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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253605, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360221

RESUMO

Local and exotic germplasm of tomato remains a major source for genetic improvement. Assessment of such lines for biotic stresses particularly viral diseases are the most important criteria for selection in Pakistan, where Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) are the major diseases/viruses. A set of 40 accessions (including indigenous Pakistani lines and exotic germplasm from Europe, the United States, and Asia) were evaluated for their resistance/infection response to ToMV with artificial inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Infection response was quantified through disease scoring and DAS-ELISA test (for ToMV). A subset of 24 lines, was further screened for TYLCV using disease scoring and TAS-ELISA. The tested lines showed significant variability for resistance to ToMV. Only one accession (Acc-17878) was resistant to the ToMV whereas seven accessions i.e. Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352, and CLN-362 expressed resistance to TYLCV. Correlation between phenotypic evaluation was confirmed by the ELISA results in both diseases, although both tools complemented to assess the viral infection status. In future, tomato breeding programs must consider breeding for ToMV and TYLCV resistance (using identified germplasm in our study) so as to deliver virus resistant tomato varieties.


O germoplasma local e exótico do tomate continua sendo uma importante fonte de melhoramento genético. A avaliação de linhagens para estresses bióticos, particularmente as doenças virais, é o critério mais importantes para seleção no Paquistão, onde o vírus da folha amarela do tomate (TYLCV) e o vírus do mosaico do tomateiro (ToMV) são as principais doenças/vírus. Um conjunto de 40 acessos (incluindo linhagens indígenas do Paquistão e germoplasma exótico da Europa, dos Estados Unidos e da Ásia) foi avaliado quanto à resistência/resposta à infecção ao ToMV com inoculação artificial em casa de vegetação. A resposta à infecção foi quantificada por meio de pontuação da doença e de teste DAS-ELISA (para ToMV). Um subconjunto de 24 linhas foi posteriormente rastreado para TYLCV usando pontuação de doença e TAS-ELISA. As linhas testadas apresentaram variabilidade significativa para resistência ao ToMV. Apenas um acesso (Acc-17878) foi resistente ao ToMV, enquanto sete acessos (Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352 e CLN-362) expressaram resistência ao TYLCV. A correlação entre a avaliação fenotípica foi confirmada pelos resultados do ELISA nas duas doenças, embora ambas as ferramentas tenham se complementado para avaliar o estado da infecção viral. No futuro, os programas de melhoramento de tomate devem considerar aperfeiçoamentos para resistência ao ToMV e TYLCV (usando germoplasma identificado em nosso estudo) de modo a fornecer variedades de tomate resistentes a vírus.


Assuntos
Solanum lycopersicum , Melhoramento Genético , Vírus do Mosaico
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469265

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of birds enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469308

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469332

RESUMO

Abstract Local and exotic germplasm of tomato remains a major source for genetic improvement. Assessment of such lines for biotic stresses particularly viral diseases are the most important criteria for selection in Pakistan, where Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) are the major diseases/viruses. A set of 40 accessions (including indigenous Pakistani lines and exotic germplasm from Europe, the United States, and Asia) were evaluated for their resistance/infection response to ToMV with artificial inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Infection response was quantified through disease scoring and DAS-ELISA test (for ToMV). A subset of 24 lines, was further screened for TYLCV using disease scoring and TAS-ELISA. The tested lines showed significant variability for resistance to ToMV. Only one accession (Acc-17878) was resistant to the ToMV whereas seven accessions i.e. Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352, and CLN-362 expressed resistance to TYLCV. Correlation between phenotypic evaluation was confirmed by the ELISA results in both diseases, although both tools complemented to assess the viral infection status. In future, tomato breeding programs must consider breeding for ToMV and TYLCV resistance (using identified germplasm in our study) so as to deliver virus resistant tomato varieties.


