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1.
J Emerg Med ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed care in emergency departments (EDs) is a serious problem in the United States. Patient wait time is considered a critical measure of delayed care in EDs. Several strategies have been employed by EDs to reduce wait time, including implementation of self-check-in kiosks. However, the effect of kiosks on wait time in EDs is understudied. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between patient wait time and utilization of self-check-in kiosks in EDs. To investigate a series of other patient-, ED-, and hospital-level predictors of wait time in EDs. METHODS: Using data from the 2015 and 2016 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we analyzed 40,528 ED visits by constructing a multivariable linear regression model of the log-transformed wait time data as an outcome, then computing percent changes in wait times. RESULTS: During the study period, about 9% of EDs in the United States implemented kiosks. In our linear regression model, the wait time in EDs with kiosk self-check-in services was 56.8% shorter (95% confidence interval ̶ 130% to ̶ 6.4%, p < 0.05) compared with EDs without kiosk services. In addition to kiosks, patients' day of visit, arrival time, triage assessment, arrival by ambulance, chronic medical conditions, ED boarding, hospitals' full-capacity protocol, and hospitals' location were significant predictors of wait time. CONCLUSIONS: Self-check-in kiosks are associated with shorter ED wait time in the United States. However, prolonged ED wait time continues to be a system-wide problem, and warrants multilayered interventions to address this challenge for those who are in acute need of immediate care.

2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909849

RESUMO

Climate warming affects soil carbon (C) dynamics, with possible serious consequences for soil C stocks and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the mechanisms underlying changes in soil C storage are not well understood, hampering long-term predictions of climate C-feedbacks. The activity of the extracellular enzymes ligninase and cellulase can be used to track changes in the predominant C sources of soil microbes and can thus provide mechanistic insights into soil C loss pathways. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that reductions in soil C stocks with warming are associated with increased ratios of ligninase to cellulase activity. Furthermore, whereas long-term (≥5 years) warming reduced the soil recalcitrant C pool by 14%, short-term warming had no significant effect. Together, these results suggest that warming stimulates microbial utilization of recalcitrant C pools, possibly exacerbating long-term climate-C feedbacks.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parental exposure to tobacco smoke has been associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, while only a few studies took the overall parental tobacco exposure status into consideration. We aim to explore the relationship of parental smoking and passive smoking before and during pregnancy with stillbirth in a large Chinese rural cohort. DESIGN: 248 501 couples were enrolled in a national prospective cohort study conducted in rural China. Parental exposure to tobacco smoke before and during pregnancy, along with other risk factors, was ascertained by questionnaires. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded by physicians. RESULTS: The ORs (Odds Ratios) of maternal active smoking, maternal passive smoking, paternal active smoking and paternal passive smoking were 2.07 (95% CI 1.25 to 3.41), 1.22 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.47), 1.36 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.63) and 1.10 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.39), respectively. The rates of stillbirth increased from 0.31% for the maternal non-smoking group to 0.43% for the smoking cessation during pregnancy group, to 0.64% for the decreased smoking group and 1.28% for the continuing smoking group. A similar pattern was found in the change in paternal smoking status and stillbirth. Stratified by maternal passive smoking, the OR of paternal smoking was 1.35 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.61) in the maternal non-smoking group and 1.67 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.56) in the maternal passive smoking group. CONCLUSIONS: Parental exposure to tobacco smoke increased the risk of stillbirth, especially for those continuing smoking during pregnancy. Paternal smoking is an independent risk factor for stillbirth despite maternal passive smoking status.

