Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 41
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 850, 2024 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191773

RESUMO

Winter Storm Uri was a disaster that impacted much of the United States during February of 2021. During and after the storm, Texas and Oklahoma experienced massive power grid failures. This led to cascading impacts, including water system disruptions and many boil water notices (BWNs). The breakdown of some communication channels and the inability to enact protective actions due to power outages, as well as travel limitations on public roads, complicated the dissemination and implementation of notifications. This research examined individuals' perceptions of risk, water quality, and BWNs during Uri. Additionally, this study sought to understand if previous experience with a BWN influenced compliance during Uri and how perceived efficacy impacted these variables. Surveying 893 Texans and Oklahomans revealed that most Uri-affected respondents believed the risks associated with BWNs were severe. Income and race were two factors that influenced BWN compliance. Age, gender, and level of education did not influence compliance. Previous experience with BWNs did not increase risk perceptions. Higher levels of perceived efficacy correlated to higher levels of compliance, perceptions of risk, and water quality, much of which support propositions of the Extended Parallel Process Model. Results suggest that pre-disaster planning and communication are imperative to helping reduce risk(s) and enhancing efficacy during a disaster, especially for novel disasters that have cascading risks, like Winter Storm Uri.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas Computacionais , Escolaridade , Água
2.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2297512, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) information and facilities in schools is a major contributor to adolescent girls' school absenteeism in low- and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the changes over time in school MHM facilities, knowledge and perceptions among adolescent girls, in relation to school absenteeism between 2014 and 2018 in Bangladesh. METHODS: We examined changes in MHM and school absenteeism among schoolgirls using nationally representative data from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey 2014 and National Hygiene Survey 2018. Given the repetitive nature of our data and its clustering within participants, our method included performing descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) modelling to analyse these changes. RESULTS: Results showed that adolescent girls' menstruation-related absenteeism decreased between 2014 and 2018. Percentage of adolescents who missed school decreased from 25% to 14% (PD: -11; CI: -16 to -6.1), while the average number of missed days reduced from 2.8 to 2.5 (PD: -0.33; CI: -0.57 to -0.10). In the GEE model, we found that living in rural areas (coef: -5.6; CI: -10.06 to -1.14), parental restrictions on going outside (coef: 4.47; CI: 0.75 to 8.2), education levels of girls (coef: -9.48; CI: -14.17 to -4.79), girl's belief that menstruation affects school performance (coef: 23.32; CI: 19.71 to 26.93), and using old cloths (coef: -4.2; CI: -7.6 to -0.79) were significantly associated with higher absenteeism. However, participant's age, type of school, knowledge of menstruation before menarche, receiving information regarding MHM, separate place for changing absorbents, and separate latrine and urine facility were not significantly associated with the changes in absenteeism over time. CONCLUSION: This paper emphasised the associations between changes in school absenteeism, parental restrictions on students, students' education levels, and menstruation-related misperceptions. Ongoing research, policy reviews, and targeted interventions to improve MHM perceptions among girls are required to provide long-term benefits for adolescent girls in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Absenteísmo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Menarca
3.
NPJ Digit Med ; 6(1): 184, 2023 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794054

RESUMO

Autonomous artificial intelligence (AI) promises to increase healthcare productivity, but real-world evidence is lacking. We developed a clinic productivity model to generate testable hypotheses and study design for a preregistered cluster-randomized clinical trial, in which we tested the hypothesis that a previously validated US FDA-authorized AI for diabetic eye exams increases clinic productivity (number of completed care encounters per hour per specialist physician) among patients with diabetes. Here we report that 105 clinic days are cluster randomized to either intervention (using AI diagnosis; 51 days; 494 patients) or control (not using AI diagnosis; 54 days; 499 patients). The prespecified primary endpoint is met: AI leads to 40% higher productivity (1.59 encounters/hour, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-1.80) than control (1.14 encounters/hour, 95% CI: 1.02-1.25), p < 0.00; the secondary endpoint (productivity in all patients) is also met. Autonomous AI increases healthcare system productivity, which could potentially increase access and reduce health disparities. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05182580.

