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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253605, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360221

RESUMO

Local and exotic germplasm of tomato remains a major source for genetic improvement. Assessment of such lines for biotic stresses particularly viral diseases are the most important criteria for selection in Pakistan, where Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) are the major diseases/viruses. A set of 40 accessions (including indigenous Pakistani lines and exotic germplasm from Europe, the United States, and Asia) were evaluated for their resistance/infection response to ToMV with artificial inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Infection response was quantified through disease scoring and DAS-ELISA test (for ToMV). A subset of 24 lines, was further screened for TYLCV using disease scoring and TAS-ELISA. The tested lines showed significant variability for resistance to ToMV. Only one accession (Acc-17878) was resistant to the ToMV whereas seven accessions i.e. Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352, and CLN-362 expressed resistance to TYLCV. Correlation between phenotypic evaluation was confirmed by the ELISA results in both diseases, although both tools complemented to assess the viral infection status. In future, tomato breeding programs must consider breeding for ToMV and TYLCV resistance (using identified germplasm in our study) so as to deliver virus resistant tomato varieties.


O germoplasma local e exótico do tomate continua sendo uma importante fonte de melhoramento genético. A avaliação de linhagens para estresses bióticos, particularmente as doenças virais, é o critério mais importantes para seleção no Paquistão, onde o vírus da folha amarela do tomate (TYLCV) e o vírus do mosaico do tomateiro (ToMV) são as principais doenças/vírus. Um conjunto de 40 acessos (incluindo linhagens indígenas do Paquistão e germoplasma exótico da Europa, dos Estados Unidos e da Ásia) foi avaliado quanto à resistência/resposta à infecção ao ToMV com inoculação artificial em casa de vegetação. A resposta à infecção foi quantificada por meio de pontuação da doença e de teste DAS-ELISA (para ToMV). Um subconjunto de 24 linhas foi posteriormente rastreado para TYLCV usando pontuação de doença e TAS-ELISA. As linhas testadas apresentaram variabilidade significativa para resistência ao ToMV. Apenas um acesso (Acc-17878) foi resistente ao ToMV, enquanto sete acessos (Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352 e CLN-362) expressaram resistência ao TYLCV. A correlação entre a avaliação fenotípica foi confirmada pelos resultados do ELISA nas duas doenças, embora ambas as ferramentas tenham se complementado para avaliar o estado da infecção viral. No futuro, os programas de melhoramento de tomate devem considerar aperfeiçoamentos para resistência ao ToMV e TYLCV (usando germoplasma identificado em nosso estudo) de modo a fornecer variedades de tomate resistentes a vírus.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Melhoramento Genético , Vírus do Mosaico
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 327: 116869, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455446

RESUMO

Photocatalytic degradation is a valuable direction for eliminating organic pollutants in the environment because of its exceptional catalytic activity and low energy requirements. As one of the prospective photocatalysts, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is a promising candidate for photoactivity due to its favorable redox potential and higher chemical stability. ZrO2 has a high rate of electron-hole recombination and poor light-harvesting capabilities. Still, modification has demonstrated enhancements, especially extra-modification, and is therefore worthy of investigation. This present review provides a comprehensive overview of the extra-modifications of ZrO2 for enhanced photocatalytic performance, including coupling with other semiconductors, doping with metal, non-metal, and co-doping with metal and non-metal. The extra-modified ZrO2 showed superior performance in degrading the organic pollutant, particularly dyes and phenolic compounds. Interestingly, this review also briefly highlighted the probable mechanisms of the extra-modification of ZrO2 such as p-n heterojunction, type II heterojunction, and Z-scheme heterojunction. The latter heterojunction with excellent electron-hole space separation improved the photoactivity. Extensive research on ZrO2's photocatalytic potential is presented, including the removal of heavy metals, the redox of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and the evolution of hydrogen. Modified ZrO2's photocatalytic effectiveness depends on its band position, oxygen vacancy concentration, and metal defect sites. The opportunities and future problems of the extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalyst are also discussed. This review aims to share knowledge regarding extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalysts and inspire new environmental remediation applications.