4.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936880

RESUMO

In order to discover novel derivatives in the anti-tumor field, reported anti-tumor pharmacophores (uridine, uracil, and thymine) were combined with 2-methoxyestradiol, which has been characterized as having excellent biological properties in terms of anti-tumor activity. Thus, 20 hybrids were synthesized through etherification at the 17ß-OH or 3-phenolic hydroxyl group of 2-methoxyestradiol, and evaluated for their biological activities against the human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell lines, human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell lines, and the normal human liver L-O2 cell lines. As a result, all the uridine derivatives and single-access derivatives of uracil/thymine possessed good anti-proliferative activity against tested tumor cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration values from 3.89 to 19.32 µM), while only one dual-access derivative (21b) of thymine possessed good anti-proliferative activity (half maximal inhibitory concentration ≈ 25 µM). Among them, the uridine derivative 11 and the single-access derivative of uracil 12a possessed good anti-proliferative selectivity against tested tumor cells. Furthermore, basic mechanism studies revealed that hybrids 11 and 12a could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. These hybrids induced morphological changes in MCF-7 cells, causing mitochondrial depolarization. These two hybrids also had the following effects: arrest of the cell cycle at the G2 phase; upregulation of Apaf-1, Bax, and cytochrome c; downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL for both mRNA and protein; and increase of the expression for caspase-8 and -9. Finally, apoptotic effector caspase-3 was increased, which eventually caused nuclear apoptosis at least through an intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria. Additionally, hybrids 11 and 12a could specifically bind to estradiol receptor alpha in a dose-dependent manner.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer remains one of both the most common and deadliest forms of cancer, which is still localized generally respond well to radical prostatectomy and associated interventions, up to 30% of these individuals will still suffer from disease relapse. BUB1B has been found to be essential for cell growth and proliferation, even in several kinds of tumor cells. But the specific importance and mechanistic role of BUB1B in prostate cancer remains unclear. METHODS: Quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western-blot were used in detection of mRNA and protein expression. Lentivirus infection was used to overexpression or knock down target gene. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to test protein expression and apoptosis level. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify protein expression in tissue. Statistical differences between two groups are evaluated by two-tailed t-tests. The comparison among multiple groups is performed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's posttest. The statistical significance of the Kaplan-Meier survival plot is determined by log-rank analysis. RESULTS: In the present report, we found BUB1B expression to be highly increased in prostate cancer tissues relative to normal controls. We further found BUB1B to be essential for efficient tumor cell proliferation, and to correlate with poorer prostate cancer patient outcomes. From a mechanistic perspective, the ability of BUB1B to regulate MELK was found to be essential for its ability to promote prostate cancer cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data suggests that BUB1B is up-regulated in prostate cancer, suggesting that growth of cancer cells may depend on BUB1B-dependent regulation of MELK transcription. BUB1B may serve as a clinical prognostic factor and a druggable target for prostate cancer.

6.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 75: 103325, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924570

RESUMO

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid used clinically for treating allergies, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Long-term prednisolone use has been shown to have negative effects on physiology and mood. We aimed to study the pharmacology and toxicology of glucocorticoid-like drugs by investigating behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis effects in a zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos 24 h post fertilization were exposed to 25 µM prednisolone. Their behavior was investigated 5 days post fertilization (dpf), and their HPI axis-related activity and related neurotransmitter levels were investigated 3, 4, 5, and 6 dpf. The behavior results showed that exposure to prednisolone resulted in decreased autonomic activity and low sensitivity to light. qRT-PCR and ELISA results showed decreased activity of the HPI axis and increased secretion of dopamine and serotonin after exposure to prednisolone. This study provides us with new insights into understanding the effects of glucocorticoids on the HPI axis.

