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1.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e267982, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37075435

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to review the overall prevalence, burden, and distribution of the dengue disease in Pakistan from 2000 to 2019. Literature was searched using different search engines like Google scholar, PubMed, etc. providing the keywords "Dengue disease/infection, Dengue virus, DENV, DF/DHF/ DSS Pakistan". All the published research papers/reports on the dengue virus over the period 2000 to 2019 were studied and selected data were summarized using MS Excel for windows such as total cases, age wise, gender, DENV serotype distribution, total DHF, and DSS patients. The literature providing insufficient data was excluded. The total number of cases reported during 2000-19 were 201,269. The maximum number of cases during the mentioned literature survey period was reported in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) (23.3%) followed by Punjab (3.8%) and Sindh (1.9%). The majority of dengue-infected cases were reported as Dengue fever (74.4%) followed by DHF (24.1%) and DSS (1.5%). Overall the deaths during the mentioned literature survey were 1082, of which the maximum mortalities were reported from KP (N=248) followed by Punjab (N=220). DENV remains a major public health problem in Pakistan and seems to remain endemic for a long time. The total prevalence of dengue infection is increased accordingly with time from 2000 to 2019. Moreover, all the four serotypes exist in Pakistan with increased mortalities.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Humanos , Dengue/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Prevalência
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e267369, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36790276

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular zoonotic protozoan parasite usually infects human and animal worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the sero-prevalence of T. gondii in blood of lactating animals and human living in close proximity and also to detect Toxoplasma DNA in unpasteurized milk of the studied animals. A total of 233 blood and milk samples were collected from lactating animals, and 735 blood samples were taken from humans in District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The blood samples were analyzed through ELISA while the milk samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of T. gondii DNA. A standard questionnaire was introduced to collect the data from the participants. In animals, the reported sero-prevalence was 32.18% for IgM, 17.16% for IgG, and 6.4% for both IgM and IgG. The reported positivity for T. gondii DNA in milk was 14.44%, 34.8%, 20%, and 26% in sheep, goats, cows, and buffaloes, respectively. In the human blood samples, 9.8% were found positive for IgM and 11.2% for IgG while none of the samples was found positive for both IgM and IgG. Overall sero-prevalence reported in females was significantly higher than the male (p<0.05) poor hygiene condition (p < 0.0001) were the significant risk factors associated with T. gondii infections in animals. In conclusion, T. gondii infection is prevalent in lactating animals and humans using their raw milk in the study area. It is suggested that raw milk should be considered as a vehicle for the transmission of T. gondii to humans. Proper pasteurization of milk is very useful in limiting the transmission of infection. Awareness and control programs should be implemented to prevent the infection.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Feminino , Ovinos/genética , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Toxoplasma/genética , Leite , Lactação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Búfalos/genética , Cabras/genética , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247018, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285617

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Densidade Demográfica
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469236

RESUMO

Abstract Rotavirus is the main infective agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children under the age of five years and causing significant morbidity as well as mortality throughout the world. The study was carried out to detect the prevalence rate, genotypes strain and risk factors of Rotavirus among the children of rural and urban areas of district Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 180 stool samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years from two major hospitals of Bannu from January to December (2015). The samples were analyzed by Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Rotavirus, positive samples were further processed for genotyping (G and P type) through specific PCR. Of the total, 41 (23%) samples were positive for Rotavirus. The most prevalent G genotypes found were: G3, G8, G9 (each 29%), followed by G10 (15%), and G11 (10%). Whereas the prevalent P genotypes were: P-8 (25%), P-4 and P-10 (each 20%), P-9 (15%), followed by P-6 and P-11 (each 10%). Moreover, Rotavirus infection was more prevalent in summer (23.73%) and winter (22.7%) than spring (20%) and autumn (21.4%). Rotavirus infection exhibited high frequency in June (14%), October (8%) and November (6%). It is concluded that Rotavirus is more prevalent in children and various genotypes (G and P) of Rotavirus are present in the study area. Lack of studies, awareness and rarer testing of Rotavirus are the principal reasons of virus prevalence in district Bannu, Pakistan.


