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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 7420507, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035665

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is closely related to dysfunctional glucose metabolism. Celastrol is a bioactive compound that has been found to exhibit neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia, while whether it can protect against cerebral I/R injury by regulating glycolysis remains unclear. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of celastrol on cerebral I/R injury and its underlying mechanisms in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mice. Methods. To observe the protective effect of celastrol and select its optimal dosage for further study, neurological score, TTC staining, and HE staining were used to evaluate neurological function, cerebral infarct volume, and cortical cell damage, respectively. QRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), pyruvate dehydrogenasekinase1 (PDK1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), glucose transporter1 (GLUT1), and hexokinase2 (HK2), respectively. The lactate production, ATP level, and glucose content were assessed by assay kits. Results. Our results indicated that celastrol dose-dependently improved neurological function and reduced cerebral infarct volume and cortical cell death of tMCAO mice, and its optimal dosage was 4.5 mg/kg. In addition, celastrol significantly blocked I/R-induced increase of LDHA, GLUT1, HK2, and lactate production as well as decrease of ATP level and glucose content. Moreover, celastrol inhibited the I/R-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and PDK1. Overexpression of HIF-1α by DMOG reversed the protective effect of celastrol on cerebral I/R injury and blocked celastrol-induced suppression of glycolysis. Conclusions. Taken together, these results suggested that celastrol protected against cerebral I/R injury through inhibiting glycolysis via the HIF-1α/PDK1 axis.

2.
Anal Chem ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043635

RESUMO

Self-powered sensors have attracted great attention in the field of analysis owing to the necessity of power resources for the routine use of sensor devices. However, it is still challenging to construct wearable self-powered sensors in a simple and efficient way. Herein, wearable self-powered textile smart sensors based on advanced bifunctional polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide (PANI/RGO) films have been successfully developed for remote real-time detection of vitamin C. Specifically, a pH-assisted oil/water (O/W) self-assembly strategy was proposed to boost the O/W self-assembled PANI/RGO films via proton regulation. The as-obtained PANI/RGO films could be directly loaded on the textile substrate, with good capacitive and biosensing performance due to the multifunctionality of PANI and RGO, respectively. Moreover, both wearable power supply devices and wearable biosensors based on PANI/RGO films possess good electrochemical performance, which paves the way for the actual application of self-powered nutrition monitoring. Significantly, obvious signals have been obtained in the detection of vitamin C beverages, exhibiting promising application values in daily nutrition track necessities. Prospectively, this study would provide an effective and simple strategy for integrating wearable self-powered sensors, and the developed smart sensing system is an ideal choice for the portable detection of nutrition.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112590, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007999

RESUMO

Prednisolone (PN) is a glucocorticoid (GC) analog that is clinically used to treat allergic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. However, the long-term use of GC-like drugs results in many side effects, among which sleep disorders caused by PN have attracted much attention. Many studies have showed that GCs indirectly cause sleep disorders by disrupting the circadian rhythm of the peripheral biological clock. However, the detailed mechanism of this effect in zebrafish remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to study the pharmacology and toxicology of PN by analyzing the sleep phenotype and internal circadian oscillation of zebrafish. Exposure of zebrafish to PN resulted in decreased melatonin secretion and shortened sleep time. Additionally, analysis of the internal circadian rhythm of the zebrafish revealed that the expression of per and cry was significantly upregulated, resulting in a significant delay in the phase of the zebrafish behavioral rhythm. A dual-luciferase reporter assay further revealed that PN repressed per2 and cry1aa expression via the GC receptor (GR), which inhibited aanat2 expression. This caused a decrease in melatonin secretion and led to sleep disorders. The findings of this study highlight the mechanisms underlying the effects of GCs on sleep.