7.
Int J Surg ; 74: 86-91, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing staging systems for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms only provide accuracy in stratifying disease severity without enough sensitivity in prognosis predicting. Previously presented models mainly set overall survival as endpoint but ignore the importance of recurrence. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses were retrospectively conducted on the potential prognostic factors of 245 patients who underwent curable surgery of G1/2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from December 2002 to May 2018 in our institute. Proposed model based on statistically significant factors were tested for recurrence risk classification estimation validity as measured by discrimination (receiver operator characteristic [ROC] curve and Harrell's c-index [HCI]) and calibration. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses found lymph node metastasis, larger tumor size and grade 2 independent risk factors of disease-free survival (DFS). The novel scoring system for recurrence risk classification sorted patients into three groups: score<15.4 for low risk (79.0%, 3- and 5-year recurrence risk 0.8% and 4.3%, median DFS not reached), score>15.4, <24.5 for intermediate risk (20.8%, 3- and 5-year recurrence risk 11.6% and 21.4%, median DFS 70 months) and score >24.5 for high risk (10.2%, 3- and 5-year recurrence risk 37.3% and 68.7%, median DFS 49 months).The area under curve (AUC) and HCI of our system were 0.871 and 0.929, superior to those of European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (AUC 0.833, HCI 0.806). CONCLUSION: The presented system can be utilized to identify G1/2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients with high recurrence risk, which might be appropriate for peri-operative adjuvant therapy.

8.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 12, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the perioperative outcomes and safety of transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy with those of retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for patients with pheochromocytoma. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register for studies from 1999 to 2019 to assess the perioperative outcomes and safety of transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy and the retroperitoneal approach for laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with pheochromocytoma. After data extraction and quality assessments, we used RevMan 5.2 to pool the data. RESULTS: Four retrospective studies were obtained in our meta-analysis. Patients who underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy were associated with shorter operative time (WMD: 34.91, 95% CI: 27.02 to 42.80, I2 = 15%; p < 0.01), less intraoperative blood loss (WMD: 139.32, 95% CI: 125.38 to 153.26, I2 = 0, p < 0.01), and a shorter hospital stay (WMD: 2, 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.82, I2 = 82%, p < 0.01) than patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy. No significant differences were found in the complication rate (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.58 to 4.33, I2 = 0; p = 0.38) or in the incidence of hemodynamic crisis (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.19 to 2.94, p = 0.67) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy could achieve better perioperative outcomes than the transperitoneal approach for patients with pheochromocytoma.

9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 8, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is believed that deposition of amyloid beta (Aß) in the brain is the central pathological changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which triggers a series of pathological processes. However, the relationship between dyslipidemia and AD is uncertain. Considering the peripheral Aß levels are related to brain Aß deposition, we explore the relationships between blood lipids and plasma Aß. METHODS: Participants who lived in the selected village of Xi'an for more than 3 years were enrolled, aged 40-85 years (n = 1282, 37.9% male). Fasting blood lipid, plasma Aß levels, basic information and living habits were measured. Multiple linear regressions were used. RESULTS: In total population, blood lipids were not associated with plasma Aß. After stratified by blood pressure, serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) were positively associated with plasma Aß42 levels (ßTC = 0.666, PTC = 0.024; ßLDL-c = 0.743, PLDL-c = 0.011, respectively) in normal blood pressure. LDL-c was negatively associated with plasma Aß40 levels (ß = - 0.986, P = 0.037) in high blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma Aß42 levels are associated with higher TC and LDL-c in normal blood pressure. Elevated plasma Aß40 levels are associated with lower LDL-c in high blood pressure. This indicated that the relationships between blood lipids and plasma Aß were confounded by blood pressure.