Resumo O rotavírus é o principal agente infeccioso da gastroenterite aguda (AGE) em crianças menores de 5 anos e causa de morbidade e mortalidade significativas em todo o mundo. O estudo foi realizado para detectar a taxa de prevalência, cepa de genótipos e fatores de risco de rotavírus entre as crianças de áreas rurais e urbanas do distrito de Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Um total de 180 amostras de fezes foi coletada de crianças menores de 5 anos de dois grandes hospitais de Bannu de janeiro a dezembro (2015). As amostras foram analisadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) para detecção de rotavírus; as amostras positivas foram posteriormente processadas para genotipagem (tipo G e P) através de PCR específica. Do total, 41 (23%) amostras foram positivas para rotavírus. Os genótipos G mais prevalentes encontrados foram: G3, G8, G9 (cada 29%), seguidos de G10 (15%) e G11 (10%). Considerando que os genótipos P prevalentes foram: P-8 (25%), P-4 e P-10 (cada 20%), P-9 (15%), seguido por P-6 e P-11 (cada 10%). Além disso, a infecção por rotavírus foi mais prevalente no verão (23,73%) e inverno (22,7%) do que na primavera (20%) e no outono (21,4%). A infecção por rotavírus apresentou alta frequência em junho (14%), outubro (8%) e novembro (6%). Conclui-se que o rotavírus é mais prevalente em crianças e vários genótipos (G e P) do rotavírus estão presentes na área de estudo. A falta de estudos, conhecimento e testes mais raros de rotavírus são as principais razões da prevalência do vírus no distrito de Bannu, Paquistão.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468858

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-11, 2023. map, graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468868

RESUMO

The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). The "Point count Method" was used for population estimation and "Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O "método de contagem de pontos" foi usado para estimativa da população e o "método dos quadrados" para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.


Assuntos
Animais , Corvos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469017

RESUMO

Rotavirus is the main infective agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children under the age of five years and causing significant morbidity as well as mortality throughout the world. The study was carried out to detect the prevalence rate, genotypes strain and risk factors of Rotavirus among the children of rural and urban areas of district Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 180 stool samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years from two major hospitals of Bannu from January to December (2015). The samples were analyzed by Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Rotavirus, positive samples were further processed for genotyping (G and P type) through specific PCR. Of the total, 41 (23%) samples were positive for Rotavirus. The most prevalent G genotypes found were: G3, G8, G9 (each 29%), followed by G10 (15%), and G11 (10%). Whereas the prevalent P genotypes were: P-8 (25%), P-4 and P-10 (each 20%), P-9 (15%), followed by P-6 and P-11 (each 10%). Moreover, Rotavirus infection was more prevalent in summer (23.73%) and winter (22.7%) than spring (20%) and autumn (21.4%). Rotavirus infection exhibited high frequency in June (14%), October (8%) and November (6%). It is concluded that Rotavirus is more prevalent in children and various genotypes (G and P) of Rotavirus are present in the study area. Lack of studies, awareness and rarer testing of Rotavirus are the principal reasons of virus prevalence in district Bannu, Pakistan.


O rotavírus é o principal agente infeccioso da gastroenterite aguda (AGE) em crianças menores de 5 anos e causa de morbidade e mortalidade significativas em todo o mundo. O estudo foi realizado para detectar a taxa de prevalência, cepa de genótipos e fatores de risco de rotavírus entre as crianças de áreas rurais e urbanas do distrito de Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Um total de 180 amostras de fezes foi coletada de crianças menores de 5 anos de dois grandes hospitais de Bannu de janeiro a dezembro (2015). As amostras foram analisadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR) para detecção de rotavírus; as amostras positivas foram posteriormente processadas para genotipagem (tipo G e P) através de PCR específica. Do total, 41 (23%) amostras foram positivas para rotavírus. Os genótipos G mais prevalentes encontrados foram: G3, G8, G9 (cada 29%), seguidos de G10 (15%) e G11 (10%). Considerando que os genótipos P prevalentes foram: P-8 (25%), P-4 e P-10 (cada 20%), P-9 (15%), seguido por P-6 e P-11 (cada 10%). Além disso, a infecção por rotavírus foi mais prevalente no verão (23,73%) e inverno (22,7%) do que na primavera (20%) e no outono (21,4%). A infecção por rotavírus apresentou alta frequência em junho (14%), outubro (8%) e novembro (6%). Conclui-se que o rotavírus é mais prevalente em crianças e vários genótipos (G e P) do rotavírus estão presentes na área de estudo. A falta de estudos, conhecimento e testes mais raros de rotavírus são as principais razões da prevalência do vírus no distrito de Bannu, Paquistão.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Prevalência
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469074

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469084

RESUMO

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). The Point count Method was used for population estimation and Quadrates Method for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p 0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Resumo A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O método de contagem de pontos foi usado para estimativa da população e o método dos quadrados para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p 0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

