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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406615

RESUMO

Grain number per rice panicle, which directly determines grain yield, is an important agronomic trait for rice breeding and yield-related research. However, manually counting grains of rice per panicle is time-consuming, laborious, and error-prone. In this research, a grain detection model was proposed to automatically recognize and count grains on primary branches of a rice panicle. The model used image analysis based on deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN), by integrating the feature pyramid network (FPN) into the faster R-CNN network. The performance of the grain detection model was compared to that of the original faster R-CNN model and the SSD model, and it was found that the grain detection model was more reliable and accurate. The accuracy of the grain detection model was not affected by the lighting condition in which images of rice primary branches were taken. The model worked well for all rice branches with various numbers of grains. Through applying the grain detection model to images of fresh and dry branches, it was found that the model performance was not affected by the grain moisture conditions. The overall accuracy of the grain detection model was 99.4%. Results demonstrated that the model was accurate, reliable, and suitable for detecting grains of rice panicles with various conditions.

2.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 4, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407764

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the first leading cause of death in gynecological cancers. The continuous survival and metastasis of cancer cells are the main causes of death and poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. Berberine is an effective component extracted from the rhizomes of coptis chinensis and phellodendron chinensis. In our study, we aim to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of proliferation, migration and invasion by berberine in ovarian cancer cells. CCK8 assay was used for detection of proliferative capacity of SKOV3 and 3AO cells. Wound healing assay was used to estimate cell migration and transwell assay was used to assess cell invasion. The mRNA expression of miR-145 and MMP16 were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The protein level of MMP16 was detected by western blot analysis. In addition, luciferase reporter assays were used to demonstrate MMP16 was a target of miR-145. The results demonstrated berberine inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, promoted miR-145 expression, and decreased MMP16 expression in SKOV3 and 3AO cells. MMP16 was a target of miR-145. Moreover, downregulation of MMP16 contributed to the inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion by berberine. Together, our results revealed that berberine inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion through miR-145/MMP16 in SKOV3 and 3AO cells, highlighting the potentiality of berberine to be used as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

3.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 13, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The creation of a bioengineered cardiac patch (BCP) is a potential novel strategy for myocardial repair. Nevertheless, the ideal scaffold for BCP is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the decellularized placenta (DP) could serve as natural scaffold material to create a BCP for myocardial repair. METHODS AND RESULTS: A BCP was created by seeding human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs; 1 × 106/cm2) onto DP. The functional and electrophysiological properties of the BCP were first characterized by in vitro analysis and optical mapping. Next, in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the BCP was evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI), created by left descending coronary artery ligation (MI + BCP group), and compared with MI alone (MI group), transplantation of DP (MI + DP group), and hiPSC-CMs (MI + CM group). Cytokine profiling demonstrated that the BCP contained multiple growth and angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, angiogenin, and angiopoietin-2. In vitro optical mapping showed that the BCP exhibited organized mechanical contraction and synchronized electrical propagation. RNA sequencing showed that DP enhanced the maturation of hiPSC-CMs compared with the monolayer of cultured hiPSC-CMs. At 4 weeks follow-up, the BCP significantly improved left ventricular (LV) function, as determined by LV ejection fraction, fractional shortening, + dP/dtmax, and end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, compared with the MI, MI + DP, and MI + CM groups. Moreover, histological examination revealed that engraftment of the BCP at the infarct zone decreased infarct size and increased cell retention and neovascularization compared with the MI, MI + DP, and MI + CM groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a DP scaffold contains multiple growth and angiogenic factors that enhance the maturation and survival of seeded hiPSC-CMs. Transplantation of a BCP is superior to DP or hiPSC-CMs alone in reducing infarct size and improving cell retention and neovascularization, thus providing a novel therapy for myocardial repair following MI.

4.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433200

RESUMO

Owing to advantages of miniaturization, convenient integration, flexibility, and real-time monitoring, wearable smartsensors have received numerous attention and greatly developed in various fields. However, there usually appears a contradiction between sensing behaviors and simple fabricated methods, seriously limiting on-site detection of actual samples. In this work, a porous Au-based smartsensor has been in situ prepared by combining screen printing technology and sacrificial template electrodeposition. Thanks to abundant active adsorption sites, multiple metal ions (Pb, Cu, and Hg) can be easily achieved on-site detection by this smart platform with a low limit of detection as well as high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, good stability, repeatability, and bending performance. Significantly, it also exhibits a reliable detective capability in actual liquid cosmetic samples with a portable cellphone, which identically corresponds to standard inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP--MS) evaluation. Therefore, this wearable smartsensor provides a promising platform for artificial intelligence application in future daily life.

