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1.
Nutr Rev ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211860

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The ability to measure the gut microbiome led to a surge in understanding and knowledge of its role in health and disease. The diet is a source of, fuel for, and influencer of composition of the microbiome. OBJECTIVE: To assess the understanding of the interactions between nutrition and the gut microbiome in healthy adults. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Google Scholar searches were conducted in March and August 2018 limited to: English, 2010-2018, healthy adults, reviews. DATA EXTRACTION: A total of 86 articles were independently screened for duplicates and relevance, based on pre-identified inclusion criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: Research has focused on dietary fiber-microbiota fuel. The benefits of fiber center on Short Chain Fatty Acids, which are required by colonocytes, improve absorption, and reduce intestinal transit time. Contrastingly, protein promotes microbial protein metabolism and potentially harmful by-products that can stagnate in the gut. The microbiota utilize and produce micronutrients; the bidirectional relationship between micronutrition and the gut microbiome is emerging. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition has profound effects on microbial composition, in-turn, affecting wide-ranging metabolic, hormonal, and neurological processes. There is no consensus on what defines a "healthy" gut microbiome. Future research must consider individual responses to diet.

2.
Mol Plant ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017998

RESUMO

Improved soybean cultivars have been adapted to grow at a wide range of latitudes, enabling expansion of cultivation worldwide. However, the genetic basis of this broad adaptation is still not clear. Here, we report the identification of GmPRR3b as a major flowering time regulatory gene that has been selected during domestication and genetic improvement for geographic expansion. Through a genome-wide association study of a diverse soybean landrace panel consisting of 279 accessions, we identified 16 candidate quantitative loci associated with flowering time and maturity time. The strongest signal resides in the known flowering gene E2, verifying the effectiveness of our approach. We detected strong signals associated with both flowering and maturity time in a genomic region containing GmPRR3b. Haplotype analysis revealed that GmPRR3bH6 is the major form of GmPRR3b that has been utilized during recent breeding of modern cultivars. mRNA profiling analysis showed that GmPRR3bH6 displays rhythmic and photoperiod-dependent expression and is preferentially induced under long-day conditions. Overexpression of GmPRR3bH6 increased main stem node number and yield, while knockout of GmPRR3bH6 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology delayed growth and the floral transition. GmPRR3bH6 appears to act as a transcriptional repressor of multiple predicted circadian clock genes, including GmCCA1a, which directly upregulates J/GmELF3a to modulate flowering time. The causal SNP (Chr12:5520945) likely endows GmPRR3bH6 a moderate but appropriate level of activity, leading to early flowering and vigorous growth traits preferentially selected during broad adaptation of landraces and improvement of cultivars.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17702, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776412

RESUMO

Root-knot nematode is a very destructive pathogen, to which most peanut cultivars are highly susceptible. Strong resistance is present in the wild diploid peanut relatives. Previously, QTLs controlling nematode resistance were identified on chromosomes A02, A04 and A09 of Arachis stenosperma. Here, to study the inheritance of these resistance alleles within the genetic background of tetraploid peanut, an F2 population was developed from a cross between peanut and an induced allotetraploid that incorporated A. stenosperma, [Arachis batizocoi x A. stenosperma]4×. This population was genotyped using a SNP array and phenotyped for nematode resistance. QTL analysis allowed us to verify the major-effect QTL on chromosome A02 and a secondary QTL on A09, each contributing to a percentage reduction in nematode multiplication up to 98.2%. These were validated in selected F2:3 lines. The genome location of the large-effect QTL on A02 is rich in genes encoding TIR-NBS-LRR protein domains that are involved in plant defenses. We conclude that the strong resistance to RKN, derived from the diploid A. stenosperma, is transferrable and expressed in tetraploid peanut. Currently it is being used in breeding programs for introgressing a new source of nematode resistance and to widen the genetic basis of agronomically adapted peanut lines.