11.
Public Health Action ; 12(1): 48-52, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The level of antibiotic resistance of pathogens causing uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) is increasing. The 2017-2018 GLASS (Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System) report indicated >70% resistance to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli in Pakistan. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) supported Timurgara District Hospital, Timurgara, Pakistan, from September 2017 to December 2018. Women aged 18-65 years presenting to the Emergency Department with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI (cystitis/pyelonephritis) were invited to participate. We conducted microbiological culture and sensitivity testing for samples with positive dipstick or nitrite test. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients who participated, 109 (54.5%) were diagnosed with pyelonephritis and 91 (45.5%) with cystitis. Forty-three samples (21.5%) were culture-positive: E. coli was isolated in 27 samples, Enterococcus spp. in 7 and Klebsiella pneumoniae in 6. Overall resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 51.8% of E. coli isolates, and ceftriaxone resistance in 66.7% of E. coli isolates and in 33.3% of K. pneumoniae. Resistance to fosfomycin was low (one E. coli isolate). CONCLUSIONS: This study found resistance to first- and second-line antibiotics for treating UTIs as per the MSF protocol. Heightened awareness and potential changes to local prescription practices are necessary to curb the spread of antimicrobial resistance pathogens causing UTIs.


OBJECTIF: Le taux de résistance aux antibiotiques des pathogènes responsables d'infections urinaires non compliquées (UTI) est en hausse. Le rapport GLASS (Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System) 2017­2018 a indiqué un taux de résistance >70% à la ceftriaxone et à la ciprofloxacine chez Escherichia coli (Pakistan). MÉTHODES: Une étude prospective a été réalisée dans l'hôpital du district de Timurgara géré par Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), de septembre 2017 à décembre 2018. Les femmes de 18­65 ans consultant aux Urgences avec des symptômes d'UTI non compliquée (cystite/pyélonéphrite) ont été invitées à participer. Nous avons réalisé une culture microbiologique et un test de sensibilité pour les échantillons positifs à la bandelette urinaire et au test de détection des nitrites. RÉSULTATS: Deux cents patients ont participé, dont 109 (54,5%) avaient un diagnostic de pyélonéphrite et 91 (45,5%) un diagnostic de cystite. Quarante-trois échantillons (21,5%) étaient positifs à la culture ; E. coli a été isolé de 27 échantillons, Enterococcus spp. de sept échantillons et Klebsiella pneumoniae de six échantillons. Une résistance à la ciprofloxacine a été observée chez 51,8% des isolats de E. coli, et une résistance à la ceftriaxone chez 66,7% des isolats de E. coli et chez 33,3% des isolats de K. pneumoniae. La résistance à la fosfomycine était faible (un isolat de E. coli). CONCLUSIONS: Cette étude a rapporté une résistance aux antibiotiques de première et deuxième intention utilisés dans le traitement des UTI, conformément au protocole de MSF. Une sensibilisation accrue et un éventuel changement des pratiques locales de prescription sont nécessaires pour freiner la propagation des pathogènes responsables d'UTI résistants aux antimicrobiens.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932615

RESUMO

Rotavirus is the main infective agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children under the age of five years and causing significant morbidity as well as mortality throughout the world. The study was carried out to detect the prevalence rate, genotypes strain and risk factors of Rotavirus among the children of rural and urban areas of district Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 180 stool samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years from two major hospitals of Bannu from January to December (2015). The samples were analyzed by Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Rotavirus, positive samples were further processed for genotyping (G and P type) through specific PCR. Of the total, 41 (23%) samples were positive for Rotavirus. The most prevalent G genotypes found were: G3, G8, G9 (each 29%), followed by G10 (15%), and G11 (10%). Whereas the prevalent P genotypes were: P-8 (25%), P-4 and P-10 (each 20%), P-9 (15%), followed by P-6 and P-11 (each 10%). Moreover, Rotavirus infection was more prevalent in summer (23.73%) and winter (22.7%) than spring (20%) and autumn (21.4%). Rotavirus infection exhibited high frequency in June (14%), October (8%) and November (6%). It is concluded that Rotavirus is more prevalent in children and various genotypes (G and P) of Rotavirus are present in the study area. Lack of studies, awareness and rarer testing of Rotavirus are the principal reasons of virus prevalence in district Bannu, Pakistan.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431914

RESUMO

The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). "The ''Point count Method" was used for population estimation and ''Quadrates Method" for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Animais , Paquistão , Densidade Demográfica
15.
New Microbes New Infect ; 36: 100716, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637123

RESUMO

Globally, urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered a major public health concern and the second most common bacterial infection affecting individuals of different ages. Bacteria are responsible for about 95% of UTIs. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens may lead to poor treatment outcomes in individuals with UTIs. The knowledge of the microorganism involves and antibiograms are important for the empirical treatment of UTIs. A cross-sectional study was carried out over 7 months (January to July 2019) with a focus on the identification of bacterial pathogens causing UTI and the evaluation of their antibiogram. In total, 804 urine samples were collected from individuals with suspected UTIs and inoculated on recommended media. Isolation and identification of the bacterial strains were performed using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was carried out following CLSI recommended guidelines. Among the tested specimens, 290 (36.1%) had significant bacterial growth and 147 (50.7%) of the strains were isolated from female patients. The frequently identified isolates were Escherichia coli (68.9%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.9%) and Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%). The highest percentages of resistance have been observed against tested antibiotics. The majority of the isolates were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producers (85.2%) and multidrug-resistant (98.3%). We observed that Gram-negative bacteria were the main cause of UTIs where the predominant microorganism was E. coli.