4.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 85(8): 3816-3826, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37554920

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the differences in epidemiologic and disease aspects among patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Methods: The authors reviewed the hospital records between April 2020 and September 2021 and followed up on the patients for post-COVID complications. Findings: Older adult patients were predominantly affected during the third wave, and middle-aged patients were predominantly affected during the first and second waves. Men were predominantly admitted, considering the three waves, although more women were admitted in the second wave. Cough was more common in the second and third waves than in the first wave 522 (59.7%). Respiratory distress was the most common in the third wave, 251(67.1%), and least common in the first wave, 403 (46.1%). Anosmia was more common in the third wave 116 (31.2%). In the third wave, patients presenting in a critical state 23 (6.2%) and with severe disease 152 (40.8%) were more common. The hospital admission median (IQR) was longer in the first wave, 12 (8-20), than in other waves. More patients were admitted in the first wave (52%) than in the other waves, and patients received more oxygen in the third wave (75%) than in the other waves. Death occurred more commonly in the first wave (51%) than in the other waves. The positivity rate was higher in the third wave (22.8%) than in the other waves. In the third wave, the positivity rate was higher in women (24.3%) than in men. Post-COVID cough increased in the second wave, and fatigue was higher in the third wave than in the other waves. Tiredness and memory loss were greater during the second wave than in other waves. Conclusion: The authors found differences in the presentation, outcomes, and hospital epidemiologic trend of COVID-19 among the three waves.

5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 523, 2023 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37221591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has created unprecedented havoc among health care workers, resulting in significant psychological strains like insomnia. This study aimed to analyze insomnia prevalence and job stressors among Bangladeshi health care workers in COVID-19 units. METHODOLOGY: We conducted this cross-sectional study to assess insomnia severity from January to March 2021 among 454 health care workers working in multiple hospitals in Dhaka city with active COVID-dedicated units. We selected 25 hospitals conveniently. We used a structured questionnaire for face-to-face interviews containing sociodemographic variables and job stressors. The severity of insomnia was measured by the Insomnia Severity Scale (ISS). The scale has seven items to evaluate the rate of insomnia, which was categorized as the absence of Insomnia (0-7); sub-threshold Insomnia (8-14); moderate clinical Insomnia (15-21); and severe clinical Insomnia (22-28). To identify clinical insomnia, a cut-off value of 15 was decided primarily. A cut-off score of 15 was initially proposed for identifying clinical insomnia. We performed a chi-square test and adjusted logistic regression to explore the association of different independent variables with clinically significant insomnia using the software SPSS version 25.0. RESULTS: 61.5% of our study participants were females. 44.9% were doctors, 33.9% were nurses, and 21.1% were other health care workers. Insomnia was more dominant among doctors and nurses (16.2% and 13.6%, respectively) than others (4.2%). We found clinically significant insomnia was associated with several job stressors (p < 0.05). In binary logistic regression, having sick leave (OR = 0.248, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.532) and being entitled to risk allowance (OR = 0.367, 95% CI = 0.124.1.081) showed lower odds of developing Insomnia. Previously diagnosed with COVID-19-positive health care workers had an OR of 2.596 (95% CI = 1.248, 5.399), pointing at negative experiences influencing insomnia. In addition, we observed that any training on risk and hazard increased the chances of suffering from Insomnia (OR = 1.923, 95% CI = 0.934, 3.958). CONCLUSION: It is evident from the findings that the volatile existence and ambiguity of COVID-19 have induced significant adverse psychological effects and subsequently directed our HCWs toward disturbed sleep and insomnia. The study recommends the imperativeness to formulate and implement collaborative interventions to help HCWs cope with this crisis and mitigate the mental stresses they experience during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277790, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may cause severe life-threatening diseases called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) owing to cytokine storms. The mortality rate of COVID-19-related ARDS is as high as 40% to 50%. However, effective treatment for the extensive release of acute inflammatory mediators induced by hyperactive and inappropriate immune responses is very limited. Many anti-inflammatory drugs with variable efficacies have been investigated. Colchicine inhibits interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and its subsequent inflammatory cascade by primarily blocking pyrin and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing receptor 3 (NLRP3) activation. Therefore, this cheap, widely available, oral drug might provide an added benefit in combating the cytokine storm in COVID-19. Here, we sought to determine whether adding colchicine to other standards of care could be beneficial for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia in terms of the requirement for advanced respiratory support and mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This blinded placebo-controlled drug trial was conducted at the Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 300 patients with moderate COVID-19 based on a positive RT-PCR result were enrolled based on strict selection criteria from June 2020 to November 2020. Patients were randomly assigned to either treatment group in a 1:1 ratio. Patients were administered 1.2 mg of colchicine on day 1 followed by daily treatment with 0.6 mg of colchicine for 13 days or placebo along with the standard of care. The primary outcome was the time to clinical deterioration from randomization to two or more points on a seven-category ordinal scale within the 14 days post-randomization. Clinical outcomes were also recorded on day 28. The primary endpoint was met by 9 (6.2%) patients in the placebo group and 4 (2.7%) patients in the colchicine group (P = 0.171), which corresponds to a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.44 (0.13-1.43). Additional analysis of the outcomes on day 28 revealed significantly lower clinical deterioration (defined as a decrease by two or more points) in the colchicine group, with a hazard ratio [95%CI] of 0.29 [0.098-0.917], (P = 0.035). Despite a 56% reduction in the need for mechanical ventilation and death with colchicine treatment on day 14, the reduction was not statistically significant. On day 28, colchicine significantly reduced clinical deterioration measured as the need for mechanical ventilation and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Colchicine was not found to have a significant beneficial effect on reducing mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation. However, a delayed beneficial effect was observed. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to evaluate the late benefits of colchicine. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration no: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04527562 https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=NCT04527562.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Deterioração Clínica , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Int J Breast Cancer ; 2022: 2599689, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35223101

