structure and barrier properties were explored. The results show that the crystal structure including crystallinity and crystal forms can be controlled by adjusting the isothermal crystallization time and crystallization temperature during the molding process. PLLA/PDLA composite films contain both homochiral crystallites and stereo-complex crystallites, and there is a synergistic crystallization effect between the two of them, which provides the composite films with high crystallinity and excellent barrier properties. Compared to the PLLA with homochiral crystallites, the PLLA/PDLA composite film with only stereo-complex crystallites exhibits higher barrier properties. The linear correlation between the crystallinity and the barrier properties is weak due to the changes in crystallization behavior and then the structure of poly-lactide caused by stereo-complexation. The linear correlation between the crystallinity and the barrier properties of the blend film is strong in the low crystallinity but weak at high crystallinity. Compared to homochiral crystallites, stereo-complex crystallites exhibits lower crystallinity dependence. It has been proven that different crystal forms have different design ideas for preparing high-barrier films, but the stereo-complexation resulting from the intermolecular forces between PLLA and PDLA having complementary chemical structure, is an effective method for enhancing the barrier performances of poly-lactide sustainably.

7.
Opt Express ; 32(3): 2906-2915, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297527

RESUMO

We present a novel micro-fabrication technique for creating concave surfaces on the endfacets of photonic crystal fibers. A fiber fusion splicer is used to generate arc discharges to melt and reshape the fiber endfacet. This technique can produce large spherical concave surfaces with roughness as low as 0.12 nm in various types of photonic crystal fibers. The deviation of fabricated surface and a spherical profile in the region of 70 µm in diameter is less than 50 nm. The center of the concave surface and the fiber mode field are highly coincident with a deviation less than 500 nm. Finesse measurements have shown that a Fabry-Pérot cavity composed of the fiber fabricated using this method and a plane mirror maintains finesse of 20000. This method is easy to replicate, making it a practical and efficient approach to fabricate concave surface on fibers for open-access fiber Fabry-Pérot cavities.

8.
Biomater Adv ; 158: 213796, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342024

RESUMO

Tumor metastasis and recurrence are principal reasons for the high mortality and poor prognosis of cancers. Inefficient engagement between T cell and tumor cell, as well as the universal existence of immune checkpoints, are important factors to the limited immunological surveillance of the immune systems to tumor cells. Herein, an immune engager based on engineered platelets with CD3 antibody modification (P-aCD3) was constructed to facilitate the contact between T cell and tumor cell via providing the anchoring sites of above two cells. Combined with the immune checkpoint blockade strategy, P-aCD3 effectively enhanced T cell mediated cytotoxicity and inhibited tumor recurrence and metastasis in mice melanoma postoperative model and breast cancer model, resulting in significantly prolonged survival of mice.

9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(2): 20, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363403