16.
Trop Biomed ; 37(4): 1000-1007, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612752

RESUMO

Hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder that needs plasma or clotting factor concentrate transfusion. Therefore chances of blood-borne pathogens like HCV transmission increase due to high prevalence in healthy donors. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes and associated risk factors in hemophilia patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Blood samples and data were collected from 672 hemophiliacs after proper consent obtained from each patient. Samples were analyzed for anti-HCV, HCV RNA and HCV genotype/s detection. Of the total, 22.32% (150) were anti-HCV positive, of which HCV RNA was detected in 18.45% (124) individuals. HCV genotype 3a was found with significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05) (19.35%) as compared to 2a (16.13%) and 1a (12.90%). HCV-3b and HCV-4 were found each in 3.22% samples. Dual infection of genotypes was found in 22.58% of individuals and 22.58% HCV RNA positive sampels were not typed. A total of 572 (85.12%) subjects had hemophilia A and 100 (14.88%) had hemophilia B. In hemophiliacs A the most dominant genotype was 3a (19.27%) while in hemophilia B, genotype 1a was prevalent (26.67%). Whole blood and plasma transfusion were observed as the main risk factors of HCV. It is concluded that HCV genotype 3a and 2a are prevalent in hemophilia patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and the main risk factor observed was an unscreened whole blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A/epidemiologia , Hemofilia B/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Genótipo , Hemofilia A/virologia , Hemofilia B/virologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 1000-1007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-862580

RESUMO

@# Hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder that needs plasma or clotting factor concentrate transfusion. Therefore chances of blood-borne pathogens like HCV transmission increase due to high prevalence in healthy donors. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes and associated risk factors in hemophilia patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Blood samples and data were collected from 672 hemophiliacs after proper consent obtained from each patient. Samples were analyzed for anti-HCV, HCV RNA and HCV genotype/s detection. Of the total, 22.32% (150) were anti-HCV positive, of which HCV RNA was detected in 18.45% (124) individuals. HCV genotype 3a was found with significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05) (19.35%) as compared to 2a (16.13%) and 1a (12.90%). HCV-3b and HCV-4 were found each in 3.22% samples. Dual infection of genotypes was found in 22.58% of individuals and 22.58% HCV RNA positive sampels were not typed. A total of 572 (85.12%) subjects had hemophilia A and 100 (14.88%) had hemophilia B. In hemophiliacs A the most dominant genotype was 3a (19.27%) while in hemophilia B, genotype 1a was prevalent (26.67%). Whole blood and plasma transfusion were observed as the main risk factors of HCV. It is concluded that HCV genotype 3a and 2a are prevalent in hemophilia patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and the main risk factor observed was an unscreened whole blood transfusion.

19.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(5): 547-551, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039000

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in 30-day outcomes between patients undergoing revision for an infected total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared with an aseptic revision THA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database, between 2012 and 2017, using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for patients undergoing a revision THA (27134, 27137, 27138). International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision/Tenth Revision (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) diagnosis codes for infection of an implant or device were used to identify patients undergoing an infected revision THA. CPT-27132 coupled with ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM codes for infection were used to identify patients undergoing a two-stage revision. A total of 13 556 patients were included; 1606 (11.8%) underwent a revision THA due to infection and there were 11 951 (88.2%) aseptic revisions. RESULTS: Patients undergoing an infected revision had a significantly greater length of stay of more than three days (p < 0.001), higher odds of any 30-day complication (p < 0.001), readmission within 30 days (p < 0.001), 30-day reoperations (p < 0.001), and discharge to a destination other than the patient's home (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the need for enhanced risk adjustment based on the indication of revision THA prior to setting prices in bundled payment models of total joint arthroplasty. This risk adjustment should be used to reduce the chance of financial disincentives in clinical practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:547-551.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 41(12): 1826-1839, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039506

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially lethal outcome of pulmonary embolism. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is aimed at improving pulmonary perfusion and pulmonary hemodynamics and has gained a lot of interest recently in patients either unsuitable for or refractory to surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. This article outlines the clinical features and diagnostic criteria, imaging evaluation, current medical and surgical treatment options for CTEPH. BPA is discussed in detail, focusing on the rationale, patient selection, technical details, post-procedural care and outcomes.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Doença Crônica , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Artéria Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações
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