RESUMO O germoplasma local e exótico do tomate continua sendo uma importante fonte de melhoramento genético. A avaliação de linhagens para estresses bióticos, particularmente as doenças virais, é o critério mais importantes para seleção no Paquistão, onde o vírus da folha amarela do tomate (TYLCV) e o vírus do mosaico do tomateiro (ToMV) são as principais doenças/vírus. Um conjunto de 40 acessos (incluindo linhagens indígenas do Paquistão e germoplasma exótico da Europa, dos Estados Unidos e da Ásia) foi avaliado quanto à resistência/resposta à infecção ao ToMV com inoculação artificial em casa de vegetação. A resposta à infecção foi quantificada por meio de pontuação da doença e de teste DAS-ELISA (para ToMV). Um subconjunto de 24 linhas foi posteriormente rastreado para TYLCV usando pontuação de doença e TAS-ELISA. As linhas testadas apresentaram variabilidade significativa para resistência ao ToMV. Apenas um acesso (Acc-17878) foi resistente ao ToMV, enquanto sete acessos (Acc-17890, AVR-261, CLN-312, AVR-321, EUR-333, CLN-352 e CLN-362) expressaram resistência ao TYLCV. A correlação entre a avaliação fenotípica foi confirmada pelos resultados do ELISA nas duas doenças, embora ambas as ferramentas tenham se complementado para avaliar o estado da infecção viral. No futuro, os programas de melhoramento de tomate devem considerar aperfeiçoamentos para resistência ao ToMV e TYLCV (usando germoplasma identificado em nosso estudo) de modo a fornecer variedades de tomate resistentes a vírus.

7.
Cureus ; 15(10): e46382, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37927646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer is characterized by the rapid proliferation of abnormal cells that exceed their normal boundaries, infiltrating other body parts and leading to metastasis, a distinctive feature setting it apart from other diseases. Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths, with nearly 10 million global fatalities, making it the leading cause of mortality. Leukemia, a type of cancer originating in the bone marrow or blood cells, presents significant complications and is associated with various risk factors, including a positive family history, smoking, and obesity. This study aims to evaluate the general knowledge of leukemia and its associated risks among the inhabitants of the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted targeting all residents of the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, who were Saudi nationals, spanning both genders and aged 15 to 59 years. The questionnaire was distributed electronically through social networking applications, and responses were collected via Google Forms (Google, Mountain View, CA). RESULTS: The study findings indicated that the most frequently identified risk factors for leukemia included blood disorders, genetic disorders, and extensive exposure to radiation and chemicals. The most prevalent leukemia symptoms were bruising and bleeding, followed by vomiting, nausea, and headache. The most commonly reported side effects of leukemia treatment were dizziness, followed by anorexia and exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a lack of awareness about leukemia and its associated risks among participants. This underscores the need for continued educational initiatives and awareness campaigns to improve leukemia knowledge and early detection rates, potentially leading to better outcomes for affected individuals. Future research should aim to overcome study limitations and provide a broader perspective on leukemia awareness throughout Saudi Arabia.

8.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 27(6): 609-622, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37965373

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food and major source of dietary calories in Pakistan. Improving wheat varieties with higher grain yield and disease resistance is a prime objective. The knowledge of genetic behaviour of germplasm is key. To achieve this objective, elite wheat varieties were crossed in 4 by 3, line × tester design, and tested in 2019 in a triplicate yield trial to estimate genetic variance, general and specific combining ability, mid-parent heterosis and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis L.). High grain 3358 kg·ha-1 was recorded in F1 hybrid (ZRG-79 × PAK-13). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant genotypic variance in grain yield. Broad sense heritability (H2) was recorded in the range of 28 to 100 %. General combining ability (GCA) significant for grain yield in parents except FSD-08 and PS-05 was recorded, while specific combining ability (SCA) was recorded to be highly significant for grain yield only in two crosses (ZRG-79 × NR-09 and ZRG-79 × PAK-13). Mid-parent heterosis was estimated in the range of -28 to 62.6 %. Cross combinations ZRG-79 × PAK-13 depicted highly significant mid-parent heterosis (62.6 %). Highly significant correlation was observed among spike length, spikelets per spike, plant height and 1000-grain weight. Rust resistance index was recorded in the range of 0 to 8.5. These findings suggest exploitation of GCA for higher grain yield is important due to the presence of additive gene action and selection in the filial generations will be effective with improved rust resistance, while cross combinations ZRG-79 × PAK-13 high GCA are best suited for hybrid development.