5.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30848, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457618

RESUMO

Aim This study aims to assess the relationship between Arabic coffee consumption and obesity among the Saudi adult population. Subjects and methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted among the population living in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among the general population using an online survey. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and different parameters to assess the factors associated with Arabic coffee consumption. Results Three hundred eighty-nine participants were involved (57.1% females vs 42.9% males). Obese respondents constitute 33.7%. More than half of the total (53.5%) drink coffee daily. Our results revealed that there were statistically significant associations between the overall level of BMI according to the frequency of drinking coffee per day (p<0.001), number of cups drank per day (p=0.006), favorite additives for coffee such as milk (p=0.017), cardamom (p=0.017), other calorie additives (p=0.050) and eating chocolate while drinking coffee (p=0.034). Increased odds of consumption of Arabic coffee were predicted among female, married, overweight, and those who were eating dates while drinking Arabic coffee. Conclusion This study concluded that excessive consumption of Arabic coffee was predicted to have a direct association with obesity specifically in female and when mixed with additives including milk, cardamom, and other calorie additives. Furthermore, the odds of obesity tend to increase more when eating chocolate and dates along with coffee. Awareness campaigns are necessary to educate the community about the detrimental effect of unwarranted consumption of Arabic coffee mixed with food or additives.

6.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 20(77): 7-11, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273283

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Early diagnosis with the best diagnostic marker is highly desired for the prevention and timely treatment of CVDs. However, there is still a dearth of an ideal marker for the detection of CVDs. Objective To explore the diagnostic potential of liver aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and alkaline phosphatase for the diagnosis of CVDs without liver involvement. Method This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 200 adult patients with CVDs, who visited the cardiology and emergency units of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. The study was conducted from January 2018 to December 2020. The baseline data on family history, anthropometry, baseline biochemical parameters, liver enzymes, and cardiac biomarkers were collected using standard and validated methods. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and MedCalc software 2021. Result The diagnostic sensitivity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were 53.7%, 52.6%, and 33.7% and specificity were 99%, 90%, and 90% respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of AST, ALT, and ALP were 0.78, 0.73, and 0.52 respectively. ROC curve indicated that serum AST and ALT activity was a better reliable marker than the serum ALP activities. Conclusion Our study suggests that serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase but not alkaline phosphatase could have some diagnostic potential to diagnose the risk of CVDs. However, they could not replace the currently adopted cardiac biomarkers such as cTnI and CK-MB.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Humanos , Alanina Transaminase , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Fígado , Biomarcadores
7.
ESMO Open ; 7(5): 100588, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the safety and efficacy of ipilimumab in real-world patients with metastatic melanoma were comparable to clinical trials. Few studies have explored health-related quality of life (HRQL) in real-world populations receiving checkpoint inhibitors. This study reports HRQL in real-world patients receiving ipilimumab and assesses the prognostic value of patient-reported outcome measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ipi4 (NCT02068196) was a prospective, multicentre, interventional phase IV trial. Real-world patients (N = 151) with metastatic melanoma were treated with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg intravenously as labelled. HRQL was assessed by the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire at baseline and after 10-12 weeks. RESULTS: The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire was completed by 93% (141/151 patients) at baseline, and by 82% at 10-12 weeks. Poor performance status and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) were associated with worse baseline HRQL. Clinically relevant and statistically significant deteriorations in HRQL from baseline to weeks 10-12 were reported (P <0.05). Baseline physical functioning [hazard ratio (HR) 1.96, P = 0.016], role functioning (HR 2.15, P <0.001), fatigue (HR 1.60, P = 0.030), and appetite loss (HR 1.76, P = 0.012) were associated with poorer overall survival independent of performance status, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and CRP. We further developed a prognostic model, combining HRQL outcomes with performance status, LDH, and CRP. This model identified three groups with large and statistically significant differences in survival. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation is associated with impaired HRQL. During treatment with ipilimumab, HRQL deteriorated significantly. Combining HRQL outcomes with objective risk factors provided additional prognostic information that may aid clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína C-Reativa , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/secundário , L-Lactato Desidrogenase
8.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 100(4): 585-592, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Left main stem percutaneous coronary intervention (LMS-PCI) is a complex high-risk procedure which can be performed as an alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure in surgical turn-down patients or where there is equipoise in percutaneous versus surgical strategies. Current guidelines suggest that PCI is an appropriate alternative to CABG in patients with unprotected LMS disease and low SYNTAX score. However, "real world" data on outcomes of LMS-PCI remain limited. This study aims to quantify and determine predictors of mortality following LMS-PCI. METHODS: Using local coronary angioplasty registries from two UK centers, all LMS-PCI cases were identified from 2016 to 2020. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between baseline and procedural characteristics with 30-day and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: We identified 484 cases of LMS-PCI between 2016 and 2020. There was a year-on-year increase in the number of LMS-PCI, the highest being in 2020. Covariates associated with higher 30-day mortality were age (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12) and shock preprocedure (OR 23.88, 95% CI: 7.90-72.20). Covariates associated with higher 12-month mortality were age (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.08), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (OR 2.50, 95% CI: 1.08-5.80), renal disease (OR 5.24, 95% CI: 1.47-18.68), and shock preprocedure (OR 7.93, 95% CI: 3.30-19.05). Overall, 30-day and 12-month mortality in this contemporary data set were 9.5% and 16.7%, respectively, with significantly lower rates in elective cases (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Older age and cardiogenic shock preprocedure were associated with increased 30-day mortality after LMS-PCI. Twelve-month mortality was associated with older age, ACS presentation, preexisting renal disease, and cardiogenic shock preprocedure.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257179, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674586