5.
Cancer Cell Int ; 22(1): 28, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver is the most common metastatic site of colorectal cancer (CRC) and liver metastasis (LM) determines subsequent treatment as well as prognosis of patients, especially in T1 patients. T1 CRC patients with LM are recommended to adopt surgery and systematic treatments rather than endoscopic therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is still no effective model to predict the risk of LM in T1 CRC patients. Hence, we aim to construct an accurate predictive model and an easy-to-use tool clinically. METHODS: We integrated two independent CRC cohorts from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER, training dataset) and Xijing hospital (testing dataset). Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) methods were adopted to establish the predictive model. RESULTS: A total of 16,785 and 326 T1 CRC patients from SEER database and Xijing hospital were incorporated respectively into the study. Every single ML model demonstrated great predictive capability, with an area under the curve (AUC) close to 0.95 and a stacking bagging model displaying the best performance (AUC = 0.9631). Expectedly, the stacking model exhibited a favorable discriminative ability and precisely screened out all eight LM cases from 326 T1 patients in the outer validation cohort. In the subgroup analysis, the stacking model also demonstrated a splendid predictive ability for patients with tumor size ranging from one to50mm (AUC = 0.956). CONCLUSION: We successfully established an innovative and convenient AI model for predicting LM in T1 CRC patients, which was further verified in the external dataset. Ultimately, we designed a novel and easy-to-use decision tree, which only incorporated four fundamental parameters and could be successfully applied in clinical practice.

6.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021971

RESUMO

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a pivotal regulator of cell metabolism and growth. In the form of two different multi-protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR integrates cellular energy, nutrient and hormonal signals to regulate cellular metabolic homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aberrant mTOR signaling underlies its pathological conditions and end-organ complications. Substantial evidence suggests that two mTOR-mediated signaling schemes, mTORC1-p70S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and mTORC2-protein kinase B (AKT), play a critical role in insulin sensitivity and that their dysfunction contributes to development of T2DM. This review summaries our current understanding of the role of mTOR signaling in T2DM and its associated complications, as well as the potential use of mTOR inhibitors in treatment of T2DM.

7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 1, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of comorbid hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on coronary artery plaques examined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is not fully understood. We aimed to comprehensively assess whether comorbid hypertension and T2DM influence coronary artery plaques using CCTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1100 T2DM patients, namely, 277 normotensive [T2DM(HTN-)] and 823 hypertensive [T2DM(HTN +)] individuals, and 1048 normotensive patients without T2DM (control group) who had coronary plaques detected on CCTA were retrospectively enrolled. Plaque type, coronary stenosis, diseased vessels, the segment involvement score (SIS) and the segment stenosis score (SSS) based on CCTA data were evaluated and compared among the groups. RESULTS: Compared with patients in the control group, the patients in the T2DM(HTN-) and T2DM(HTN +) groups had more partially calcified plaques, noncalcified plaques, segments with obstructive stenosis, and diseased vessels, and a higher SIS and SSS (all P values < 0.001). Compared with the control group, T2DM(HTN +) patients had increased odds of having any calcified and any noncalcified plaque [odds ratio (OR) = 1.669 and 1.278, respectively; both P values < 0.001]; both the T2DM(HTN-) and T2DM(HTN +) groups had increased odds of having any partially calcified plaque (OR = 1.514 and 2.323; P = 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively), obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR = 1.629 and 1.992; P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), multivessel disease (OR = 1.892 and 3.372; both P-values < 0.001), an SIS > 3 (OR = 2.233 and 3.769; both P values < 0.001) and an SSS > 5 (OR = 2.057 and 3.580; both P values < 0.001). Compared to T2DM(HTN-) patients, T2DM(HTN +) patients had an increased risk of any partially calcified plaque (OR = 1.561; P = 0.005), multivessel disease (OR = 1.867; P < 0.001), an SIS > 3 (OR = 1.647; P = 0.001) and an SSS > 5 (OR = 1.625; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: T2DM is related to the presence of partially calcified plaques, obstructive CAD, and more extensive coronary artery plaques. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes further increase the risk of partially calcified plaques, and more extensive coronary artery plaques.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995446