9.
Microb Pathog ; 182: 106214, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37423496

RESUMO

In this study 269 swabs collected from 254 ovine foot lesions and 15 apparently healthy ovine feet were screened by PCR for the presence of major lameness causing foot pathogens viz. Treponema species, D. nodosus, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes with the presumption that ovine foot lesion positive for Treponema species alone or in association with other three pathogens were categorized as contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD). While samples positive for D. nodosus alone or its combination with F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes were considered as footrot (FR) and samples in which F. necrophorum or T. pyogenes was found either alone or in combination were considered as interdigital dermatitis (ID). The overall occurrence of Treponema sp. in ovine foot lesions was 48.0%, and ranged from 33 to 58%. In Treponema positive samples D. nodosus, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes were present in 34 (27.4%), 66 (54.4%) and 84 (68.5%) in contrast to Treponema negative samples in which these were present in 15 (11.1%), 20 (14.12%) and 17 (12.6%) samples, respectively. The data signifies that Treponema sp. are significantly associated with these foot pathogens and their different combinations with Treponema sp. influence the severity of CODD lesion. The identification of Treponema phylotypes was done by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene fragment of ten representative samples. Out of ten sequences, four (Trep-2, Trep-4, Trep-7 and Trep-10) were identical to Treponema sp. phylotype 1 (PT1) that belongs to phylogroup T. refringens-like, one sequence (Trep-1) was genetically close (90% sequence homology) to Treponema brennaborense while five sequences (Trep-3, Trep-5, Trep-6, Trep-8 and Trep-9) matched with uncultured bacterium clones of treponemes forming separate monophyletic group in phylogenetic tree and could represent new digital dermatitis phylogroup presently containing five ovine specific phylotypes. This is the first report on the presence of Treponema phylotypes other than three digital dermatitis (DD) Treponema phylogroups viz. T. phagedenis-like, T. medium/T. vincentii-like, and T. pedis-like that are frequently detected in CODD lesions. Metagenomic analysis of two representative samples revealed the abundance of genus Treponema in CODD lesion while this genus was absent in swab collected from clinically healthy foot suggesting that it might play primary role in producing CODD. These findings may further aid in understanding the etiopathogenesis of CODD and could help to develop appropriate treatment and mitigation strategies to combat the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Coxeadura Animal , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Treponema/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
10.
Cureus ; 15(2): e35178, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36960261

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of keratoconus (KC) on quality of life and assess visual performance via the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25) in the Saudi population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using the NEI-VFQ-25 to evaluate the vision-related quality of life among previously diagnosed KC patients. An online questionnaire was used to distribute the validated survey through various social media networks. The data were extracted, reviewed, coded, and then analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). RESULTS: A total of 429 patients completed the questionnaire. The overall score of NEI-VFQ-25 was 58.6 (SD: 18.0). The visual performance was worse in females than males (with a score of 55.1), especially in patients aged less than 30 years. Visual function improved with the use of low-vision aids (spectacles and contact lenses) compared with those who did not use them. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the functional impairment in patients with KC, especially in females, patients aged less than 30 years, and those with no low-vision aids. Moreover, it suggests a significant role of these vision aids (spectacles and contact lenses) in improving the quality of life in patients with KC.

11.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 40(2): 93-99, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36735457

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Diagnosing and characterizing myoclonus can be challenging. Many authors agree on the need to complement the clinical findings with an electrophysiological study to characterize the movements. Besides helping to rule out other movements that may look like myoclonus, electrophysiology can help localize the source of the movement. This article aims to serve as a practical manual on how to do a myoclonus study. For this purpose, the authors combine their experience with available evidence. The authors provide detailed descriptions of recording poly-electromyography, combining electroencephalography and electromyography, Bereitschaftspotentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and startle techniques. The authors discuss analysis considerations for these data and provide a simplified algorithm for their interpretation. Finally, the authors discuss some factors that they believe have hindered the broader use of these useful techniques.


Assuntos
Mioclonia , Humanos , Mioclonia/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Movimento , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia
12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 37: 103348, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36791488

