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PhytoKeys ; 238: 241-279, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456166


We compiled a checklist of endemic vascular plants occurring in Kazakhstan, employing an exhaustive examination of literature sources, herbarium collections, databases and field observations. Our study reveals that 451 taxa can be considered endemic to Kazakhstan, constituting 7.97% of the total vascular plant diversity in the country. These endemic taxa, originating from 139 genera and 34 families, predominantly thrive in the southern regions of Kazakhstan, specifically in the mountain ridges of the Kazakh part of the Tian Shan, including Karatau (123 taxa), Dzungarian Alatau (80 taxa) and Trans-Ili and Kungey Alatau (50 taxa). Notably, 107 endemic species are granted legal protection. Detailed information regarding life form, life cycle, conservation status and geographical distribution across floristic regions was meticulously compiled for each endemic taxon. Of the six groups of life forms, herbs include the highest part of endemic taxa (367 taxa), followed by dwarf semishrubs (25 taxa), shrubs (23 taxa), subshrubs (20 taxa), undershrubs (13 taxa) and trees (3 taxa). The observed life cycles are perennials (408 taxa), annuals (33 taxa) and biennials (10 taxa). This paper serves as a fundamental groundwork for prospective investigations aimed at assessing population sizes and hotspots of plant endemism throughout Kazakhstan, crucial for determining conservation status of endemic plants.

PhytoKeys ; 229: 185-213, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37546371


We present a review of Orchidaceae Juss. of the northern part of Kazakhstan, within the steppe, forest-steppe and semi-desert habitats of the country (Pavlodar, northern Kazakhstan, Kostanay, Akmola, Aktobe, West Kazakhstan, partially Karaganda and East Kazakhstan regions). The investigation is based on herbarium materials, literature data and field observations. We examined material from the following herbarium collections: LE, MW, TK, MHA, SVER, KUZ, ALTB, AA, NUR, KG, KSPI, NS, NSK, MOSP, ORIS, PPIU, totalling 288 herbarium specimens. The paper presents data in the form of revision, focusing on orchids of the northern part of Kazakhstan. It is accompanied by maps indicating localities, notes on habitat preferences, phenology and conservation status. A total of 25 species of 16 genera were recorded, of which eight are included in the Red Book of Kazakhstan (2014). According to our data, we propose to enlarge the number of protected orchids by adding the following nine species: Corallorhizatrifida, Epipactisatrorubens, Gymnadeniaconopsea, Hammarbyapaludosa, Herminiummonorchis, Liparisloeselii, Malaxismonophyllos, Neottiacamtschatea and Spiranthesaustralis. The most widespread species in the studied region are Dactylorhizaincarnata, D.umbrosa and Epipactispalustris. The rarest species (single locality only) are Epipactisatrorubens, E.helleborine, Epipogiumaphyllum, Hammarbyapaludosa and Herminiummonorchis.

Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7290, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911960


Regional species assemblages have been shaped by colonization, speciation and extinction over millions of years. Humans have altered biogeography by introducing species to new ranges. However, an analysis of how strongly naturalized plant species (i.e. alien plants that have established self-sustaining populations) affect the taxonomic and phylogenetic uniqueness of regional floras globally is still missing. Here, we present such an analysis with data from native and naturalized alien floras in 658 regions around the world. We find strong taxonomic and phylogenetic floristic homogenization overall, and that the natural decline in floristic similarity with increasing geographic distance is weakened by naturalized species. Floristic homogenization increases with climatic similarity, which emphasizes the importance of climate matching in plant naturalization. Moreover, floristic homogenization is greater between regions with current or past administrative relationships, indicating that being part of the same country as well as historical colonial ties facilitate floristic exchange, most likely due to more intensive trade and transport between such regions. Our findings show that naturalization of alien plants threatens taxonomic and phylogenetic uniqueness of regional floras globally. Unless more effective biosecurity measures are implemented, it is likely that with ongoing globalization, even the most distant regions will lose their floristic uniqueness.

Plantas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Clima , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Filogenia
Ecology ; 100(1): e02542, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341991


This dataset provides the Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, version 1.2. GloNAF represents a data compendium on the occurrence and identity of naturalized alien vascular plant taxa across geographic regions (e.g. countries, states, provinces, districts, islands) around the globe. The dataset includes 13,939 taxa and covers 1,029 regions (including 381 islands). The dataset is based on 210 data sources. For each taxon-by-region combination, we provide information on whether the taxon is considered to be naturalized in the specific region (i.e. has established self-sustaining populations in the wild). Non-native taxa are marked as "alien", when it is not clear whether they are naturalized. To facilitate alignment with other plant databases, we provide for each taxon the name as given in the original data source and the standardized taxon and family names used by The Plant List Version 1.1 ( We provide an ESRI shapefile including polygons for each region and information on whether it is an island or a mainland region, the country and the Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG) regions it is part of (TDWG levels 1-4). We also provide several variables that can be used to filter the data according to quality and completeness of alien taxon lists, which vary among the combinations of regions and data sources. A previous version of the GloNAF dataset (version 1.1) has already been used in several studies on, for example, historical spatial flows of taxa between continents and geographical patterns and determinants of naturalization across different taxonomic groups. We intend the updated and expanded GloNAF version presented here to be a global resource useful for studying plant invasions and changes in biodiversity from regional to global scales. We release these data into the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero license waiver ( When you use the data in your publication, we request that you cite this data paper. If GloNAF is a major part of the data analyzed in your study, you should consider inviting the GloNAF core team (see Metadata S1: Originators in the Overall project description) as collaborators. If you plan to use the GloNAF dataset, we encourage you to contact the GloNAF core team to check whether there have been recent updates of the dataset, and whether similar analyses are already ongoing.

Nature ; 525(7567): 100-3, 2015 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287466


All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.

Biodiversidade , Mapeamento Geográfico , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantas , Bases de Dados Factuais , América do Norte , Ilhas do Pacífico , Filogeografia