RESUMO

Two Cd-based supramolecular coordination polymers, [Cd3(CzIP)3(DMF)2] (1) and [Cd2(CzIP)2(DMF)4] (2), were synthesized by using 5-(carbazol-9-yl) isophthalate (CzIP) as ligands. These two compounds exhibit multiple luminescence emissions; apart from fluorescence, time- and temperature-dependent ultralong phosphorescence (RTP) were also achieved under room conditions. Significantly, compound 1 has a long-lived afterglow of 0.93 s at 545 nm under ambient conditions. Compound 2 shows nearly pure white-light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.33) via the dual emission of fluorescence and phosphorescence. It has come to our attention that it is the first example of a luminescent coordination polymer with single-phase white-light emission and color-evolution RTP. In addition, the long-lived RTP materials can be used in time-dependent anticounterfeiting and white-light-emitting diodes. Experimental and singlet and triplet state calculations indicate that both C-H···π interaction and inter- and intramolecular charge transfer interactions could be beneficial to the emission of ultralong RTP.

9.
HGG Adv ; 3(1)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993496

RESUMO

Men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer (PC) are increasingly electing active surveillance (AS) as their initial management strategy. While this may reduce the side effects of treatment for prostate cancer, many men on AS eventually convert to active treatment. PC is one of the most heritable cancers, and genetic factors that predispose to aggressive tumors may help distinguish men who are more likely to discontinue AS. To investigate this, we undertook a multi-institutional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 5,222 PC patients and 1,139 other patients from replication cohorts, all of whom initially elected AS and were followed over time for the potential outcome of conversion from AS to active treatment. In the GWAS we detected 18 variants associated with conversion, 15 of which were not previously associated with PC risk. With a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS), we found two genes associated with conversion (MAST3, p = 6.9×10-7 and GAB2, p = 2.0×10-6). Moreover, increasing values of a previously validated 269-variant genetic risk score (GRS) for PC was positively associated with conversion (e.g., comparing the highest to the two middle deciles gave a hazard ratio [HR] = 1.13; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]= 0.94-1.36); whereas, decreasing values of a 36-variant GRS for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were positively associated with conversion (e.g., comparing the lowest to the two middle deciles gave a HR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.50). These results suggest that germline genetics may help inform and individualize the decision of AS-or the intensity of monitoring on AS-versus treatment for the initial management of patients with low-risk PC.

10.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 9, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate management of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) may be the result of an inaccurate colposcopic diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess colposcopic performance in identifying HSIL+ cases and to analyze the associated clinical factors. METHODS: Records from 1130 patients admitted to Shenzhen Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital from 12th January, 2018 up until 30th December, 2018 were retrospectively collected, and included demographics, cytological results, HPV status, transformation zone type, number of cervical biopsy sites, colposcopists' competencies, colposcopic impressions, as well as histopathological results. Colposcopy was carried out using 2011 colposcopic terminology from the International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy. Logistic regression modelling was implemented for uni- and multivariate analyses. A forward stepwise approach was adopted in order to identify variables associated with colposcopic accuracy. Histopathologic results were taken as the comparative gold standard. RESULTS: Data from 1130 patient records were collated and analyzed. Colposcopy was 69.7% accurate in identifying HSIL+ cases. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of detecting HSIL or more (HSIL+) were 35.53%, 64.47%, 42.35% and 77.60%, respectively. Multivariate analysis highlighted the number of biopsies, cytology, and transformation zone type as independent factors. Age and HPV subtype did not appear to statistically correlate with high-grade lesion/carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Evidence presented here suggests that colposcopy is only 69.7% accurate at diagnosing HSIL. Even though not all HSIL will progress into cancer it is considered pre-cancerous and therefore early identification will save lives. The number of biopsies, cytology and transformation zone type appear to be predictors of misdiagnosis and therefore should be considered during clinical consultations and by way of further research.