5.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumour microenvironment (TME) can promote the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Some tumours can be suppressed by targeting Wnt2b in tumour cells. However, the role of Wnt2b in HCC is still unknown. In particular, the role of Wnt2b-mediated signal activation in macrophage polarization in the HCC microenvironment, and the regulatory effect between Wnt and glycolysis in TAMs has not been described. METHODS: The expression of Wnt2b in TAMs was detected by qPCR and immunofluorescence. Wnt2b/ß-catenin interference in HCC-TAMs was performed by lentivirus carrying targeted shRNA or TLR9 agonist. Markers related to macrophage polarization and the changes of key glycolytic enzymes expression were detected by flow cytometry and qPCR. ECAR was analysed by Seahorse analyser. MTT assay, wound healing assay, western blotting were used to evaluate the promoting effect of different HCC-TAMs on the proliferation, migration and EMT of HCC in vitro. Tumour cells and different HCC-TAMs were injected via subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice to assess the effects of CpG ODN, Wnt2b, or ß-catenin on HCC-TAMs in tumour growth in vivo. RESULTS: Polarization-promoting factors derived from HCC cells upregulated the expression of Wnt2b in macrophages, which promoted the polarization of TAMs to M2-like macrophages by activating Wnt2b/ß-catenin/c-Myc signalling. Furthermore, this process was associated with the activation of glycolysis in HCC-TAMs. These HCC-TAMs could promote the development of EMT, proliferation, and migration of HCC. In addition to silencing Wnt2b or ß-catenin expression, TLR9 agonist CpG ODN downregulated the level of glycolysis and inhibited the M2 polarization of HCC-TAMs, reversing the tumour-promoting effects of TAMs in vitro and vivo. CONCLUSIONS: As a potential target for HCC therapy, Wnt2b may play an important regulatory role for the functions of TAMs in the TME. Moreover, the TLR9 agonist CpG ODN might act as a Wnt2b signal inhibitor and can potentially be employed for HCC therapy by disturbing Wnt2b/ß-catenin/c-Myc and inhibiting glycolysis in HCC-TAMs.

6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 540: 83-89, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450484

RESUMO

Intracrine androgen synthesis plays a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) is a vital enzyme in the intracrine androgen synthesis pathway. In this study, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were employed to deliver small interfering RNA targeting AKR1C3 (siAKR1C3) to downregulate AKR1C3 expression in CPRC cells. The optimal weight ratio of MSNs/siAKR1C3 was determined by a gel retardation assay. Prostate cancer cells such as VCaP cells, which intracrinally express AKR1C3, and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells stably transfected with AKR1C3 were used to investigate the antitumour effect of MSNs-siAKR1C3. Fluorescence detection and Western blot analyses were applied to confirm the entrance of MSNs-siAKR1C3 into the cells. A SRB (Sulforhodamine B) assay was employed to assess the cell viability, and a radioimmunoassay was used to measure the androgen concentration. Moreover, real-time PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and ELISA were used to determine the transcription and expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), AKR1C3 and androgen receptor (AR). Meanwhile, a reporter gene assay was performed to determine the AR activity. Additionally, a castrated nude mouse xenograft tumour model was produced to verify the inhibitory effect of MSNs-siAKR1C3 in vivo. The results showed that the optimal weight ratio of MSNs/siAKR1C3 was 140:1, and the complex could effectively enter cells, downregulate AKR1C3 expression, reduce the androgen concentration, inhibit AR activation, and inhibit CRPC development both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that decreasing intracrine androgen synthesis and inactivating AR signals by MSNs-siAKR1C3 may be a potential effective method for CRPC treatment.

7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13488, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence and its risk of stroke rise with ageing. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of NOAC and warfarin in AF patients aged ≥ 85 years. METHODS: This is a retrospective study using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 15,361 patients aged ≥ 85 years with AF on oral anticoagulants were identified. The end points included ischaemic stroke, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), major bleeding, all-cause mortality and composite adverse events (ICH or major bleeding or all-cause mortality). Clinical outcomes were compared between each NOAC and warfarin after propensity matching. RESULTS: Before propensity matching, patients taking warfarin were older, more female with more comorbidities than NOACs users. After propensity matching, baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between matched subjects receiving warfarin and each NOAC. Compared to warfarin, dabigatran was associated with a lower risk of ICH (hazard ratio [HR] 0.496), mortality (HR 0.558) and adverse events (HR 0.628), while rivaroxaban was associated with a lower risk of ischaemic stroke (HR 0.781), ICH (HR 0.453), mortality (HR 0.558) and adverse events (HR 0.636). Apixaban was associated with a lower risk of mortality (HR 0.488) and adverse events (HR 0.557) compared to warfarin. (all P < .05). CONCLUSION: For the efficacy, NOACs were associated with a comparable or lower risk of ischaemic stroke compared to warfarin. For adverse events, NOACs were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and composite adverse events. In the elderly AF population, NOACs could be a more favourable choice for stroke prevention.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464897