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induces colibacillosis, an acute and systemic disease, resulting in substantial economic losses in the poultry sector. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern associated with frequent virulence gene distribution in APEC O78:K80 that may cause pathological alterations in chickens. The antibiogram profile showed high resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, and co-trimoxazole, followed by intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and doxycycline hydrochloride, and sensitive to amikacin, streptomycin, gentamicin, and colistin. Virulence gene distribution identifies eight (irp-2, iutA, ompT, iss, iucD, astA, hlyF, iroN) genes through a conventional polymerase chain reaction. APEC O78:K80 caused significantly high liver enzyme concentrations, serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in experimental birds. Also, infected birds have hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Necropsy examination revealed fibrinous perihepatitis and pericarditis, congested lungs, intestinal ecchymotic hemorrhages and necrotizing granulomatosis of the spleen. Histopathological examination depicted hepatocellular degeneration, myocardial necrosis, interstitial nephritis, intestinal hemorrhages and lymphopenia in the spleen. This study is the first evidence to assess the antibiotic resistance profile linked with virulence genes and clinicopathological potential of APEC O78:K80 in chickens in Pakistan, which could be a useful and rapid approach to prevent and control the disease by developing the control strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Hemorragia
10.
Mov Disord Clin Pract ; 9(4): 468-472, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35586528

RESUMO

Background: Task-specific dystonia (TSD) is a challenging clinical diagnosis with no objective diagnostic biomarkers. Objective: The objective of this study was to test 2 neurophysiologic variables using transcranial magnetic stimulation as potential diagnostic biomarkers for TSD. Methods: We tested (1) cortical silent period (CSP) and (2) dorsal inferior parietal lobule-motor cortex (dIPL-M1) physiologic connectivity in 9 patients with the writer's cramp form of TSD and 12 healthy volunteers on 2 separate sessions. Results: CSP was significantly prolonged (P < 0.0001) in TSD and could classify TSD with high sensitivity and specificity with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) = 0.94 and 0.90, respectively, for 2 separate sessions with an intraclass correlation = 0.79. dIPL-M1 interaction was notable for significant motor cortical inhibition in TSD compared with facilitation in healthy subjects (P < 0.0001) and could classify TSD with high sensitivity and specificity with AUCs = 0.96 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: CSP and dIPL-M1 physiologic connectivity can classify TSD with high sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and reliability.

11.
J Ultrason ; 22(88): e44-e50, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449704

RESUMO

The ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral, obturator, and pudendal nerves are the major sensory nerves that may be involved in chronic groin and genital pain with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. The diagnosis remains clinical, and US-guided diagnostic injections using an anesthetic may aid in confirming the clinical suspicion. The anatomy of the peripheral nerves can be successfully studied using imaging. High-resolution ultrasound is increasingly used in the clinical setting for visualizing small peripheral nerves, and magnetic resonance imaging provides an anatomical overview of the relationship between small nerves and surrounding structures. In this pictorial assay, we review the anatomy and clinical relevance of the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral, obturator, and pudendal nerves. We summarize the various techniques for ultrasound identification, and present the ultrasound-guided infiltration techniques for injecting the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral, obturator, and pudendal nerves. Corresponding magnetic resonance images and clinical photos of the probe placement technique are provided for anatomical correlation. This paper is aimed to serve as a practical technical guide for physicians to familiarize themselves with the ultrasound anatomy of the major inguinal sensory nerves and to enable successful ultrasound identification and ultrasound-guided diagnostic or therapeutic infiltrations for pain management of the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral, obturator, and pudendal nerves.