11.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(1): 46, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985727

RESUMO

Wearable film-based smart biosensors have been developed for real-time biomolecules detection. Particularly, interfacial co-assembly of reduced graphene oxide-prussian blue (PB-RGO) film through electrostatic interaction has been systematically studied by controllable pH values, achieving optimal PB-RGO nanofilms at oil/water (O/W) phase interface driven by minimization of interfacial free energy for wearable biosensors. As a result, as-prepared wearable biosensors of PB-RGO film could be easily woven into fabrics, exhibiting excellent glucose sensing performance in amperometric detection with a sensitivity of 27.78 µA mM-1 cm-2 and a detection limit of 7.94 µM, as well as impressive mechanical robustness of continuously undergoing thousands of bending or twist. Moreover, integrated wearable smartsensing system could realize remotely real-time detection of biomarkers in actual samples of beverages or human sweat via cellphones. Prospectively, interfacial co-assembly engineering driven by pH-induced electrostatic interaction would provide a simple and efficient approach for acquiring functional graphene composites films, and further fabricate wearable smartsensing devices in health monitoring fields.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149813, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461469

RESUMO

In China, excessive application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is common in intensive apple production. To resolve issues of benefit reduction and environmental pollution caused by excessive N, a two-year trial was conducted in an apple orchard with a split-plot design, in which the main factor was the N level (500, 400, 300, and 200 kg N ha-1 year-1, expressed as TN, TN80%, TN60%, and TN40%, respectively) and the deputy factor was whether or not to add 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP, expressed as +D). The effects of N reduction combined with DMPP on soil N transformation, fruit quality, economic benefits, and environmental effects were investigated. The results showed that DMPP reduced the production of nitrate and its vertical migration by inhibiting the abundance of AOB amoA and decreased N2O emission by reducing nirKC1 levels. Moreover, N reduction combined with DMPP improved N use efficiency (26.67-49.35%) and reduced N loss rate (15.25-38.76%). Compared with TN, TN60% + D increased the content of anthocyanin and soluble sugar by 21.15% and 13.09%, respectively, and decreased environmental costs caused by NH3 volatilization and N2O emission by 33.84%, while maintaining yield and N utilization rate at relatively high levels. Considering the agronomic, economic and environmental benefits, on the basis of traditional N application rate, 40% N reduction combined with DMPP (TN60% + D) could ensure target yield, corresponding quality and economic benefits, maintain soil N fertility, and reduce the risk of N losses to the environment. The present research could provide references for green, efficient, and sustainable development of apple production.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Malus , Agricultura , China , Iodeto de Dimetilfenilpiperazina , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(2): 679-684, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967605

RESUMO

Tacticity is a crucial factor affecting the properties of synthetic polymer materials. Here, we introduce a type of chiral organic Brønsted acid catalyst, 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol-derived N,N'-bis(triflyl)phosphoramidimidates (PADIs), for the cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers, which enables the development of the first organocatalytic, highly stereoselective, cationic reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization of vinyl ethers with a trithiocarbonate chain-transfer agent. This metal-free RAFT process could afford isotactic poly(vinyl ethers) with high stereoselectivity, controllable molecular mass, and narrow dispersity at low catalyst loadings (as low as 200 ppm). Moreover, the trithiocarbonate chain-end allows for chain extension to synthesize diblock copolymers comprising an isotactic poly(vinyl ether) block, by a mechanistic switching from stereoselective cationic RAFT polymerization to visible-light-regulated cationic and radical RAFT polymerization.