RESUMO

Although bacteria with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity have been used to mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses in crops, it is not well known whether the ACC deaminase gene (acdS) in Pseudomonas azotoformans is related to the alleviation of salt stress by the bacterium. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of acdS in P. azotoformans strain CHB 1107 on the nutrient uptake and growth of tomato plants under salt stress. The acdS mutant (CHB 1107 M) of P. azotoformans CHB 1107 was obtained through bacterial conjugation. Wild-type (CHB 1107 WT) and CHB 1107 M were used to inoculate tomato plants grown in a soil or solution with an electrical conductivity of 6 dS/m adjusted by NaCl. CHB 1107 M completely lost the ability to produce ACC deaminase, whereas the complementation of acdS in CHB 1107 M preserved its ACC deaminase activity. CHB 1107 WT significantly reduced the production of ethylene and proline by tomato plants under salt stress, increasing the shoot and root dry weights of tomato plants compared with the noninoculated control and CHB 1107 M. In addition, tomato plants inoculated with CHB 1107 M showed a significant reduction in K (27.5%), Ca (23.0%), and Mn uptake (17.5%) compared with those inoculated with CHB 1107 WT. In contrast, CHB 1107 WT significantly reduced Na uptake by tomato plants in comparison to CHB 1107 M in saline soil conditions. In addition, the inoculation of tomato plants with CHB 1107 WT resulted in a higher K/Na ratio than in those inoculated with CHB 1107 M and the noninoculated control. These findings suggest that acdS in P. azotoformans is associated with the amelioration of salinity stress in tomato. Plant transformation with acdS and the field application of P. azotoformans may be used as potential management tools for crops under salt stress.

9.
Dev Comp Immunol ; : 104013, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465381

RESUMO

Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in mammals, a gene closely associated with apoptosis, is involved in many biological processes, such as cell aging, differentiation, regulation of cell cycle, and inflammatory response. In this study, grouper Epinephelus coioides PDCD4, EcPDCD4-1 and EcPDCD4-2, were obtained. The open reading frame (ORF) of EcPDCD4-1 is 1413 bp encoding 470 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52.39 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.33. The ORF of EcPDCD4-2 is 1410 bp encoding 469 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52.29 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.29. Both EcPDCD4-1 and EcPDCD4-2 proteins contain two conserved MA3 domains, and their mRNA were detected in all eight tissues of E. coioides by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with the highest expression in liver. The expressions of two EcPDCD4s were significantly up-regulated after Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or Vibrio alginolyticus infection. In addition, over-expression of EcPDCD4-1 or EcPDCD4-2 can inhibit the activity of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and regulate SGIV-induced apoptosis. The results demonstrated that EcPDCD4s might play important roles in E. coioides tissues during pathogen-caused inflammation.

10.
Gigascience ; 10(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ducks have a typical avian karyotype that consists of macro- and microchromosomes, but a pair of much less differentiated ZW sex chromosomes compared to chickens. To elucidate the evolution of chromosome architectures between ducks and chickens, and between birds and mammals, we produced a nearly complete chromosomal assembly of a female Pekin duck by combining long-read sequencing and multiplatform scaffolding techniques. RESULTS: A major improvement of genome assembly and annotation quality resulted from the successful resolution of lineage-specific propagated repeats that fragmented the previous Illumina-based assembly. We found that the duck topologically associated domains (TAD) are demarcated by putative binding sites of the insulator protein CTCF, housekeeping genes, or transitions of active/inactive chromatin compartments, indicating conserved mechanisms of spatial chromosome folding with mammals. There are extensive overlaps of TAD boundaries between duck and chicken, and also between the TAD boundaries and chromosome inversion breakpoints. This suggests strong natural selection pressure on maintaining regulatory domain integrity, or vulnerability of TAD boundaries to DNA double-strand breaks. The duck W chromosome retains 2.5-fold more genes relative to chicken. Similar to the independently evolved human Y chromosome, the duck W evolved massive dispersed palindromic structures, and a pattern of sequence divergence with the Z chromosome that reflects stepwise suppression of homologous recombination. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel insights into the conserved and convergently evolved chromosome features of birds and mammals, and also importantly add to the genomic resources for poultry studies.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459016