RESUMO

SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKEs (SPLs) encode plant-specific transcription factors that regulate plant growth and development, stress response, and metabolite accumulation. However, there is limited information on Scutellaria baicalensis SPLs. In this study, 14 SbSPLs were identified and divided into 8 groups based on phylogenetic relationships. SbSPLs in the same group had similar structures. Abscisic acid-responsive (ABRE) and MYB binding site (MBS) cis-acting elements were found in the promoters of 8 and 6 SbSPLs. Segmental duplications and transposable duplications were the main causes of SbSPL expansion. Expression analysis based on transcriptional profiling showed that SbSPL1, SbSPL10, and SbSPL13 were highly expressed in roots, stems, and flowers, respectively. Expression analysis based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT‒qPCR) showed that most SbSPLs responded to low temperature, drought, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA), among which the expression levels of SbSPL7/9/10/12 were significantly upregulated in response to abiotic stress. These results indicate that SbSPLs are involved in the growth, development and stress response of S. baicalensis. In addition, 8 Sba-miR156/157 s were identified, and SbSPL1-5 was a potential target of Sba-miR156/157 s. The results of target gene prediction and coexpression analysis together indicated that SbSPLs may be involved in the regulation of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), lignin and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. In summary, the identification and characterization of the SbSPL gene family lays the foundation for functional research and provides a reference for improved breeding of S. baicalensis stress resistance and quality traits.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Scutellaria baicalensis , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Scutellaria baicalensis/genética , Scutellaria baicalensis/metabolismo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Hormônios/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Clin Biochem ; : 110731, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An analytical benchmark for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays is to achieve a coefficient of variation (CV) of ≤ 10.0 % at the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Few prospective multicenter studies have evaluated assay imprecision and none have determined precision at the female URL which is lower than the male URL for all cardiac troponin assays. METHODS: Human serum and plasma matrix samples were constructed to yield hs-cTn concentrations near the female URLs for the Abbott, Beckman, Roche, and Siemens hs-cTn assays. These materials were sent (on dry ice) to 35 Canadian hospital laboratories (n = 64 instruments evaluated) participating in a larger clinical trial, with instructions for storage, handling, and monthly testing over one year. The mean concentration, standard deviation, and CV for each instrument type and an overall pooled CV for each manufacturer were calculated. RESULTS: The CVs for all individual instruments and overall were ≤ 10.0 % for two manufacturers (Abbott CVpooled = 6.3 % and Beckman CVpooled = 7.0 %). One of four Siemens Atellica instruments yielded a CV > 10.0 % (CVpooled = 7.7 %), whereas 15 of 41 Roche instruments yielded CVs > 10.0 % at the female URL of 9 ng/L used worldwide (6 cobas e411, 1 cobas e601, 4 cobas e602, and 4 cobas e801) CVpooled = 11.7 %). Four Roche instruments also yielded CVs > 10.0 % near the female URL of 14 ng/L used in the United States (CVpooled = 8.5 %). CONCLUSIONS: The number of instruments achieving a CV ≤ 10.0 % at the female 99th-percentile URL varies by manufacturer and by instrument. Monitoring assay precision at the female URL is necessary for some assays to ensure optimal use of this threshold in clinical practice.

11.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114006, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342533

RESUMO

To distinguish Chinese milks from different regions, 13 milk samples were gathered from 13 regions of China in this study: Inner Mongolia (IM), Xinjiang (XJ), Hebei (HB), Shanghai (SH), Beijing (BJ), Sichuan (SC), Ningxia (NX), Henan (HN), Tianjin (TJ), Qinghai (QH), Yunnan (YN), Guangxi (GX), and Tibet (XZ). Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) combined with the electronic nose (E-nose) technology, was used to detect and analyze the volatile compounds in these milk samples. The qualitative and quantitative results identified 29 volatile chemicals, and we established a database of flavor profiles for the main milk-producing regions in China. E-nose analysis revealed variations in the odor of milk across different areas. Furthermore, results from partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and odor activity values (OAVs) suggested that seven volatile compounds: decane, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone, 2-nonanone, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E)-2-nonenal, could be considered as key flavor compounds in Chinese milk products.


Assuntos
Leite , Odorantes , Animais , Leite/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Análise Discriminante
12.
Small ; : e2311993, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363065

RESUMO

Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation has serious damage to human's health, therefore the development of visible, portable, and wearable sensor for monitoring UV radiation, especially the cumulative UV dosage, is highly desired but full of challenges. Herein, a wearable and flexible UV dosimeter based on photochromic perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) is designed. The obtained CsPbCl3 PNCs dispersed in dibromomethane (PNCs-DBM) undergo continuous, vivid, and multiple (from very weak purple to blue, cyan, and finally strong green) color change in response to UV radiation. It is demonstrated that the UV-induced degradation of DBM and subsequent anion-exchange reaction between CsPbCl3 and Br- , play a crucial role in the color change of PNCs-DBM. The properties of continuous fluorescence color change and enhanced fluorescence intensity enable the construction of sensitive and visible UV dosimeter. Furthermore, by integrated photochromic PNCs with flexible bracelet or PDMS substrate, a wearable UV sensor or a multi-indicator array for the detection of solar UV dosage is developed. This work may advance the fundamental understanding about photochromic perovskite, and show promising application of perovskite nanomaterials in easily fabricated, low-cost, visualized, and wearable solar UV dosimeter.