14.
Zool Res ; 43(1): 14-25, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766477

RESUMO

Cattle temperament is an interesting trait due to its correlation with production efficiency, labor safety, and animal welfare. To date, however, its genetic basis is not clearly understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study for a series of temperament traits in cattle, assessed with via open field and novel object tests, using autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from the whole-genome sequence. We identified 37 and 29 genome-wide significant loci in the open field and novel object tests, respectively. Gene set analysis revealed the most significant pathway was the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, which may be essential for emotional control in cattle. Analysis of the expression levels of 18 tissue-specific genes based on transcriptomic data showed enrichment in the brain, with some candidate genes involved in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Based on principal component analysis, the first principal component explained the largest variance in the open field and novel object test data, and the most significant loci were assigned to SORCS3 and SESTD1, respectively. Our findings should help facilitate cattle breeding for sound temperament by pyramiding favorable alleles to further improve cattle production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Temperamento , Animais , Feminino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
15.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 119: 102058, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896558

RESUMO

Schisandrin A and B (Sch A and B) are the important components of Asian dietary supplement and phytomedicine Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis). They can enhance adult neurogenesis in vivo; however, these effects still need to be verified. Here NE-4 C neural stem cells (NSCs) were employed as the in vitro model and treated with Sch A and B at 0.1 µg/mL. EdU (5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) labeling showed that both Sch A and B treatments enhanced NSC proliferation. Real-time PCR analysis showed the mRNA abundances of telomerase gene Tert and cell cycle gene Cyclin D1 were significantly up-regulated after the treatments. During the neurosphere induction, Sch B enhanced the neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation, and increased the neurosphere semidiameters. Detection of the neuron differentiation marker Mapt indicates that both Sch A and B, especially Sch B, benefits the induced neuronal differentiation. Sch B treatment also enhanced mRNA expressions of the neurosphere-specific adhesion molecule Cdh2 and Wnt pathway-related genes including Mmp9, Cyclin D1 and ß-catenin. Together, Sch A especially Sch B, promotes the proliferation, affects the survival, differentiation and neurogenesis of NSCs, which is consistent with their in vivo effects. This study provides further clue on the potential neuropharmacological effects of S. chinensis.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127261, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844370

RESUMO

Androgens androstadienedione (ADD) and androstenedione (AED) are predominant steroid hormones in surface water, and can disrupt the endocrine system in fish. However, little is known about the transgenerational effects of ADD and AED in fish. In the present study, F0 generation was exposed to ADD and AED from 21 to 144 days post-fertilization (dpf) at nominal concentrations of 5 (L), 50 (M) and 500 (H) ng L-1, and F1 generation was domesticated in clear water for 144 dpf. The sex ratio, histology and transcription in F0 and F1 generations were examined. In the F0 generation, ADD and AED tended to be estrogenic in zebrafish, resulting in female biased zebrafish populations. In the F1 generation, ADD at the H level caused 63.5% females, while AED at the H level resulted in 78.7% males. In brain, ADD and AED had similar effects on circadian rhythm in the F0 and F1 generations. In the F1 eleutheroembryos, transcriptomic analysis indicated that neuromast hair cell related biological processes (BPs) were overlapped in the ADD and AED groups. Taken together, ADD and AED at environmentally relevant concentrations had transgenerational effects on sex differentiation and transcription in zebrafish.

17.
Diabet Med ; : e14762, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877688

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited epidemiologic data on the combined impact of several lifestyle factors on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence was reported in Chinese population. This study aimed to examine how combinations of BMI, physical activity and diet relate to T2DM incidence and estimate corresponding population attributable risk in the general population. METHODS: 56,691 male and 70,849 female participants aged 40-74 years old in two population-based cohorts from Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Studies were used for analysis. Cox regression model was used to estimate the association between lifestyle factors collected at baseline and T2DM incidence. Multivariable-adjusted population attributable risks were calculated for specific combinations of lifestyle factors. RESULTS: There were 3315 male and 5925 female incident T2DM, with corresponding density incidence rates of 6.39 and 6.04 per 1000 person-years. If the healthiest group of healthy lifestyle index (HLI) was used as a reference, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of T2DM increased monotonically in males [2.04(1.75,2.38); 2.94 (2.53,3.42); 4.31(3.66,5.07)] and females [1.85(1.64,2.08); 2.79 (2.49,3.13); 4.14(3.66,4.67)]. One point increase of HLI was related to a 35% and 35% lower risk in males and females. About 52.7% and 58.4% cases in males and females could have been avoided if participants had been adherent to a healthy lifestyle of maintaining healthy body weight, eating a healthy diet and keeping physically active. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with a decreased risk of T2DM in the Chinese population. Future interventions targeted at combined healthy lifestyle factors are needed to reduce the burden of T2DM.