4.
Plant J ; 100(5): 1066-1082, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433882

RESUMO

We report reference-quality genome assemblies and annotations for two accessions of soybean (Glycine max) and for one accession of Glycine soja, the closest wild relative of G. max. The G. max assemblies provided are for widely used US cultivars: the northern line Williams 82 (Wm82) and the southern line Lee. The Wm82 assembly improves the prior published assembly, and the Lee and G. soja assemblies are new for these accessions. Comparisons among the three accessions show generally high structural conservation, but nucleotide difference of 1.7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) per kb between Wm82 and Lee, and 4.7 snps per kb between these lines and G. soja. snp distributions and comparisons with genotypes of the Lee and Wm82 parents highlight patterns of introgression and haplotype structure. Comparisons against the US germplasm collection show placement of the sequenced accessions relative to global soybean diversity. Analysis of a pan-gene collection shows generally high conservation, with variation occurring primarily in genomically clustered gene families. We found approximately 40-42 inversions per chromosome between either Lee or Wm82v4 and G. soja, and approximately 32 inversions per chromosome between Wm82 and Lee. We also investigated five domestication loci. For each locus, we found two different alleles with functional differences between G. soja and the two domesticated accessions. The genome assemblies for multiple cultivated accessions and for the closest wild ancestor of soybean provides a valuable set of resources for identifying causal variants that underlie traits for the domestication and improvement of soybean, serving as a basis for future research and crop improvement efforts for this important crop species.

5.
Plant Cell ; 31(10): 2315-2331, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439802

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis is an important tissue culture technique that sometimes leads to phenotypic variation via genetic and/or epigenetic changes. To understand the genomic and epigenomic impacts of somatic embryogenesis, we characterized soybean (Glycine max) epigenomes sampled from embryos at 10 different stages ranging from 6 weeks to 13 years of continuous culture. We identified genome-wide increases in DNA methylation from cultured samples, especially at CHH sites. The hypermethylation almost exclusively occurred in regions previously possessing non-CG methylation and was accompanied by increases in the expression of genes encoding the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery. The epigenomic changes were similar between somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Following the initial global wave of hypermethylation, rare decay events of maintenance methylation were observed, and the extent of the decay increased with time in culture. These losses in DNA methylation were accompanied by downregulation of genes encoding the RdDM machinery and transcriptome reprogramming reminiscent of transcriptomes during late-stage seed development. These results reveal a process for reinforcing already silenced regions to maintain genome integrity during somatic embryogenesis over the short term, which eventually decays at certain loci over longer time scales.

7.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(7): 744-754, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209375

RESUMO

Crop improvements can help us to meet the challenge of feeding a population of 10 billion, but can we breed better varieties fast enough? Technologies such as genotyping, marker-assisted selection, high-throughput phenotyping, genome editing, genomic selection and de novo domestication could be galvanized by using speed breeding to enable plant breeders to keep pace with a changing environment and ever-increasing human population.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Crescimento Demográfico
8.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105649

RESUMO

In a rapidly growing global probiotic market, end-users have difficulty distinguishing between high quality and poor quality products. This ambiguity threatens the trust consumers and healthcare providers have in probiotic products. To address this problem, we recommend that companies undergo third-party evaluations to certify probiotic quality and label accuracy. In order to communicate about product quality to end-users, indication of certification on product labels is helpful, although not all manufacturers choose to use this approach. Herein we discuss: third-party certification, the process of setting standards for identity, purity, and quantification of probiotics; some emerging methodologies useful for quality assessment; and some technical challenges unique to managing quality of live microbial products. This review provides insights of an Expert Panel engaged in this process and aims to update the reader on relevant current scientific methodologies. Establishing validated methodologies for all aspects of quality assessment is an essential component of this process and can be facilitated by established organizations, such as United States Pharmacopeia. Emerging methodologies including whole genome sequencing and flow cytometry are poised to play important roles in these processes.

9.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 877-884, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043755

RESUMO

Like many other crops, the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is of hybrid origin and has a polyploid genome that contains essentially complete sets of chromosomes from two ancestral species. Here we report the genome sequence of peanut and show that after its polyploid origin, the genome has evolved through mobile-element activity, deletions and by the flow of genetic information between corresponding ancestral chromosomes (that is, homeologous recombination). Uniformity of patterns of homeologous recombination at the ends of chromosomes favors a single origin for cultivated peanut and its wild counterpart A. monticola. However, through much of the genome, homeologous recombination has created diversity. Using new polyploid hybrids made from the ancestral species, we show how this can generate phenotypic changes such as spontaneous changes in the color of the flowers. We suggest that diversity generated by these genetic mechanisms helped to favor the domestication of the polyploid A. hypogaea over other diploid Arachis species cultivated by humans.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Arachis/classificação , Argentina , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , Domesticação , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Fenótipo , Poliploidia , Recombinação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Tetraploidia
10.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 76, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992073