RESUMO

The use of dietary phytochemical rather than conventional therapies to treat numerous cancers is now a well-known approach in medical science. Easily available and less toxic dietary phytochemicals present in plants should be introduced in the list of phytochemical-based treatment areas. Sesamin, a natural phytochemical, may be a promising chemopreventive agent aiming to manage breast cancer. In this study, we discussed the pharmacological properties of sesamin that determine its therapeutics opportunity to be used in breast cancer treatment and other diseases. Sesamin is available in medicinal plants, especially in Sesamum indicum, and is easily metabolized by the liver. To better understand the antibreast cancer consequence of sesamin, we postulate some putative pathways related to the antibreast cancer mechanism: (1) regulation of estrogen receptor (ER-α and ER-ß) activities, (2) suppressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) overexpression, (3) growth factor receptor inhibition, and (4) some tyrosine kinase pathways. Targeting these pathways, sesamin can modulate cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell growth and viability, metastasis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and oncogene inactivation in various in vitro and animal models. Although the actual tumor intrinsic signaling mechanism targeted by sesamin in cancer treatment is still unknown, this review summarized that this phytoestrogen suppressed NF-κB, STAT, MAPK, and PIK/AKT signaling pathways and activated some tumor suppressor protein in numerous breast cancer models. Cotreatment with γ-tocotrienol, conventional drugs, and several drug carriers systems increased the anticancer potentiality of sesamin. Furthermore, sesamin exhibited promising pharmacokinetics properties with less toxicity in the bodies. Overall, the shreds of evidence highlight that sesamin can be a potent candidate to design drugs against breast cancer. So, like other phytochemicals, sesamin can be consumed for better therapeutic advantages due to having the ability to target a plethora of molecular pathways until clinically trialed standard drugs are not available in pharma markets.

8.
Health Commun ; 37(2): 152-162, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016137

RESUMO

The Safe Drinking Water Act Public Notification Rule requires that customers of public water systems (PWS) be informed of problems that may pose a risk to public health. Boil water advisories (BWA) are a form of communication intended to mitigate potential health risks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed guidance for BWAs. We examined how local US news media incorporate the CDC's guidelines when reporting on BWAs. A content analysis of 1040 local news media articles shows these reports did not consistently incorporate CDC guidelines. Overall, 89% of the articles communicated enough information for readers to determine if they were included in the impacted area. Articles that included at least some of the CDC's instructions for boiling water were likely (p < .001) to include other risk information, such as the functions for which water should be boiled (e.g., drinking, brushing teeth) and that bottled water could be used as an alternative source. However, this information was included in only 47% of the articles evaluated. Results suggest public notifications often do not serve the public need for clear risk communication.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Abastecimento de Água , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Comunicação , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Estados Unidos
9.
J Bus Ethics ; 179(2): 353-368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002104

