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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122124

RESUMO

Some artificial sweeteners (ASs) are used in pig feeds, although little is known on this regard. An investigation was conducted by determining seven common ASs in pig feed, manure, wastewater, compost, and soil from 16 pig farms in Tianjin, China. Saccharin (SAC) was predominant in feed (1.41-326 mg/kg) and manure samples (1.06-401 mg/kg). The annual mass loads of ASs in pig feeds were estimated at 5.69-119, 4.92-149, and 1.29-35 kg per 103 piglets, hogs, and sows, respectively. The annual emission of ASs via biowaste (i.e., manure) was estimated at 3.58-85.2, 0.04-26.2, and 0.08-9.97 kg per 103 capita for the three dominant ASs, i.e., SAC, neotame (NEO), and cyclamate (CYC). On a global scale, SAC was also widely detected at concentrations of 0.01-326 mg/kg in pig feed from China, Switzerland, Japan, Chile, and the United States, suggesting the worldwide use of ASs in pig feed. NEO and CYC were found in 41% and 30% of the feed samples, respectively, at concentrations of 0.05-70 mg/kg, whereas other ASs were barely found with rather lower concentrations. The annual mass loads of ASs consumed via pig feed consumption were estimated at 2400 tons worldwide. Thus, pig farming is an important source of ASs to the environment.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193923

RESUMO

Abnormally increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intimately related to the development and metastasis of cancer. Since hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major component of ROS, molecular imaging and selective treatment in response to high H2O2 is intriguing for the management of cancers. Herein we report novel self-assembly luminescent nanoparticles, which can be activated by H2O2, thereby serving as an effective nanotheranostics for luminescence imaging and in-situ photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors with high H2O2. This functional nanomedince was assembled from an amphiphilic conjugate (defined as CLP) based on chlorin e6 (Ce6) simultaneously conjugated with luminol and polyethylene glycol, exhibiting a well-defined core-shell nanostructure. Upon triggering by pathologically relevant levels of H2O2, CLP nanoparticles produced luminescence due to the luminol unit and simultaneous excitation of Ce6 by chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer, enabling in vitro and in vivo imaging of tumors with high expressed H2O2. In addition, excited Ce6 can produce singlet oxygen (1O2) for in-situ PDT of H2O2-high tumors and inhibiting lung metastasis, which was demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, preliminary studies revealed biosafety of CLP nanoparticles. Consequently, the self-illuminating nanoparticles are promising for non-invasive imaging and therapy of tumors with high expression of H2O2.

3.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; : 1-7, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195627

RESUMO

Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are derived from chitosan, which can be used as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Because of their various biological activities, COS are widely used in the food, medicine, agriculture, and other fields. COS were prepared by chitosanase  from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SY39 and their anti-obesity activity was researched in mice in this study. The effects of hydrolysis time, temperature, the ratio of enzyme to chitosan, and pH on the productivity of COS were discussed. Preparation process of COS was established in a 5-L fermenter. COS were characterized and their anti-obesity activity was studied in animal experiments. The results showed that COS could effectively reduce serum lipid levels and obesity in mice, and have a good anti-obesity activity. The preparation technology and remarkable anti-obesity activity of COS further expand their applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168778

RESUMO

The regulatory mechanisms of pollen development have potential value for applications in agriculture, such as better understanding plant reproductive regularity. Pollen-specific promoters are of vital importance for the ectopic expression of functional genes associated with pollen development in plants. However, there is a limited number of successful applications using pollen-specific promoters in genetic engineering for crop breeding and hybrid generation. Our previous work led to the identification and isolation of the OsSUT3 promoter from rice. In this study, to analyze the effects of different putative regulatory motifs in the OsSUT3 promoter, a series of promoter deletions were fused to a GUS reporter gene and then stably introduced into rice and Arabidopsis. Histochemical GUS analysis of transgenic plants revealed that p385 (from -385 to -1) specifically mediated maximal GUS expression in pollen tissues. The S region (from -385 to -203) was the key region for controlling the pollen-specific expression of a downstream gene. The E1 (-967 to -606), E2 (-202 to -120), and E3 (-119 to -1) regions enhanced ectopic promoter activity to different degrees. Moreover, the p385 promoter could alter the expression pattern of the 35S promoter and improve its activity when they were fused together. In summary, the p385 promoter, a short and high-activity promoter, can function to drive pollen-specific expression of transgenes in monocotyledon and dicotyledon transformation experiments.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213141

RESUMO

We applied the Framingham risk equation in healthy, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes populations, following treatment with viscous fibre from konjac-based blend (KBB). KBB yielded reduction in estimated risk score by 16% (1.04±0.03vs.0.87±0.04, p<0.01) in type 2 diabetes, 24% (1.08±0.01vs.0.82±0.02, p<0.01) in metabolic syndrome, and 25% (1.09±0.05vs.0.82±0.06, p<0.01) in healthy individuals. Drivers for decreased risk were improvements in blood cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. The composite coronary heart disease risk across populations was reduced 22% (p<0.01). Novelty Bullet: Viscous fibre from konjac-xanthan reduced 10-y relative CHD using Framingham Risk Score across the glycemic status spectrum.