RESUMO

The sluggish reaction kinetics of the anodic oxygen evolution reaction increases the energy consumption of the overall water electrolysis for high-purity hydrogen generation. In this work, ultrathin cobalt sulfide nanosheets (Co3S4-NSs) on nickel foam (Ni-F) nanohybrids (termed as Co3S4-NSs/Ni-F) are synthesized using cyanogel hydrolysis and a sulfurization two-step approach. Physical characterizations reveal that Co3S4-NSs with a 1.7 nm thickness have abundant holes, implying the big surface area, abundant active edge atoms, and sufficient active sites. Electrochemical measurements show that as-synthesized Co3S4-NSs/Ni-F have excellent electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for ethanol oxidation reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction. Due to their bifunctional property of Co3S4-NSs/Ni-F nanohybrids, a symmetric Co3S4-NSs/Ni-F∥Co3S4-NSs/Ni-F ethanol electrolyzer can be effectively constructed, which only requires a 1.48 V electrolysis voltage to reach a current density of 10 mA cm-2 for high-purity hydrogen generation at the cathode as well as value-added potassium acetate generation at the anode, much lower than the electrolysis voltage of traditional electrochemical water splitting (1.64 V).

12.
Theranostics ; 11(4): 1641-1654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408772

RESUMO

Rationale: Poor survival and engraftment are major hurdles of stem cell therapy in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to determine whether pre-transplantation systemic intravenous administration of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hiPSC-MSCs) could improve the survival of hiPSC-MSCs or hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) following direct intramyocardial transplantation in a mouse model of MI. Methods: Mice were randomized to undergo intravenous administration of saline or 5×105 hiPSC-MSCs one week prior to MI, induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Mice were further assigned to undergo direct intramyocardial transplantation of hiPSC-MSCs (1×106) or hiPSC-CMs (1×106) 10 minutes following MI. Echocardiographic and invasive hemodynamic assessment were performed to determine cardiac function. In-vivo fluorescent imaging analysis, immunofluorescence staining and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect cell engraftment. Flow cytometry of splenic regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells was performed to assess the immunomodulatory effects. Results: Pre-transplantation systemic administration of hiPSC-MSCs increased systemic Tregs activation, decreased the number of splenic NK cells and inflammation, and enhanced survival of transplanted hiPSC-MSCs and hiPSC-CMs. These improvements were associated with increased neovascularization and decreased myocardial inflammation and apoptosis at the peri-infract zone with consequent improved left ventricular function four weeks later. Co-culture of splenic CD4 cells with hiPSC-MSCs also modulated their cytokine expression profile with a decreased level of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin (IL)-17A, but not IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10. Conclusion: Pre-transplantation systemic intravenous administration of hiPSC-MSCs induced immunomodulation and facilitated the survival of intramyocardially transplanted cells to improve cardiac function in MI.

13.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(1): 153-163, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897579

RESUMO

Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) is an excellent and widely used host for recombinant protein production. Many variant hosts were developed from BL21 (DE3), but improving the expression of specific proteins remains a major challenge in biotechnology. In this study, we found that when BL21 (DE3) overexpressed glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), a significant industrial enzyme, severe cell autolysis was induced. Subsequently, we observed this phenomenon in the expression of 10 other recombinant proteins. This precludes a further increase of the produced enzyme activity by extending the fermentation time, which is not conducive to the reduction of industrial enzyme production costs. Analysis of membrane structure and messenger RNA expression analysis showed that cells could underwent a form of programmed cell death (PCD) during the autolysis period. However, blocking three known PCD pathways in BL21 (DE3) did not completely alleviate autolysis completely. Consequently, we attempted to develop a strong expression host resistant to autolysis by controlling the speed of recombinant protein expression. To find a more suitable protein expression rate, the high- and low-strength promoter lacUV5 and lac were shuffled and recombined to yield the promoter variants lacUV5-1A and lac-1G. The results showed that only one base in lac promoter needs to be changed, and the A at the +1 position was changed to a G, resulting in the improved host BL21 (DE3-lac1G), which resistant to autolysis. As a consequence, the GDH activity at 43 h was greatly increased from 37.5 to 452.0 U/ml. In scale-up fermentation, the new host was able to produce the model enzyme with a high rate of 89.55 U/ml/h at 43 h, compared to only 3 U/ml/h achieved using BL21 (DE3). Importantly, BL21 (DE3-lac1G) also successfully improved the production of 10 other enzymes. The engineered E. coli strain constructed in this study conveniently optimizes recombinant protein overexpression by suppressing cell autolysis, and shows great potential for industrial applications.