RESUMO

Machine learning has demonstrated potential in analyzing large, complex biological data. In practice, however, biological information is required in addition to machine learning for successful application.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Animais , Mineração de Dados , Humanos
11.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 74, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant domestication provides a unique model to study genome evolution. Many studies have been conducted to examine genes, genetic diversity, genome structure, and epigenome changes associated with domestication. Interestingly, domesticated accessions have significantly higher [A] and [T] values across genome-wide polymorphic sites than accessions sampled from the corresponding progenitor species. However, the relative contributions of different genomic regions to this genome divergence pattern and underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. RESULTS: Here, we investigate the genome-wide base-composition patterns by analyzing millions of SNPs segregating among 100 accessions from a teosinte-maize comparison set and among 302 accessions from a wild-domesticated soybean comparison set. We show that non-genic part of the genome has a greater contribution than genic SNPs to the [AT]-increase observed between wild and domesticated accessions in maize and soybean. The separation between wild and domesticated accessions in [AT] values is significantly enlarged in non-genic and pericentromeric regions. Motif frequency and sequence context analyses show the motifs (PyCG) related to solar-UV signature are enriched in these regions, particularly when they are methylated. Additional analysis using population-private SNPs also implicates the role of these motifs in relatively recent mutations. With base-composition across polymorphic sites as a genome phenotype, genome scans identify a set of putative candidate genes involved in UV damage repair pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The [AT]-increase is more pronounced in genomic regions that are non-genic, pericentromeric, transposable elements; methylated; and with low recombination. Our findings establish important links among UV radiation, mutation, DNA repair, methylation, and genome evolution.


Assuntos
Composição de Bases , Domesticação , Soja/genética , Zea mays/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Zea mays/efeitos da radiação
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(4)2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939837

RESUMO

Plant genome evolution can be very complex and challenging to describe, even within a genus. Mechanisms that underlie genome variation are complex and can include whole-genome duplications, gene duplication and/or loss, and, importantly, multiple chromosomal rearrangements. Lupins (Lupinus) diverged from other legumes approximately 60 mya. In contrast to New World lupins, Old World lupins show high variability not only for chromosome numbers (2n = 32⁻52), but also for the basic chromosome number (x = 5⁻9, 13) and genome size. The evolutionary basis that underlies the karyotype evolution in lupins remains unknown, as it has so far been impossible to identify individual chromosomes. To shed light on chromosome changes and evolution, we used comparative chromosome mapping among 11 Old World lupins, with Lupinus angustifolius as the reference species. We applied set of L. angustifolius-derived bacterial artificial chromosome clones for fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrate that chromosome variations in the species analyzed might have arisen from multiple changes in chromosome structure and number. We hypothesize about lupin karyotype evolution through polyploidy and subsequent aneuploidy. Additionally, we have established a cytogenomic map of L. angustifolius along with chromosome markers that can be used for related species to further improve comparative studies of crops and wild lupins.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Cariótipo , Lupinus/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Poliploidia , Sintenia/genética
13.
Planta ; 249(5): 1405-1415, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680457

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The most conspicuous difference among chromosomes and genomes in Arachis species, the patterns of heterochromatin, was mainly modeled by differential amplification of different members of one superfamily of satellite DNAs. Divergence in repetitive DNA is a primary driving force for genome and chromosome evolution. Section Arachis is karyotypically diverse and has six different genomes. Arachis glandulifera (D genome) has the most asymmetric karyotype and the highest reproductive isolation compared to the well-known A and B genome species. These features make A. glandulifera an interesting model species for studying the main repetitive components that accompanied the genome and chromosome diversification in the section. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of repetitive sequences in A. glandulifera and investigated the chromosome distribution of the identified satellite DNA sequences (satDNAs). LTR retroelements, mainly the Ty3-gypsy families "Fidel/Feral" and "Pipoka/Pipa", were the most represented. Comparative analyses with the A and B genomes showed that many of the previously described transposable elements (TEs) were differently represented in the D genome, and that this variation accompanied changes in DNA content. In addition, four major satDNAs were characterized. Agla_CL8sat was the major component of pericentromeric heterochromatin, while Agla_CL39sat, Agla_CL69sat, and Agla_CL122sat were found in heterochromatic and/or euchromatic regions. Even though Agla_CL8sat belong to a different family than that of the major satDNA (ATR-2) found in the heterochromatin of the A, K, and F genomes, both satDNAs are members of the same superfamily. This finding suggests that closely related satDNAs of an ancestral library were differentially amplified leading to the major changes in the heterochromatin patterns that accompanied the karyotype and genome differentiation in Arachis.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Evolução Molecular , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Comunicações Via Satélite
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533843