RESUMO

Patients with cervical dystonia (CD) often show an improvement in dystonic posture after sensory trick (ST), though the mechanisms underlying ST remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ST on cortical activity in patients with CD and to explore the contribution of motor and sensory components to ST mechanisms. To this purpose, we studied 15 CD patients with clinically effective ST, 17 without ST, and 14 healthy controls (HCs) who mimicked the ST. We used electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and electromyography (EMG) data from bilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles. We compared ST-related EEG spectral changes from sensorimotor and posterior parietal areas and EMG power changes between groups. To better understand the contribution of motor and sensory components to ST, we tested EEG and EMG correlates of three different conditions mimicking ST, the first without skin touch ("no touch" condition), the second without voluntary movements ("passive" condition), and finally without arm movements ("examiner touch" condition). Results showed ST-related alpha desynchronization in the sensorimotor cortex and theta desynchronization in the sensorimotor and posterior parietal cortex. Both spectral changes were more significant during maneuver execution in CD patients with ST than in CD patients without ST and HCs who mimicked the ST. Differently, the "no touch", "passive", or "examiner touch" conditions did not show significant differences in EEG or EMG changes determined by ST execution/mimicking between CD patients with or without ST. A higher desynchronization within alpha and theta bands in the sensorimotor and posterior parietal areas correlated with a more significant activity decrease in the contralateral SCM muscle, Findings from this study suggest that ST-related changes in the activity of sensorimotor and posterior parietal areas may restore dystonic posture and that both motor and sensory components contribute to the ST effect.


Assuntos
Transtornos dos Movimentos , Córtex Sensório-Motor , Torcicolo , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletromiografia
13.
Cureus ; 15(1): e33807, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655149

RESUMO

Background Hypothyroidism carries significant morbidity among the general population and is more common among patients with reduced Glomerular filtration Rate (GFR). Patients with reduced GFR have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which might be increased in the presence of hypothyroidism. A thyroid function test is not routinely included in predialysis workups. Aim The aim was to explore the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients at a single large center in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods A chart-review cross-sectional study was conducted at Al Jabr Kidney Center from February to May 2022. It included adult patients on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Data was extracted through a pre-structured data extraction sheet to avoid data collection errors. Extracted data included the patient's demographic data, causes of renal failure, and comorbidities besides laboratory investigations and thyroid profile. Results A total of 99 patients were included, with their ages ranging from 15 to 89 years, with a mean age of 51.3 ± 16.9 years old. The exact 76 (76.8%) patients were males. Exact five (5.1%) patients had high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), nine (9.1%) had low TSH, and 85 (85.9%) were euthyroid. There was no difference in the prevalence of hypothyroidism according to the type of dialysis (p=0.872). Dialysis adequacy was achieved in the majority of included patients based on Kt/V (80.5%) and URR (61.7%) regardless of thyroid status (p=0.115 and 0.653, respectively). The presence of hypertension and erythropoietin were more prevalent among patients with high TSH levels. Conclusion We concluded that hypothyroidism among dialysis patients was less common in our study compared to previously reported prevalence nationally and internationally. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was similar in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, and it did not affect dialysis adequacy. Hypertension and erythropoietin were more common among our dialysis patients with hypothyroidism. Screening for thyroid disorders among chronic disease patients (especially on dialysis) is essential to improve the quality of care.

14.
J Environ Manage ; 327: 116869, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455446

RESUMO

Photocatalytic degradation is a valuable direction for eliminating organic pollutants in the environment because of its exceptional catalytic activity and low energy requirements. As one of the prospective photocatalysts, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is a promising candidate for photoactivity due to its favorable redox potential and higher chemical stability. ZrO2 has a high rate of electron-hole recombination and poor light-harvesting capabilities. Still, modification has demonstrated enhancements, especially extra-modification, and is therefore worthy of investigation. This present review provides a comprehensive overview of the extra-modifications of ZrO2 for enhanced photocatalytic performance, including coupling with other semiconductors, doping with metal, non-metal, and co-doping with metal and non-metal. The extra-modified ZrO2 showed superior performance in degrading the organic pollutant, particularly dyes and phenolic compounds. Interestingly, this review also briefly highlighted the probable mechanisms of the extra-modification of ZrO2 such as p-n heterojunction, type II heterojunction, and Z-scheme heterojunction. The latter heterojunction with excellent electron-hole space separation improved the photoactivity. Extensive research on ZrO2's photocatalytic potential is presented, including the removal of heavy metals, the redox of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and the evolution of hydrogen. Modified ZrO2's photocatalytic effectiveness depends on its band position, oxygen vacancy concentration, and metal defect sites. The opportunities and future problems of the extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalyst are also discussed. This review aims to share knowledge regarding extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalysts and inspire new environmental remediation applications.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Estudos Prospectivos , Zircônio/química , Catálise
15.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30848, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457618