12.
J Card Surg ; 37(7): 2025-2039, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify predictors of outcomes of mesenteric ischemia in patients following cardiac surgery. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was done on EMBASE, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and SCOPUS using keywords relating to bowel ischemia and cardiac surgery. Database search results were screened by at least two authors and 32 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. RESULTS: Data on 1907 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 70.0 ± 2.99 years and the prevalence of bowel ischemia was 1.74%. Advanced age was a significant risk factor. 63.16% of patients reported were men, and 58.4% of patients died in hospital. There was heterogeneity in the reported significance of the following preoperative risk factors: hypertension, smoking status, type 2 diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction <35%. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, preoperative/operative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support, and inotrope usage were significantly associated with the development of mesenteric ischemia; however, other intraoperative factors including the type of cardiac surgery and duration of aortic cross-clamping had varying levels of reported significance. There were discrepancies in the reported significance of leukocytosis and metabolic acidosis (pH <7.3) as postoperative markers. Postoperative vasopressor use, prolonged ventilation time, and elevation in lactate, transaminases, creatinine, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) levels were found to be strongly associated with bowel ischemia. CONCLUSION: This systematic review found the strongest associations of mesenteric ischemia postcardiac surgery to be advanced age, CPB time, rise in lactate, transaminases, creatinine, and IFABP. IABP support, vasopressor, and inotrope use as well as prolonged ventilation were strongly linked too.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Isquemia Mesentérica , Idoso , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/efeitos adversos , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/etiologia , Lactatos , Masculino , Isquemia Mesentérica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Mesentérica/etiologia , Isquemia Mesentérica/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Transaminases , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253605, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137839

RESUMO

Local and exotic germplasm of tomato remains a major source for genetic improvement. Assessment of such lines for biotic stresses particularly viral diseases are the most important criteria for selection in Pakistan, where Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) are the major diseases/viruses. A set of 40 accessions (including indigenous Pakistani lines and exotic germplasm from Europe, the United States, and Asia) were evaluated for their resistance/infection response to ToMV with artificial inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Infection response was quantified through disease scoring and DAS-ELISA test (for ToMV). A subset of 24 lines, was further screened for TYLCV using disease scoring and TAS-ELISA. The tested lines showed significant variability for resistance to ToMV. Only one accession (Acc-17878) was resistant to the ToMV whereas seven accessions i.e. Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352, and CLN-362 expressed resistance to TYLCV. Correlation between phenotypic evaluation was confirmed by the ELISA results in both diseases, although both tools complemented to assess the viral infection status. In future, tomato breeding programs must consider breeding for ToMV and TYLCV resistance (using identified germplasm in our study) so as to deliver virus resistant tomato varieties.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Begomovirus , Paquistão , Doenças das Plantas , Tobamovirus
15.
Environ Res ; 210: 112975, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196501

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical wastewater is a frequent kind of wastewater with high quantities of organic pollutants, although little research has been done in the area. Pharmaceutical wastewaters containing antibiotics and high salinity may impair traditional biological treatment, resulting in the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes. The potential for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to break down hazardous substances instead of present techniques that essentially transfer contaminants from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent has attracted interest. Among a variety of AOPs, electrochemical systems are a feasible choice for treating pharmaceutical wastewater. Many electrochemical approaches exist now to remediate rivers polluted by refractory organic contaminants, like pharmaceutical micro-pollutants, which have become a severe environmental problem. The first part of this investigation provides the bibliometric analysis of the title search from 1970 to 2021 for keywords such as wastewater and electrochemical. We have provided information on relations between keywords, countries, and journals based on three fields plot, inter-country co-authorship network analysis, and co-occurrence network visualization. The second part introduces electrochemical water treatment approaches customized to these very distinct discarded flows, containing how processes, electrode materials, and operating conditions influence the results (with selective highlighting cathode reduction and anodic oxidation). This section looks at how electrochemistry may be utilized with typical treatment approaches to improve the integrated system's overall efficiency. We discuss how electrochemical cells might be beneficial and what compromises to consider when putting them into practice. We wrap up our analysis with a discussion of known technical obstacles and suggestions for further research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(4): 618-626, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114051