RESUMO

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative enteric pathogenic bacteria which has four species, Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Shigella species are clinically important bacteria because they cause shigellosis or dysentery. Here we report the genome sequences of 72 Shigella isolates from these four species.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1435-1441, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250128

RESUMO

Domesticated species often exhibit convergent phenotypic evolution, termed the domestication syndrome, of which loss of seed dormancy is a component. To date, dormancy genes that contribute to parallel domestication across different families have not been reported. Here, we cloned the classical stay-green G gene from soybean and found that it controls seed dormancy and showed evidence of selection during soybean domestication. Moreover, orthologs in rice and tomato also showed evidence of selection during domestication. Analysis of transgenic plants confirmed that orthologs of G had conserved functions in controlling seed dormancy in soybean, rice, and Arabidopsis. Functional investigation demonstrated that G affected seed dormancy through interactions with NCED3 and PSY and in turn modulated abscisic acid synthesis. Therefore, we identified a gene responsible for seed dormancy that has been subject to parallel selection in multiple crop families. This may help facilitate the domestication of new crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Domesticação , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Seleção Genética , Agricultura , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Homologia de Sequência , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Am J Bot ; 105(6): 1053-1066, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985538

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The genetic bottleneck of polyploid formation can be mitigated by multiple origins, gene flow, and recombination among different lineages. In crop plants with limited origins, efforts to increase genetic diversity have limitations. Here we used lineage recombination to increase genetic diversity in peanut, an allotetraploid likely of single origin, by crossing with a novel allopolyploid genotype and selecting improved lines. METHODS: Single backcross progeny from cultivated peanut × wild species-derived allotetraploid cross were studied over successive generations. Using genetic assumptions that encompass segmental allotetraploidy, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms and whole-genome sequence data to infer genome structures. KEY RESULTS: Selected lines, despite a high proportion of wild alleles, are agronomically adapted, productive, and with improved disease resistances. Wild alleles mostly substituted homologous segments of the peanut genome. Regions of dispersed wild alleles, characteristic of gene conversion, also occurred. However, wild chromosome segments sometimes replaced cultivated peanut's homeologous subgenome; A. ipaënsis B sometimes replaced A. hypogaea A subgenome (~0.6%), and A. duranensis replaced A. hypogaea B subgenome segments (~2%). Furthermore, some subgenome regions historically lost in cultivated peanut were "recovered" by wild chromosome segments (effectively reversing the "polyploid ratchet"). These processes resulted in lines with new genome structure variations. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diversity was introduced by wild allele introgression, and by introducing new genome structure variations. These results highlight the special possibilities of segmental allotetraploidy and of using lineage recombination to increase genetic diversity in peanut, likely mirroring what occurs in natural segmental allopolyploids with multiple origins.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Hibridização Genética , Poliploidia , Alelos , Variação Genética , Recombinação Homóloga
17.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 16(11): 1954-1967, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637729

RESUMO

Whole-genome resequencing (WGRS) of mapping populations has facilitated development of high-density genetic maps essential for fine mapping and candidate gene discovery for traits of interest in crop species. Leaf spots, including early leaf spot (ELS) and late leaf spot (LLS), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are devastating diseases in peanut causing significant yield loss. We generated WGRS data on a recombinant inbred line population, developed a SNP-based high-density genetic map, and conducted fine mapping, candidate gene discovery and marker validation for ELS, LLS and TSWV. The first sequence-based high-density map was constructed with 8869 SNPs assigned to 20 linkage groups, representing 20 chromosomes, for the 'T' population (Tifrunner × GT-C20) with a map length of 3120 cM and an average distance of 1.45 cM. The quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using high-density genetic map and multiple season phenotyping data identified 35 main-effect QTLs with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) from 6.32% to 47.63%. Among major-effect QTLs mapped, there were two QTLs for ELS on B05 with 47.42% PVE and B03 with 47.38% PVE, two QTLs for LLS on A05 with 47.63% and B03 with 34.03% PVE and one QTL for TSWV on B09 with 40.71% PVE. The epistasis and environment interaction analyses identified significant environmental effects on these traits. The identified QTL regions had disease resistance genes including R-genes and transcription factors. KASP markers were developed for major QTLs and validated in the population and are ready for further deployment in genomics-assisted breeding in peanut.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Arachis/imunologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia
18.
Mol Plant ; 11(3): 485-495, 2018 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476915