14.
FEBS Lett ; 595(1): 123-132, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064845

RESUMO

Folliculin (FLCN) is a tumor suppressor protein involved in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, apoptosis, and autophagy. In ciliated cells, FLCN localizes to primary cilia and controls mTORC1 signaling in response to flow stress. Here, we show that the ciliary localization of FLCN requires its interaction with kinesin-2, the motor protein for anterograde intraflagellar transport. FLCN binds to kinesin-2 through a loop region in the middle of the protein. Single point mutations within this region of FLCN disrupt its kinesin-2 binding and ciliary entry. The mutants lose the ability to suppress the abnormal mTORC1/2 signaling activities and anchorage-independent growth of FLCN-deficient tumor cells. These observations suggest that ciliary localization of FLCN is essential for its function as a tumor suppressor.

15.
Small ; 17(2): e2004142, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326182

RESUMO

Hollow carbon-based nanoarchitectures (HCAs) derived from zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), by virtue of their controllable morphology and dimension, high specific surface area and nitrogen content, richness of metal/metal compounds active sites, and hierarchical pore structure and easy exposure of active sites, have attracted great interests in many fields of applications, especially in heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Despite various approaches that have been developed to prepare ZIF-derived HCAs, the hollowing mechanism has not been clearly disclosed. Herein, a specialized overview of the recent progress of ZIF-derived HCAs is introduced to provide an insight into their preparation strategy and the corresponding hollowing mechanisms. Based on the fundamental understanding of the structural evolution of ZIF nanocrystals during the high-temperature pyrolysis process, the hollowing mechanisms of ZIF-derived HCAs are classified into four categories: i) inward contraction of core-shell template@ZIF composites or hollow ZIFs, ii) outward contraction of ZIF@shell composites, iii) special outward contraction of ZIF arrays, and iv) mechanism beyond inward/outward contraction of pure ZIF nanocrystals. Finally, an outlook on the development prospects and challenges of HCAs based on ZIF precursors, especially in terms of controlled synthesis and future electrochemical application, is further discussed.

16.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(1): 223-232, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972048

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The evidence of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and endometrial cancer (EC) risk has been limited and controversial. This study summarizes and quantifies the relationship between adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and EC risk. Materials and Methods: The online databases PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched for relevant publications up to June 2, 2020. This study had been registered at PROSPERO. The registration number is CRD42020149966. Study quality evaluation was performed based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The I2 statistic was used to estimate heterogeneity among studies. Egger's and Begg's tests assessed potential publication bias. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship between adherence to cancer prevention guidelines score was assigned to participants by summarizing individual scores for each lifestyle-related factor. The scores ranged from least healthy (0) to most healthy (20) and the EC risk was calculated using a randomeffects model. RESULTS: Five prospective studies (four cohort studies and one case­cohort study) consisted of 4,470 EC cases, where 597,047 participants were included. Four studies had a low bias risk and one study had a high bias risk. Summary EC HR for the highest vs. lowest score of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.73) and had a high heterogeneity (I2=86.1%). For the dose-response analysis, an increment of 1 significantly reduced the risk of EC by 6%. No significant publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines was negatively related to EC risk.

17.
Reprod Sci ; 28(1): 218-227, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754889

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association of maternal DNA methylation (DNAm) during pregnancy and offspring birthweight. One hundred twenty-two newborn-mother dyads from the Isle of Wight (IOW) cohort were studied to identify differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) in maternal blood associated with offspring birthweight. Peripheral blood samples were drawn from mothers at 22-38 weeks of pregnancy for epigenome-wide DNAm assessment using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K array. Candidate CpGs were identified using a course of 100 repetitions of a training and testing process with robust regressions. CpGs were considered informative if they showed statistical significance in at least 80% of training and testing samples. Linear mixed models adjusting for covariates were applied to further assess the selected CpGs. The Swedish Born Into Life cohort was used to replicate our findings (n = 33). Eight candidate CpGs corresponding to the genes LMF1, KIF9, KLHL18, DAB1, VAX2, CD207, SCT, SCYL2, DEPDC4, NECAP1, and SFRS3 in mothers were identified as statistically significantly associated with their children's birthweight in the IOW cohort and confirmed by linear mixed models after adjusting for covariates. Of these, in the replication cohort, three CpGs (cg01816814, cg23153661, and cg17722033 with p values = 0.06, 0.175, and 0.166, respectively) associated with four genes (LMF1, VAX2, CD207, and NECAP1) were marginally significant. Biological pathway analyses of three of the genes revealed cellular processes such as endocytosis (possibly sustaining an adequate maternal-fetal interface) and metabolic processes such as regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity (involved in providing substrates for the developing fetus). Our results contribute to an epigenetic understanding of maternal involvement in offspring birthweight. Measuring DNAm levels of maternal CpGs may in the future serve as a diagnostic tool recognizing mothers at risk for pregnancies ending with altered birthweights.