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity reduces growth and yield of crops grown in metal-polluted sites. Research was conducted to estimate the potential of hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) to mitigate toxicity caused by Cd in fenugreek seedlings (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Different concentrations of CdCl2 (Cd1-1 mM, Cd2-1.5 mM, Cd3-2mM) and H2 S (HS1-100 µM, HS2-150 µM, HS3-200 µM) were assessed. Seeds of fenugreek were primed with sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), as H2 S donor. Seedlings growing in Cd-spiked media treated with H2 S were harvested after 2 weeks. Cd stress affected growth of fenugreek seedlings. Cd toxicity decreased leaf relative water content (LRWC), intercellular CO2 concentration, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. However, application of H2 S significantly improved seedling morphological attributes by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. APX, CAT and SOD, in Cd-contaminated soil. H2 S treatment also regulated phenolic and flavonoid content. H2 S-induced biosynthesis of spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put) could account for the enhancement of growth and physiological performance of fenugreek seedlings under Cd stress. H2 S treatment also reduced H2 O2 production (38%) and electrolyte leakage (EL, 51%) in seedlings grown in different concentrations of Cd. It is recommended to evaluate the efficacy of H2 S in alleviating Cd toxicity in other crop plants.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Trigonella , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Poliaminas , Plântula , Trigonella/metabolismo
17.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255055, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019107

RESUMO

This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Assuntos
Carbofurano , Animais , Aves , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Bovinos
18.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(4): 670-683, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783146

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) are important gaseous signalling molecules that regulate key physiochemical mechanisms of plants under environmental stresses. A number of attempts have been made to improve waterlogging tolerance in plants, but with limited success. Having said that, NO and H2 S are vital signalling molecules, but their role in mitigating waterlogging effects on crop plants is not well established. We investigated the efficacy of exogenous NO and H2 S to alleviate waterlogging effects in two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and FSD-2008). Waterlogging produced a noticeable reduction in plant growth, yield, chlorophyll, soluble sugars and free amino acids. Besides, waterlogging induced severe oxidative damage seen as higher cellular TBARS and H2 O2 content. Antioxidant enzyme activity increased together with a notable rise in Fe2+ and Mn2+ content. Proline content was higher in waterlogged plants compared with non-waterlogged plants. In contrast, waterlogging caused a substantial decline in endogenous levels of essential nutrients (K+ , Ca2+ and Mg2+ ). Waterlogged conditions led to Fe2+ and Mn2+ toxicity due to rapid reduction of Fe3+ and Mn3+ in the soil. Exogenous NO and H2 S significantly protected plants from waterlogging effects by enhancing the oxidative defence and regulating nutritional status. Besides, the protective effects of exogenous NO were more prominent as compared with effects of H2 S. Further, we did not study the effect of H2 S and NO on photosynthetic attributes and expression of stress-related genes. Therefore, future studies should examine the effects of H2 S and NO on wheat physiology and gene expression under waterlogging.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Triticum , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131651, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346345

RESUMO

Nanostructured photocatalysts commonly offered opportunities to solve issues scrutinized with the environmental challenges caused by steep population growth and rapid urbanization. This photocatalyst is a controllable characteristic, which can provide humans with a clean and sustainable ecosystem. Over the last decades, one of the current thriving research focuses on visible-light-driven CeO2-based photocatalysts due to their superior characteristics, including unique fluorite-type structure, rigid framework, and facile reducing oxidizing properties of cerium's tetravalent (Ce4+) and trivalent (Ce3+) valence states. Notwithstanding, owing to its inherent wide energy gap, the solar energy utilization efficiency is low, which limits its application in wastewater treatment. Numerous modifications of CeO2 have been employed to enhance photodegradation performances, such as metals and non-metals doping, adding support materials, and coupling with another semiconductor. Besides, all these doping will form a different heterojunction and show a different way of electron-hole migration. Compared to conventional heterojunction, advanced heterojunction types such as p-n heterojunction, Z-scheme, Schottky junction, and surface plasmon resonance effect exhibit superior performance for degradation owing to their excellent charge carrier separation, and the reaction occurs at a relatively higher redox potential. This review attends to providing deep insights on heterojunction mechanisms and the latest progress on photodegradation of various contaminants in wastewater using CeO2-based photocatalysts. Hence, making the CeO2 photocatalyst more foresee and promising to further development and research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Purificação da Água , Catálise , Ecossistema , Humanos , Fotólise
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Paquistão , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
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