18.
CRISPR J ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847728

RESUMO

The CRISPR-associated transposase system enables site-specific DNA integration on the genome independent of homologous recombination. Previous studies have demonstrated that the type V-K CRISPR-associated Tn7-like transposase system from Scytonema hofmanni and the type I-F system from Vibrio cholerae have strong target immunity like Tn7, and therefore two or more copies of the donor DNA would not be inserted into the same target location in theory. In this paper, we report that the type I-F system can insert multiple donor copies into one site, which was identified and confirmed by single-strain identification and high-throughput sequencing. This result is beneficial for our application of multicopy chromosomal integration by CRISPR-associated transposases, allowing more donor insertions into the chromosome. This unexpected result shows that the target immunity mechanism of this system has not been fully understood. Attention should be paid to the possibility of multiple insertions and their effects in related research.

19.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 255, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848682

RESUMO

The marvelously diverse Orchidaceae constitutes the largest family of angiosperms. The genus Cymbidium in Orchidaceae is well known for its unique vegetation, floral morphology, and flower scent traits. Here, a chromosome-scale assembly of the genome of Cymbidium ensifolium (Jianlan) is presented. Comparative genomic analysis showed that C. ensifolium has experienced two whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, the most recent of which was shared by all orchids, while the older event was the τ event shared by most monocots. The results of MADS-box genes analysis provided support for establishing a unique gene model of orchid flower development regulation, and flower shape mutations in C. ensifolium were shown to be associated with the abnormal expression of MADS-box genes. The most abundant floral scent components identified included methyl jasmonate, acacia alcohol and linalool, and the genes involved in the floral scent component network of C. ensifolium were determined. Furthermore, the decreased expression of photosynthesis-antennae and photosynthesis metabolic pathway genes in leaves was shown to result in colorful striped leaves, while the increased expression of MADS-box genes in leaves led to perianth-like leaves. Our results provide fundamental insights into orchid evolution and diversification.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 689880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867315

RESUMO

It is of great clinical significance to develop potential novel strategies to prevent cardio-cerebrovascular complications in patients with hyperlipidemia. Vascular Endothelial integrity and function play a key role in the prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can home to sites of ischemic injury and promote endothelial regeneration and neovascularization. Hypercholesterolemia impairs the function of EPC. The present study attempted to identify the effect of piperlongumine on EPCs' angiogenic potential and cerebral ischemic injury in high-fat diet-fed (HFD-fed) mice. Here, we showed that treatment with low-does piperlongumine (0.25 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks significantly improved EPCs function and reduced the cerebral ischemic injury (both infarct volumes and neurobehavioral outcomes) in HFD-fed mice. In addition, low-dose piperlongumine administration increased intracellular NO level and reduced intracellular O2 - level in EPCs of HFD-fed mice. Moreover, incubation with piperlongumine (1.0 µM, 24 h) reduced thrombospondin-1/2 (TSP-1/2, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor) expression levels in EPCs from HFD-fed mice, increased the therapeutic effect of EPC from HFD-fed mice on cerebral ischemic injury reduction and angiogenesis promotion in HFD-fed mice, and the donor derived EPCs homed to the recipient ischemic brain. In conclusion, low-dose piperlongumine can enhance EPCs' angiogenic potential and protect against cerebral ischemic injury in HFD-fed mice. It is implied that treatment with low-dose piperlongumine might be a potential option to prevent ischemic diseases (including stroke) in patients with hyperlipidemia, and priming with piperlongumine might be a feasible way to improve the efficacy of EPC-based therapy for ischemic diseases.

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