RESUMO

Aim This study aims to assess the relationship between Arabic coffee consumption and obesity among the Saudi adult population. Subjects and methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted among the population living in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among the general population using an online survey. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and different parameters to assess the factors associated with Arabic coffee consumption. Results Three hundred eighty-nine participants were involved (57.1% females vs 42.9% males). Obese respondents constitute 33.7%. More than half of the total (53.5%) drink coffee daily. Our results revealed that there were statistically significant associations between the overall level of BMI according to the frequency of drinking coffee per day (p<0.001), number of cups drank per day (p=0.006), favorite additives for coffee such as milk (p=0.017), cardamom (p=0.017), other calorie additives (p=0.050) and eating chocolate while drinking coffee (p=0.034). Increased odds of consumption of Arabic coffee were predicted among female, married, overweight, and those who were eating dates while drinking Arabic coffee. Conclusion This study concluded that excessive consumption of Arabic coffee was predicted to have a direct association with obesity specifically in female and when mixed with additives including milk, cardamom, and other calorie additives. Furthermore, the odds of obesity tend to increase more when eating chocolate and dates along with coffee. Awareness campaigns are necessary to educate the community about the detrimental effect of unwarranted consumption of Arabic coffee mixed with food or additives.

16.
Cureus ; 14(11): e31081, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36475133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Migraine is a primary headache and a complicated neurological disorder with sensory and autonomic abnormalities. Many variables, including genetic and psychological ones, contribute to migraine onset and development. Anxiety and depression are typical psychiatric comorbidities among migraineurs. This kind of comorbidity increased migraine chronicity, treatment effectiveness, and the likelihood of additional comorbidities. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of depression among Saudi migraine sufferers in AlAhsa. METHODS:  Descriptive cross-sectional research of 101 migraine patients at King Fahd Hospital-Hofuf, AlAhsa, Saudi Arabia from May to December 2021. Depression was assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire which is a reliable tool (PHQ-9). The PHQ-9 measures the presence and severity of depression. Consider sociodemographic, clinical, and individual variations that impact migraine development and prognosis.  Results: The inclusion criteria were satisfied by 94 migraine patients in total, with a mean age of 36.9 ± 9 years and they are predominantly females 75.5%. The majority of the participants (76.6%) were on medication to relieve migraine attacks and only 13.9% reported that >75% of attacks were relieved by medication. Almost all of the patients (96.8%) used to drink coffee and tea. The prevalence of depression and migraine was revealed to be 42.6% mild and 8.5% severe among the participants. Four statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were young age, being female, low level of education at higher risk to have depression compared to another group of migraineurs. CONCLUSION:  A neurological disorder that commonly causes disability is migraine. Numerous studies have shown that mood disorders and migraines are often co-occurring, and these individuals are more likely to have a migraine-related disability. This research has shown that it is beneficial to prevent psychiatric comorbidity by using PHQ-9 as a regular screening tool for migraine patients.

17.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 20(77): 7-11, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273283