18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 1267-1274, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222068

RESUMO

Countries throughout the whole world, including China, are working together to curb the greenhouse effect, but the effects seem very limited in spite of the fact that various low-carbon development strategies have been adopted, particularly in industrial enterprises. Therefore, carbon emissions caused by the public should be taken seriously, and the public should be encouraged to engage in behavior that limits carbon emissions. Therefore, this article introduces a new incentive mechanism called the Carbon Generalized System of Preferences (CGSP), which was first introduced in Guangdong Province, China. It is believed that this new mechanism matches the role of leadership in Guangdong in the urbanization and economic development of China by addressing the small sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and by issuing carbon coins. Compared with Chinese Certified Emission Reduction (CCER), the development scope, management level, and novel criteria of CGSP are very different but relatively easy for the public to accept. The CGSP shows that the network platform, reduced carbon emissions, and urban pilots are all compatible with the goals of the nation and city, and they promote the CGSP in different ways. Because of its consistency with ecological civilization in China, the prospect of the CGSP is bright; however, there are some challenges, such as policy and economic factors, combined with pollution control.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Urbanização
19.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 116: 103928, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242568

RESUMO

Cathelicidins are an important family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune responses against microbial infections. They are regarded as potential drug leads for the development of novel antimicrobial agents and three related drugs have been developed into clinical trials. Thus, it is meaningful to identify more cathelicidins from vertebrate species. Cathelicidins from ranid frogs possess special structural characteristics and activities, but to date only 12 ranid frog cathelicidins have been identified. In the present study, two novel cathelicidins (PN-CATH1 and 2) were identified from the black-spotted frog, Pelophylax nigromaculata. PN-CATHs possess low sequence similarity with the known cathelicidins. They exhibited moderate, but broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activities against the tested bacteria. They kill bacteria by mainly inducing bacterial membrane disruption and possibly generating intracellular ROS formation. They also possess potent anti-biofilm and persister cell killing activity, indicating their potential in combating infections induced by biofilms-forming bacteria. Besides direct antimicrobial activity, they exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity by effectively inhibiting the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mouse macrophages, which could be partly ascribed to their direct LPS-neutralizing ability. Furthermore, PN-CATHs demonstrated powerful in vitro free radical scavenging activities. Ultraviolet radiation significantly increased their in vivo gene expression in frog skin. Meanwhile, they possess weak cytotoxic activity and extremely low hemolytic activity. PN-CATHs represent the first discovery of cathelicidins family AMPs with both potent anti-infective and antioxidant activities. The discovery of PN-CATHs provides potential peptide leads for the development of novel anti-infective and antioxidant drugs.

20.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(2): 210-214, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290314

RESUMO

Treatment options for unresectable local recurrence or metastatic well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDLS/DDLS) remain limited. Different liposarcoma subtypes have varying clinical features and sensitivities to treatment regimens. The multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as pazopanib and regorafenib, have been approved for use in nonadipocytic soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Anlotinib, another TKI, has been approved in China for treating metastatic STS that has progressed after the use of anthracycline-based regimens. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of anlotinib in the treatment of local recurrence or metastatic WDLS/DDLS. From August 2018 to June 2020, 17 patients with unresectable local recurrence or metastatic WDLS/DDLS treated with anlotinib in our center were included. The follow-up cutoff time was set as 20 October 2020. Baseline and observation indicators were collected and analyzed. Estimated median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27.9 weeks, the PFS rate at 24 weeks was 58.8%, overall survival (OS) was 56.6 weeks, the disease control rate was 64.7% and no complete response or partial response was detected. Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in four cases and could be managed. Anlotinib is a potential treatment option for unresectable local recurrence or metastatic WDLS/DDLS.

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