14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 42, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168091

RESUMO

To curb viral epidemics and pandemics, antiviral drugs are needed with activity against entire genera or families of viruses. Here, we develop a cell-based multiplex antiviral assay for high-throughput screening against multiple viruses at once, as demonstrated by using three distantly related orthoflaviviruses: dengue, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever virus. Each virus is tagged with a distinct fluorescent protein, enabling individual monitoring in cell culture through high-content imaging. Specific antisera and small-molecule inhibitors are employed to validate that multiplexing approach yields comparable inhibition profiles to single-virus infection assays. To facilitate downstream analysis, a kernel is developed to deconvolute and reduce the multidimensional quantitative data to three cartesian coordinates. The methodology is applicable to viruses from different families as exemplified by co-infections with chikungunya, parainfluenza and Bunyamwera viruses. The multiplex approach is expected to facilitate the discovery of broader-spectrum antivirals, as shown in a pilot screen of approximately 1200 drug-like small-molecules.


Assuntos
Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Replicação Viral
15.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 83(1): 86-92, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180456

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of the new quadruple therapy regimen of adding sodium-glucose-linked transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, with standard treatment for patients with heart failure (HF) in China. From the payer's perspective, the dates of cardiovascular event recurrences were extracted from a meta-analysis including 6 trials, combined with the treatment cost for patients with HF in China to construct a Markov model. The outcomes included per capita medical costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) data. Single-factor, probability sensitivity analysis, and scenario analysis were used to explore the potential uncertainties of the model. The per capita costs of the new quadruple therapy regimen and standard treatment were $87441.26 and $87087.54, respectively. The new regimen was associated with a mean of 21.44 QALYs gained, compared with 18.60 QALYs gained with the standard treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $124.03 per QALY gained. The sensitivity analysis revealed that changes in the parameters within the set range did not affect the model results. In China, compared with standard treatment, the new quadruple therapy regimen with SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events among patients with HF, and it has economic advantages.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , China , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/economia
16.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; : e14277, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243604

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to improve the safety and accuracy of radiotherapy by establishing tolerance (TL) and action (AL) limits for the gamma index in patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using SunCHECK software, as per AAPM TG-218 report recommendations. METHODS: The study included 125 patients divided into six groups by treatment regions (H&N, thoracic and pelvic) and techniques (VMAT, IMRT). SunCHECK was used to calculate the gamma passing rate (%GP) and dose error (%DE) for each patient, for the planning target volume and organs at risk (OARs). The TL and AL were then determined for each group according to TG-218 recommendations. We conducted a comprehensive analysis to compare %DE among different groups and examined the relationship between %GP and %DE. RESULTS: The TL and AL of all groups were more stringent than the common standard as defined by the TG218 report. The TL and AL values of the groups differed significantly, and the values for the thoracic groups were lower for both VMAT and IMRT. The %DE of the parameters D95% , D90% , and Dmean in the planning target volume, and Dmean and Dmax in OARs were significantly different. The dose deviation of VMAT was larger than IMRT, especially in the thoracic group. A %GP and %DE correlation analysis showed a strong correlation for the planning target volume, but a weak correlation for the OARs. Additionally, a significant correlation existed between %GP of SunCHECK and Delta4. CONCLUSION: The study established TL and AL values tailored to various anatomical regions and treatment techniques at our institution. Establishing PSQA workflows for VMAT and IMRT offers valuable clinical insights and guidance. We also suggest developing a standard combining clinically relevant metrics with %GP to evaluate PSQA results comprehensively.