RESUMO

Against the backdrop of a global pandemic, this study investigates how U.S. higher education leaders have centered their crisis management on values and guiding ethical principles. We conducted 55 in-depth interviews with leaders from 30 U.S. higher education institutions, with most leaders participating in two interviews. We found that crisis plans created prior to the COVID-19 pandemic were inadequate due to the long duration and highly uncertain nature of the crisis. Instead, higher education leaders applied guiding principles on the fly to support their decision-making. If colleges and universities infuse shared values into their future crisis plans, they will not have to develop a moral compass on the fly for the next pandemic. This paper suggests the following somewhat universal shared values: (1) engage in accuracy, transparency, and accountability; (2) foster deliberative dialog; (3) prioritize safety; (4) support justice, fairness, and equity; and (5) engage in an ethic of care. To navigate ethics tensions, leaders need to possess crisis-relevant expertise or ensure that such expertise is present among crisis management team members. Standing up formal ethics committees composed of diverse stakeholders also is instrumental in navigating tensions inherent in crises. The next pandemic is already on the horizon according to experts. Through infusing values into future crisis plans, higher education leaders can be confident that their responses will be grounded in their communities' shared values.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(42): 59570-59593, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510341

RESUMO

Emerging from Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 is the new global threat that killed millions of people, and many are still suffering. This pandemic has not only affected people but also caused economic crisis throughout the world. Researchers have shown good progress in revealing the molecular insights of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and developing vaccines, but effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2-infected patients are yet to be found. Several vaccines are available and used in many countries, while many others are still in clinical or preclinical studies. However, this involves a long-term process, considering the safety procedures and requirements and their long-term protection capacity and in different age groups are still questionable. Therefore, at present, the drug repurposing of the existing therapeutics previously designed against other viral diseases seems to be the only practical approach to mitigate the current situation. The safety of most of these therapeutic agents has already been tested. Recent clinical reports revealed promising therapeutic efficiency of several drugs such as remdesivir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, baricitinib, and cepharanthine. Besides, plasma therapies were used to treat patients and prevent fatal outcomes. Thus, in this article, we have summarized the epidemiological and clinical data from several clinical trials conducted since the beginning of the pandemic, emphasizing the efficiency of the known agents against SARS-CoV-2 and their harmful side effects on the human body as well as their environmental implications. This review shows a clear overview of the current pharmaceutical perspective on COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233590

RESUMO

We synthesized manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles of different sizes by varying pH during chemical co-precipitation procedure and modified their surfaces with polysaccharide chitosan (CS) to investigate characteristics of hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Structural features were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAED) patterns, and Mössbauer spectroscopy to confirm the formation of superparamagnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles with a size range of 5-15 nm for pH of 9-12. The hydrodynamic sizes of nanoparticles were less than 250 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.3, whereas the zeta potentials were higher than 30 mV to ensure electrostatic repulsion for stable colloidal suspension. MRI properties at 7T demonstrated that transverse relaxation (T2) doubled as the size of CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles tripled in vitro. However, longitudinal relaxation (T1) was strongest for the smallest CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, as revealed by in vivo positive contrast MRI angiography. Cytotoxicity assay on HeLa cells showed CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles is viable regardless of ambient pH, whereas hyperthermia studies revealed that both the maximum temperature and specific loss power obtained by alternating magnetic field exposure depended on nanoparticle size and concentration. Overall, these results reveal the exciting potential of CS-coated MnFe2O4 nanoparticles in MRI and hyperthermia studies for biomedical research.

12.
Environ Int ; 143: 105890, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alargebodyof evidence has shown a link between arsenic exposure and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between arsenic exposure and the reduction of skeletal muscle mass as a potential mechanism of insulin resistance for developing arsenic-related hyperglycemia. METHODS: A total of 581 subjects were recruited from arsenic-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh and their fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, and serum creatinine levels were determined. Subjects' arsenic exposure levels were assessed by arsenic concentrations in water, hair, and nails. HOMA-IR and HOMA-ß were used to calculate insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction, respectively. Serum creatinine levels and lean body mass (LBM) were used as muscle mass indicators. RESULTS: Water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations showed significant positive associations with FBG, serum insulin and HOMA-IR and inverse associations with serum creatinine and LBM in a dose-dependent manner both in males and females. Water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant inverse associations with HOMA-ß in females but not in males. FBG and HOMA-IR were increased with the decreasing levels of serum creatinine and LBM. Odds ratios (ORs)of hyperglycemia were significantly increased with the increasing concentrations of arsenic in water, hair and nails and with the decreasing levels of serum creatinine and LBM. Females' HOMA-IR showed greater susceptibility to the reduction of serum creatinine and LBM, possibly causing the greater risk of hyperglycemia in females than males. Path analysis revealed the mediating effect of serum creatinine level on the relationship of arsenic exposure with HOMA-IR and hyperglycemia. CONCLUSION: Arsenic exposure elevates FBG levels and the risk of hyperglycemia through increasing insulin resistance with greater susceptibility in females than males. Additionally, arsenic exposure-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass may be a mechanism underlying the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Bangladesh , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química
13.
Semin Oncol ; 46(2): 133-144, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126665