RESUMO

Most plants are polyploid due to whole-genome duplications (WGD) and can thus have duplicated genes. Following a WGD, paralogs are often fractionated (lost) and few duplicate pairs remain. Little attention has been paid to the role of DNA methylation in the functional divergence of paralogous genes. Using high-resolution methylation maps of accessions of domesticated and wild soybean, we show that in soybean, a recent paleopolyploid with many paralogs, DNA methylation likely contributed to the elimination of genetic redundancy of polyploidy-derived gene paralogs. Transcriptionally silenced paralogs exhibit particular genomic features as they are often associated with proximal transposable elements (TEs) and are preferentially located in pericentromeres, likely due to gene movement during evolution. Additionally, we provide evidence that gene methylation associated with proximal TEs is implicated in the divergence of expression profiles between orthologous genes of wild and domesticated soybean, and within populations.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Soja/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Poliploidia
19.
Plant Cell Environ ; 41(9): 2033-2044, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314059

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) share a polyploidy event ~59 MYA, followed by a Glycine-specific whole genome duplication (WGD) ~8-13 MYA. Duplicated genes were classified into five categories: singletons, dispersed, proximal, tandem, or WGD/segmental and found strong correlations between gene category and functional annotation. Photosynthesis and transcriptional regulation-related Gene Ontology terms were significantly over-represented in singletons and WGD genes, respectively, aligning with the gene balance hypothesis. We found that the divergence of gene expression and DNA methylation between WGD-derived paralogs increased with age and that WGD genes, initially retained via dosage constraints, subsequently underwent expression divergence, associated with other factors such as DNA methylation. Genes derived from different modes of duplication differed in breadth, level, and specificity of expression in both species. Orthologous genes and ungrouped genes (genes not in an ortholog group) differed in expression patterns. The protein divergence rates of WGD paralog pairs containing an ungrouped gene were higher than those for which both copies had orthologs. We propose that many ungrouped genes are derived from divergent and redundant gene copies, concordant with the neofunctionalization hypothesis. Tandemly duplicated genes were distinct from WGD-derived genes, indicating that mode of duplication contributes to the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Genes Duplicados , Genes de Plantas , Phaseolus/genética , Soja/genética , Metilação de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta
20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 35(2): 354-364, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069493

RESUMO

Even though lateral movements of transposons across families and even phyla within multicellular eukaryotic kingdoms have been found, little is known about transposon transfer between the kingdoms Animalia and Plantae. We discovered a novel non-LTR retrotransposon, AdLINE3, in a wild peanut species. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that AdLINE3 is a member of the RTE clade, originally identified in a nematode and rarely reported in plants. We identified RTE elements in 82 plants, spanning angiosperms to algae, including recently active elements in some flowering plants. RTE elements in flowering plants were likely derived from a single family we refer to as An-RTE. Interestingly, An-RTEs show significant DNA sequence identity with non-LTR retroelements from 42 animals belonging to four phyla. Moreover, the sequence identity of RTEs between two arthropods and two plants was higher than that of homologous genes. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of RTEs from both animals and plants suggest that the An-RTE family was likely transferred horizontally into angiosperms from an ancient aphid(s) or ancestral arthropod(s). Notably, some An-RTEs were recruited as coding sequences of functional genes participating in metabolic or other biochemical processes in plants. This is the first potential example of horizontal transfer of transposons between animals and flowering plants. Our findings help to understand exchanges of genetic material between the kingdom Animalia and Plantae and suggest arthropods likely impacted on plant genome evolution.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Artrópodes/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Retroelementos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
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