10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(2): 205-211, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) play major roles in solid tumors. This study aimed to establish a longitudinal and multimodal imaging model for in vivo evaluation of HIF1α and angiogenesis in breast cancer. METHODS: By transfection of a 5 hypoxia-responsive element (HRE)/green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid, the cell line Ca761-hre-gfp was established, which emitted green fluorescence triggered by HIF-1α under hypoxia. The cells were subjected to CoCl2-simulated hypoxia to confirm the imaging strategy. We grew Ca761-hre-gfp cells in the left rear flanks of twelve 615 mice. Experiments were conducted on days 4, 9, 15, and 19. For in vivo analysis, Ca761-hre-gfp subcutaneous allografted tumors were imaged in vivo using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and fluorescence imaging (FLI) during tumor development. The tumor size, CEUS peak intensity, and FLI photons were measured to evaluate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and HIF-1α activity, respectively. After each experiment, three mice were randomly sacrificed and tumor specimens were collected to examine HIF-1α activity and the microvessel density (MVD). RESULTS: In vitro, both green fluorescence and HIF-1α expression were detected in Ca761-hre-gfp cells treated with CoCl2, indicating the suitability of the cells to detect HIF-1α activity. In vivo, HIF-1α activity first increased and then decreased, which was significantly correlated with angiogenic changes (r = 0.803, P = 0.005). These changes were confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of HIF-1α and MVD. CONCLUSIONS: The findings validated the Ca761-hre-gfp murine allograft model for reliable evaluation of HIF-1α activity and angiogenesis longitudinally using both molecular and pre-clinical non-invasive imaging modalities. The cell line may be useful for studies of anti-HIF pathway therapies.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e1904320, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943439

RESUMO

Carbon-based materials have been considered as the most promising anode materials for both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (PIBs), owing to their good chemical stability, high electrical conductivity, and environmental benignity. However, due to the large sizes of sodium and potassium ions, it is a great challenge to realize a carbon anode with high reversible capacity, long cycle life, and high rate capability. Herein, by rational design, N-doped 3D mesoporous carbon nanosheets (N-CNS) are successfully synthesized, which can realize unprecedented electrochemical performance for both SIBs and PIBs. The N-CNS possess an ultrathin nanosheet structure with hierarchical pores, ultrahigh level of pyridinic N/pyrrolic N, and an expanded interlayer distance. The beneficial features that can enhance the Na-/K-ion intercalation/deintercalation kinetic process, shorten the diffusion length for both ions and electrons, and accommodate the volume change are demonstrated. Hence, the N-CNS-based electrode delivers a high capacity of 239 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 after 10 000 cycles for SIBs and 321 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles for PIBs. First-principles calculation shows that the ultrahigh doping level of pyridinic N/pyrrolic N contributes to the enhanced sodium and potassium storage performance by modulating the charge density distribution on the carbon surface.

12.
Cryobiology ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954710

RESUMO

To enrich bovine gonocytes from cryopreserved testicular tissues, the cryoprotection effects of the freezing media containing knockout serum replacement (KSR) were examined. Using Minimum essential medium (MEM) + 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) as the basic medium, calf testicular tissues were cryopreserved in media containing 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 90% KSR and 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) respectively. Morphologically the seminiferous cords and interstitium were well preserved in all groups. The gonocytes were all glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor α-1 (GFRα-1) positive. The recovery rates in all KSR groups were higher than that of the 10% Me2SO group, while comparable to the 5% FBS group. The enriched gonocytes expressed gonocyte marker GFRα-1 typically. Collectively supplementation of 5-10% KSR can achieve comparable cryoprotective effects with using 5% FBS, which is useful in future study due to its defined formulation that is more consistent in quality and stable in supply.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 242-252, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854925

RESUMO

Heavy metals are typical pollutants in the environment and microplastics are relatively newly recognized environmental pollutants, with their coexistence potentially compounding pollution and ecological risks. In this study, we investigate the contents and morphological characteristics of microplastics and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr) in the estuarine sediments of Poyang Lake and the Yangtze River as a means of exploring the relationship between them. The results showed that the abundance of microplastics ranged from 356 n·kg-1 to 1452 n·kg-1, with an average abundance of 982.33 n·kg-1 in the dry sediments. Microplastics were identified as being of three main types:fragments, fibers, and films, whereby fragments were the most dominant type found and accounted for 48.23% of the total microplastics in the sediments. The main color of microplastics in the sediments was chromatic, and the particle size of most microplastics was<1 mm. The major polymer components were polyethylene (PE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), and polyethylene (PP). Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results indicated that the surfaces of microplastics were rough, porous, cracked, and torn, and that the five heavy metals were found on the surfaces of different microplastics. These heavy metals accumulated to different degrees in the estuarine sediments, and redundancy analysis indicated that environmental factors[including the total organic carbon (TOC), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and sediment particle size] and the occurrence of microplastics all had significant (P<0.05) effects on the distribution of heavy metal concentrations in sediments. Variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that the contribution rates of environmental factors and microplastics to the bioavailability of heavy metals were 37.70% and 0.70% respectively, but the combined effect was 49.60%. We conclude that microplastics in sediments may act as carriers of heavy metals and activate their bioavailability, hence posing a potential threat to the ecological security of estuaries and wetlands.