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Early diagnosis with the best diagnostic marker is highly desired for the prevention and timely treatment of CVDs. However, there is still a dearth of an ideal marker for the detection of CVDs. Objective To explore the diagnostic potential of liver aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and alkaline phosphatase for the diagnosis of CVDs without liver involvement. Method This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 200 adult patients with CVDs, who visited the cardiology and emergency units of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. The study was conducted from January 2018 to December 2020. The baseline data on family history, anthropometry, baseline biochemical parameters, liver enzymes, and cardiac biomarkers were collected using standard and validated methods. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and MedCalc software 2021. Result The diagnostic sensitivity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were 53.7%, 52.6%, and 33.7% and specificity were 99%, 90%, and 90% respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of AST, ALT, and ALP were 0.78, 0.73, and 0.52 respectively. ROC curve indicated that serum AST and ALT activity was a better reliable marker than the serum ALP activities. Conclusion Our study suggests that serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase but not alkaline phosphatase could have some diagnostic potential to diagnose the risk of CVDs. However, they could not replace the currently adopted cardiac biomarkers such as cTnI and CK-MB.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Humanos , Alanina Transaminase , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Fígado , Biomarcadores
18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 100(4): 585-592, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Left main stem percutaneous coronary intervention (LMS-PCI) is a complex high-risk procedure which can be performed as an alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure in surgical turn-down patients or where there is equipoise in percutaneous versus surgical strategies. Current guidelines suggest that PCI is an appropriate alternative to CABG in patients with unprotected LMS disease and low SYNTAX score. However, "real world" data on outcomes of LMS-PCI remain limited. This study aims to quantify and determine predictors of mortality following LMS-PCI. METHODS: Using local coronary angioplasty registries from two UK centers, all LMS-PCI cases were identified from 2016 to 2020. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between baseline and procedural characteristics with 30-day and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: We identified 484 cases of LMS-PCI between 2016 and 2020. There was a year-on-year increase in the number of LMS-PCI, the highest being in 2020. Covariates associated with higher 30-day mortality were age (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12) and shock preprocedure (OR 23.88, 95% CI: 7.90-72.20). Covariates associated with higher 12-month mortality were age (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.08), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (OR 2.50, 95% CI: 1.08-5.80), renal disease (OR 5.24, 95% CI: 1.47-18.68), and shock preprocedure (OR 7.93, 95% CI: 3.30-19.05). Overall, 30-day and 12-month mortality in this contemporary data set were 9.5% and 16.7%, respectively, with significantly lower rates in elective cases (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Older age and cardiogenic shock preprocedure were associated with increased 30-day mortality after LMS-PCI. Twelve-month mortality was associated with older age, ACS presentation, preexisting renal disease, and cardiogenic shock preprocedure.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
ESMO Open ; 7(5): 100588, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the safety and efficacy of ipilimumab in real-world patients with metastatic melanoma were comparable to clinical trials. Few studies have explored health-related quality of life (HRQL) in real-world populations receiving checkpoint inhibitors. This study reports HRQL in real-world patients receiving ipilimumab and assesses the prognostic value of patient-reported outcome measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ipi4 (NCT02068196) was a prospective, multicentre, interventional phase IV trial. Real-world patients (N = 151) with metastatic melanoma were treated with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg intravenously as labelled. HRQL was assessed by the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire at baseline and after 10-12 weeks. RESULTS: The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire was completed by 93% (141/151 patients) at baseline, and by 82% at 10-12 weeks. Poor performance status and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) were associated with worse baseline HRQL. Clinically relevant and statistically significant deteriorations in HRQL from baseline to weeks 10-12 were reported (P <0.05). Baseline physical functioning [hazard ratio (HR) 1.96, P = 0.016], role functioning (HR 2.15, P <0.001), fatigue (HR 1.60, P = 0.030), and appetite loss (HR 1.76, P = 0.012) were associated with poorer overall survival independent of performance status, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and CRP. We further developed a prognostic model, combining HRQL outcomes with performance status, LDH, and CRP. This model identified three groups with large and statistically significant differences in survival. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation is associated with impaired HRQL. During treatment with ipilimumab, HRQL deteriorated significantly. Combining HRQL outcomes with objective risk factors provided additional prognostic information that may aid clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína C-Reativa , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/secundário , L-Lactato Desidrogenase
20.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257179, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674586

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induces colibacillosis, an acute and systemic disease, resulting in substantial economic losses in the poultry sector. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern associated with frequent virulence gene distribution in APEC O78:K80 that may cause pathological alterations in chickens. The antibiogram profile showed high resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, and co-trimoxazole, followed by intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and doxycycline hydrochloride, and sensitive to amikacin, streptomycin, gentamicin, and colistin. Virulence gene distribution identifies eight (irp-2, iutA, ompT, iss, iucD, astA, hlyF, iroN) genes through a conventional polymerase chain reaction. APEC O78:K80 caused significantly high liver enzyme concentrations, serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in experimental birds. Also, infected birds have hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Necropsy examination revealed fibrinous perihepatitis and pericarditis, congested lungs, intestinal ecchymotic hemorrhages and necrotizing granulomatosis of the spleen. Histopathological examination depicted hepatocellular degeneration, myocardial necrosis, interstitial nephritis, intestinal hemorrhages and lymphopenia in the spleen. This study is the first evidence to assess the antibiotic resistance profile linked with virulence genes and clinicopathological potential of APEC O78:K80 in chickens in Pakistan, which could be a useful and rapid approach to prevent and control the disease by developing the control strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Hemorragia
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