RESUMO

Classical acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases are associated with the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARα) chimeric fusion protein. Almost all the variant chimeric proteins share the same RARα component. Currently, more than 11 fusion partners of RARα have been identified, of which PML accounts for 95%, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) take up2%, and the remaining are other variants. Although all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide have shown remarkable induction of molecular remission in classical APL, they have no appreciable effects on APL associated with other variant gene fusions (eg, PLZF-RARα and STAT5b-RARα). Here, we summarize all variant translocations, their key features, their leukemogenic potential as well as recent advances in studies of PLZF-RARα-associated APL. Basic pathogenic differences between classical APL and PLZF-RARα-associated APL are further discussed. We also highlight the critical leukemogenic events that are the backbone of these variant translocations so as to gain new insights into refractory APL.


Assuntos
Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/terapia , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico
14.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(2): 667-677, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847145

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of an azo dye carmoisine widely used in foods and to investigate its relation to carcinogenicity. Carmoisine administered into mice orally in four different doses as control, low, medium, and high equivalent to 0, 4, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw, respectively, for 120 days. The key toxicological endpoint was observed including animal body weight, organ weights, hematology, biochemistry, and molecular biology assessment. The body weights of medium- and high-dose carmoisine-treated mice group were significantly decreased as compared to the control mice group. Platelet, white blood cell and monocyte counts of treated group were considerably higher, while Hb and red blood cell counts were drastically lower than the control group. The biochemical parameters such as serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, globulin, urea, and creatinine level were significantly increased, while serum cholesterol level was decreased after treatment as compared to the control. RT-PCR results showed that expression of Bcl-x and PARP gene was intensively increased, whereas expression of p53 gene was decreased in the mouse liver tissues treated with carmoisine. This study revealed that high-dose (400 mg/kg bw) treatment of carmoisine was attributable to renal failure and hepatotoxicity. It also would be suspected as a culprit for liver oncogenesis.

15.
Biomater Sci ; 7(3): 938-950, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519686

RESUMO

Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules, which have recently been developed for potential broad applications such as clinical therapeutics, diagnosis and tumor-targeted drug delivery. However, the selection of specific aptamers is often unsatisfactory using the classical protein or cell-based SELEX. Herein, we modified the paired cell line approach to identify aptamers targeting leukemia cells expressing the CD33 antigen. Our strategy artfully used the same cells for negative (HEK293T cells) and positive (CD33 transfected-HEK293T cells) aptamer selections, and the negative selections were performed adequately before the positive selection to remove unspecific sequences. The advantages of this strategy are that it is fast and accurate, where only a few rounds of selection together with PCR amplifications are sufficient to obtain high binding affinity antigen-targeted aptamers. By using our modified approach, we successfully obtained the CD33-targeting aptamer S30, which could highly recognize the C2 domain of the CD33 antigen in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the optimized aptamer S30-T1 (i.e., core region of S30) was conjugated with doxorubicin (Dox) to synthesize S30-T1-Dox conjugates, which could specifically inhibit CD33 positive acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G2 phase. Thus, our modified approach can rapidly screen reliable, stable and high binding affinity aptamers for precise cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Carbocianinas/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Microscopia Confocal , Imagem Óptica , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/genética , Distribuição Tecidual , Transplante Heterólogo
16.
Metallomics ; 10(6): 828-837, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774349

RESUMO

Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is a key enzyme responsible for arsenic metabolism in humans, which facilitates conversion of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) to more reactive metabolites such as monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII). However, it is unclear whether the biotransformation of arsenic by AS3MT contributes to the promotion of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) therapy. In order to understand the probable role of AS3MT in APL patients, we evaluated the effects of arsenite (iAsIII) and three mixed arsenicals (i.e., iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAIII, to mimic active arsenic species in the blood) on NB4 cell differentiation and apoptosis. Although the mixed arsenicals exhibited about 2 fold less effect on the induction of NB4 cell differentiation and PML-RARα fusion protein degradation, they showed 5 times stronger ability to induce apoptosis when compared with iAsIII. More importantly, the proliferation of NB4 cells was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited in a transwell system co-cultured with AS3MT-transfected HepG2 cells after exposure to iAsIII, suggesting that the generation of methylated metabolites restrained cell proliferation. These findings indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of As2O3 (i.e., iAsIII) in APL patients is probably associated with the production of methylated arsenic metabolites (i.e., MMAIII and DMAIII) by AS3MT.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , Arsênio/metabolismo , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/enzimologia , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Apoptose , Arsênio/química , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/patologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Metallomics ; 9(12): 1756-1764, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831476