14.
Life Sci ; 242: 117182, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863770

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study was designed to compare the effects of a low-fat diet (LF), calorie restriction (CR), quercetin (Que) and exercise (Ex) on hepatic steatosis in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity prone (OP) model in the perspective of microRNA (miR)-dependent thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and action. MAIN METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a HF diet for 10 weeks to induce OP phenotype and then divided into 5 groups, HF diet (OP-HF), LF diet (OP-LF), 70% CR (OP-CR), 0.05% Que (OP-Que) and a treadmill exercise regimen (OP-Ex); one additional group fed LF diet served as control (LF). 7 weeks later, serum indexes, metabolic alterations, redox status and histological appearance in the thyroid and liver, and TH related miRs with their targets expressions were determined. KEY FINDINGS: No significance on T3 levels was observed among the six groups. LF, CR, Que and Ex significantly ameliorated HF-induced hepatic steatosis to varying degrees, inhibited T4 production via differentially elevating miR-339, miR-383 and miR-146b to decrease NIS expression and regulating miR-200a/Nrf2 to maintain redox status in the thyroid. Furthermore, these four interventions differentially and significantly decreased miR-383 and miR-146b to elevate TRb and DIO1 expression, and subsequent TH responsive lipid metabolism genes regulation. Among them, the effects of CR on hepatic steatosis were the most prominent. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicated that amelioration of hepatic steatosis by LF, CR, Que and Ex resulted in many shared, but also many differential changes in the miR-dependent TH production and action.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809835

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 22 (Hsp22) is an important regulatory factor response to various stresses in mammals. In this study, the full length cDNA of Epinephelus coioides Hsp22, which was 1680bp in length, with a 289 bp 5' UTR, a 725 bp 3'UTR, and a 666 bp open reading frame encoding 221 amino acids, was obtained. E. coioides Hsp22 contains a highly conserved α-crystallin domain. E. coioides Hsp22 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined by quantitative real-time PCR, with the highest expression in blood, followed by the spleen, skin, gill, head kidney, muscle, heart, liver, trunk kidney, stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine, brain and thymus. The expression patterns of E. coioides Hsp22 response to infection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and Vribro alginolyticus, the important pathogens of E. coioides, were studied. The expression levels of the gene were up-regulated in the tissues examined. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that E. coioides Hsp22 was distributed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. In addition, E. coioides Hsp22 significantly inhibited the SGIV-induced cell apoptosis. In summary, the E. coioides Hsp22 might play a critical role in pathogenic stimulation.

16.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(12): 1222-1225, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical significance of a prenatal case with two small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) through identification of their origins. METHODS: G-banding chromosomal karyotyping analysis were carried out on fetal amniotic fluid sample and peripheral blood samples from both patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism-array (SNP-array) were used to analyze the component and size of the sSMCs. RESULTS: The karyotype of the fetus was determined as 47, XX, +mar[53]/48, XX, +2 mar[31]/46, XX[14]. SNP-array has revealed four copies of chromosome 2q11.1q11.2 with a size of 2.6 Mb and three copies of 10p11.23q11.23 with a size of 20.6 Mb. The results was confirmed by FISH. CONCLUSION: A rare chromosomal abnormality with two sSMCs was identified by combined karyotype analysis, SNP-array and FISH, which provided valuable information for prenatal diagnosis.