17.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; : 1-10, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38261550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This document is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of cognitive training interventions on attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase from the inception of each database to April 28, 2022. Data were analyzed using Stata 15 software. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using five domains from the Cochrane Collaborations tool. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies with 446 children with ADHD were included. The results showed that cognitive training was effective in improving attention symptoms [SMD= -0.78 (95% CI: -1.46, -0.1)] and executive function [SMD = -0.3 (95% CI: -0.56, -0.05)] in children with ADHD compared to controls. No significant difference in the degree of improvement in hyperactivity/impulsivity with cognitive training compared to the control group [SMD = -0.65 (95% CI: -1.35, 0.05)]. In addition, subgroup analyses also found that cognitive training significantly improved attention in children with ADHD <10 years of age [SMD = -1.3 (95% CI: -2.58, -0.02)] and children with ADHD with length of training >30 days [SMD = -0.94 (95% CI: -1.81, -0.07)] compared to controls. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis found that the beneficial effects of cognitive training on attention (particularly for children with ADHD <10 years old and >30 days of training) and executive function in children with ADHD, but not on hyperactivity/impulsivity.

18.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 16(1): e12523, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38213950

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the multimorbidity-dementia association has been widely addressed, little is known on the long-term trajectory of multimorbidity (TOM) in preclinical dementia. METHODS: Based on the Health and Retirement Study, burden of multimorbidity was quantified with the total number of eight long-term conditions (LTC). Patterns of TOM before dementia diagnosis were investigated with mixed-effects models. RESULTS: In 1752 dementia cases and 5256 matched controls, cases showed higher and faster increasing predicted number of LTC than controls, with a significant case-control difference from 20 years prior to dementia diagnosis. Larger increases in number of LTC during preclinical phase of dementia were found in White participants, females, those whose age at dementia onset was younger, and those who were less educated. DISCUSSION: Our findings emphasize the faster accumulation of multimorbidity in prodromal dementia than in natural aging, as well as effect modifications by age and sex. Highlights: TOM increased faster in prodromal dementia than in natural ageing.Patterns of TOM by dementia status diverged at 20 years before dementia diagnosis.Patterns of TOM were modified by age and sex.

19.
Foods ; 13(2)2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275700

RESUMO

Alpinia officinarum Hance, a well known agricultural product in the Lei Zhou peninsula, is generally rich in polysaccharides. In order to enhance the use of A. officinarum Hance polysaccharides (AOP) in functional food, AOP was extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method, and the ultrasonic extraction parameters of AOP was optimized. Furthermore, this study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of AOPs. In addition, the structural properties were preliminarily determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high performance size exclusion chromatography, and a Zetasizer. Ultimately, this study explored the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activities of AOP. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters were as follows: ultrasonic time, 6 min; ratio of water to material, 12 mL/g; and ultrasonic power, 380 W. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of AOPs was 5.72%, indicating that ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology is suitable for extracting AOPs due to the reduced time and water usage. Additionally, AOPs were purified using graded alcohol precipitation, resulting in three fractions (AOP30, AOP50, and AOP70). AOP30 had the lowest molecular weight of 11.07 kDa and mainly consisted of glucose (89.88%). The half inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of AOP30 and AOP70 was lower than that of AOP50 in the ability to scavenge the ABTS radical, while a reverse trend was observed in reducing ferric ions. Notably, the antioxidant activities of AOPs were highly correlated with their polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and Zeta potential. AOP30, a negatively charged acidic polysaccharide fraction, exhibited electron donating capacities. Additionally, it displayed strong antioxidant abilities through scavenging 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radicals and reducing ferric ions. In conclusion, the present study suggests that AOP30 could be developed as an antioxidant ingredient for the food industry.

20.
PhytoKeys ; 237: 79-89, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282985

RESUMO

Aletrisguangxiensis Y. Nong & Y. F. Huang (Nartheciaceae), a new species from Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. This new species is most similar to A.scopulorum, but it can be easily distinguished by its sparsely glandular, 5-18 cm long scape, glandular inflorescence axis, distinctly pedicellate flowers, sparsely glandular, 5-10 mm long pedicel, bract borne at base of pedicel, glabrous perianth divided to the base, strongly recurved or revolute perianth lobes and turbinate, obovoid to oblong-obovoid capsule. An identification key for 24 species and 1 hybrid of Aletris is also provided.

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