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an old drug that has recently been reintroduced as a therapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Although As2O3 is also applied to treat other types of cancer in vitro and in vivo, it has been reported that single agent As2O3 has poor efficacy against non-hematologic malignant cancers in clinical trials. Recently, a few reports have indicated that organic arsenic compounds can be a possible alternative for the treatment of As2O3-resistant cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the organic arsenic compound phenylarsine oxide (PAO) has potent cytotoxic effects against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. Our results showed that PAO not only had a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells but also activated apoptosis-related proteins (e.g., caspase-3 and -9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, intracellular ROS were specifically accumulated in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after exposure to PAO, implying that they are the target organelles for PAO-induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, when the cells were pretreated with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), apoptosis and ER-stress were attenuated significantly, suggesting that induction of apoptosis and cell death probably occurs through the ROS-mediated mitochondria and ER-stress dependent signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Water Res ; 124: 192-201, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756221

RESUMO

Faecal contamination of groundwater from pit latrines is widely perceived as a major threat to the safety of drinking water for several billion people in rural and peri-urban areas worldwide. On the floodplains of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh, we constructed latrines and monitored piezometer nests monthly for two years. We detected faecal coliforms (FC) in 3.3-23.3% of samples at four sites. We differentiate a near-field, characterised by high concentrations and frequent, persistent and contiguous contamination in all directions, and a far-field characterised by rare, impersistent, discontinuous low-level detections in variable directions. Far-field FC concentrations at four sites exceeded 0 and 10 cfu/100 ml in 2.4-9.6% and 0.2-2.3% of sampling events respectively. The lesser contamination of in-situ groundwater compared to water at the point-of-collection from domestic wells, which itself is less contaminated than at the point-of-consumption, demonstrates the importance of recontamination in the well-pump system. We present a conceptual model comprising four sub-pathways: the latrine-aquifer interface (near-field); groundwater flowing from latrine to well (far-field); the well-pump system; and post-collection handling and storage. Applying a hypothetical dose-response model suggests that 1-2% of the diarrhoeal disease burden from drinking water is derived from the aquifer, 29% from the well-pump system, and 70% from post-collection handling. The important implications are (i) that leakage from pit latrines is a minor contributor to faecal contamination of drinking water in alluvial-deltaic terrains; (ii) fears of increased groundwater pollution should not constrain expanding latrine coverage, and (iii) that more attention should be given to reducing contamination around the well-head.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Banheiros , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bangladesh , Água Subterrânea , Humanos
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(7): e015508, 2017 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. RESULTS: Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a positive social environment around menstrual issues has the potential to benefit students by reducing school absence.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/normas , Menstruação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca , Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(2)2017 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28125064

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has recently become one of the most effective drugs for treatment of patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and its molecular mechanism has also been largely investigated. However, it has been reported that As2O3 resistant patients are frequently found in relapsed APL after consolidation therapy, which is due to the point mutations in B-box type 2 motifs of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene. In the present study, we for the first time establish whether organic arsenic species phenylarsine oxide (PAO) could induce the mutant PML-IV (A216V) protein solubility changes and degradation. Here, three different PML protein variants (i.e., PML-IV, PML-V and mutant PML-A216V) were overexpressed in HEK293T cells and then exposed to PAO in time- and dose-dependent manners. Interestingly, PAO is found to have potential effect on induction of mutant PML-IV (A216V) protein solubility changes and degradation, but no appreciable effects were found following exposure to high concentrations of iAsIII, dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) and adriamycin (doxorubicin), even though they cause cell death. Our current data strongly indicate that PAO has good effects on the mutant PML protein solubility changes, and it may be helpful for improving the therapeutic strategies for arsenic-resistant APL treatments in the near future.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/farmacologia , Arsenitos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Mutação , Proteína da Leucemia Promielocítica/química , Proteína da Leucemia Promielocítica/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteólise , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...