17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816972

RESUMO

Lipid species are critical components of eukaryotic membranes. They play key roles in many biological processes such as signal transduction, cell homeostasis, and energy storage. Investigations of lipid-environment interactions, in addition to the lipid and environment main effects, have important implications in understanding the lipid metabolism and related changes in phenotype. In this study, we developed a novel penalized variable selection method to identify important lipid-environment interactions in a longitudinal lipidomics study. An efficient Newton-Raphson based algorithm was proposed within the generalized estimating equation (GEE) framework. We conducted extensive simulation studies to demonstrate the superior performance of our method over alternatives, in terms of both identification accuracy and prediction performance. As weight control via dietary calorie restriction and exercise has been demonstrated to prevent cancer in a variety of studies, analysis of the high-dimensional lipid datasets collected using 60 mice from the skin cancer prevention study identified meaningful markers that provide fresh insight into the underlying mechanism of cancer preventive effects.

18.
Epigenetics ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818188

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) in blood (umbilical cord blood and capillary blood collected after birth on Guthrie cards) during the perinatal period is being increasingly studied with the aim of identifying epigenetic markers of in utero environmental exposures or later disease development. However, the comparability in DNAm between these two sources is unknown. To this end, DNAm from the cord blood and capillary blood of 34 subjects in the Isle of Wight 3rd Generation Birth Cohort (68 samples) were included to assess the comparability. Differences in average DNAm (overall agreement), correlations in DNAm, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) in DNAm between the two sources, at each of the 430,742 CpG sites, were evaluated. The results showed that a high proportion (70.1%) of the CpGs DNAm agreed between cord blood and neonatal blood on Guthrie cards. A small portion of CpGs showed high correlation (correlation ≥0.5) or high ICC (ICC ≥0.5) in DNAm of the whole genome. This proportion increased dramatically in differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are associated with exposure to maternal smoking, between the two sources.

19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 112019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790362

RESUMO

To provide comprehensive estimates of the global, regional, and national burden of infertility from 1990 to 2017, using findings from a 2017 study on the global burden of disease (GBD), we assessed the burden of infertility in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. DisMod-MR 2.1 is a Bayesian meta-regression method that estimates non-fatal outcomes using sparse and heterogeneous epidemiological data. Globally, the age-standardized prevalence rate of infertility increased by 0.370% per year for females and 0.291% per year for males from 1990 to 2017. Additionally, age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of infertility increased by 0.396% per year for females and 0.293% per year for males during the observational period. An increasing trend to these burden estimates was observed throughout the all socio-demographic index (SDI) countries. Interestingly, we found that high SDI countries had the lowest level of prevalence and DALYs in both genders. However, the largest increasing trend was observed in high-SDI countries for females. By contrast, low-SDI countries had the largest increasing trend in males. Negative associations were observed between these burden estimates and the SDI level. The global disease burden of infertility has been increasing throughout the period from 1990 to 2017.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791639

RESUMO

AIMS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been increasing in recent years. Investigation of whether consumption of legumes as a part of healthy diet could reduce the odds of MetS has led to inconsistent conclusions. Here, we performed the first meta-analysis of observational studies to analyze the association between legume consumption and prevalence of MetS. DATA SYNTHESIS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify observational studies up to June 1, 2019. We extracted data from the studies included and performed quality assessments. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Publication bias and subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also performed. We finally included four cross-sectional studies, two cohort studies, and one case-control study involving 56,028 participants. The summary OR revealed no statistically significant association between legume consumption and odds of MetS (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.76-1.12, I2 = 73.5%). Subgroup analysis of study characteristics and adjustment for confounding along with sensitivity analyses revealed no statistically significant differences. No evidence of publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: Legume consumption is not associated with the odds of MetS. These findings require validation in well-designed cohort studies and randomized clinical trials with accurate measurement of legume intake and strict control of confounders. REGISTRATION: This study was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (registration number: CRD42019131777).

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