6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 234: 118229, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193158

RESUMO

Transmission mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system was employed to image BALB/c mouse skin tissue slices containing melanoma. The melanoma was unambiguously identified in the frequency region of 0.6-1.8 THz because melanoma has a higher refractive index as well as a higher absorption coefficient than the normal region of the skin tissue. Based on the results of hematoxylin-eosin staining and mass weighing, it was further suggested that the higher density of nucleic acids, higher water content, and lower fat content in the melanoma compared to the normal region are major factors responsible for melanoma's higher refractive index and absorption coefficient than normal tissue. The present work validates that terahertz time-domain spectroscopy imaging technique is possible to be used for the diagnosis of melanoma.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class pyrrolo-pyrimidine-derived small molecule targeting a marker of genome organization associated with metastasis and is currently in preclinical development as an anti-cancer agent. Here, we report the in vitro ADME characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of metarrestin. METHODS: Solubility, permeability, and efflux ratio as well as in vitro metabolism of metarrestin in hepatocytes, liver microsomes and S9 fractions, recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and potential for CYP inhibition were evaluated. Single dose pharmacokinetic profiles after intravenous and oral administration in mice, rat, dog, monkey, and mini-pig were obtained. Simple allometric scaling was applied to predict human pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Metarrestin had an aqueous solubility of 150 µM at pH 7.4, high permeability in PAMPA and moderate efflux ratio in Caco-2 assays. The compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes, S9 fractions, and hepatocytes from six species, including human. Metarrestin is a CYP3A4 substrate and, in mini-pigs, is also directly glucuronidated. Metarrestin did not show cytochrome P450 inhibitory activity. Plasma concentration-time profiles showed low to moderate clearance, ranging from 0.6 mL/min/kg in monkeys to 48 mL/min/kg in mice and moderate to high volume of distribution, ranging from 1.5 L/kg in monkeys to 17 L/kg in mice. Metarrestin has greater than 80% oral bioavailability in all species tested. The excretion of unchanged parent drug in urine was < 5% in dogs and < 1% in monkeys over collection periods of ≥ 144 h; in bile-duct cannulated rats, the excretion of unchanged drug was < 1% in urine and < 2% in bile over a collection period of 48 h. CONCLUSIONS: Metarrestin is a low clearance compound which has good bioavailability and large biodistribution after oral administration. Biotransformation appears to be the major elimination process for the parent drug. In vitro data suggest a low drug-drug interaction potential on CYP-mediated metabolism. Overall favorable ADME and PK properties support metarrestin's progression to clinical investigation.

8.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber has played a consistent role in weight management, with efficacy potentially attributed to increased viscous fiber consumption. PURPOSE: To summarize the effects of viscous fiber on body weight and other anthropometric parameters, along with a calorie-deficient diet, through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were searched through July 24, 2019 for randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of viscous fiber supplementation as part of a restricted calorie diet for ≥ 4 weeks relative to comparator diets. Data were pooled using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models and expressed as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and quantified with I2. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to evaluate the overall certainty of evidence. RESULTS: Findings from 15 studies (n = 1347) showed viscous fiber supplementation significantly decreased body weight (- 0.81 kg [- 1.20, - 0.41]; p < 0.0001), BMI (- 0.25 kg/m2 [- 0.46, - 0.05]; p = 0.01), and body fat (- 1.39% [- 2.61, - 0.17]; p = 0.03), compared to control. No effect on waist circumference was found. The certainty of evidence was graded as "moderate" for body weight, BMI, and body fat based on downgrades for imprecision. Waist circumference was graded "low" for downgrades of inconsistency and imprecision. CONCLUSION: Viscous fiber within a calorie-restricted diet significantly improved body weight and other markers of adiposity in overweight adults and those with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03257449. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03257449.

9.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 200, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PhasiRNAs (phased secondary siRNAs) play important regulatory roles in the development processes and biotic or abiotic stresses in plants. Some of phasiRNAs involve in the reproductive development in grasses, which include two categories, 21-nt (nucleotide) and 24-nt phasiRNAs. They are triggered by miR2118 and miR2275 respectively, in premeiotic and meiotic anthers of rice, maize and other grass species. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with three closely related subgenomes (subA, subB and subD), is a model of allopolyploid in plants. Knowledge about the role of phasiRNAs in the inflorescence development of wheat is absent until now, and the evolution of PHAS loci in polyploid plants is also unavailable. RESULTS: Using 261 small RNA expression datasets from various tissues, a batch of PHAS (phasiRNA precursors) loci were identified in the young spike of wheat, most of which were regulated by miR2118 and miR2275 in their target site regions. Dissection of PHAS and their trigger miRNAs among the diploid (AA and DD), tetraploid (AABB) and hexaploid (AABBDD) genomes of Triticum indicated that distribution of PHAS loci were dominant randomly in local chromosomes, while miR2118 was dominant only in the subB genome. The diversity of PHAS loci in the three subgenomes of wheat and their progenitor genomes (AA, DD and AABB) suggested that they originated or diverged at least before the occurrence of the tetraploid AABB genome. The positive correlation between the PHAS loci or the trigger miRNAs and the ploidy of genome indicated the expansion of genome was the major drive force for the increase of PHAS loci and their trigger miRNAs in Triticum. In addition, the expression profiles of the PHAS transcripts suggested they responded to abiotic stresses such as cold stress in wheat. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, non-coding phasiRNAs are conserved transcriptional regulators that display quick plasticity in Triticum genome. They may be involved in reproductive development and abiotic stress in wheat. It could be referred to molecular research on male reproductive development in Triticum.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146813

RESUMO

Current mass spectrometry techniques for the online measurement of organic aerosol (OA) composition are subjected to either thermal/ionization-induced artifacts or limited mass resolving power, hindering accurate molecular characterization. Here, we combined the soft ionization capability of extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) and the ultrahigh mass resolution of Orbitrap for real-time, near-molecular characterization of OAs. Detection limits as low as tens of ng m-3 with linearity up to hundreds of µg m-3 at 0.2 Hz time resolution were observed for single- and mixed-component calibrations. The performance of the EESI-Orbitrap system was further evaluated with laboratory-generated secondary OAs (SOAs) and filter extracts of ambient particulate matter. The high mass accuracy and resolution (140 000 at m/z 200) of the EESI-Orbitrap system enable unambiguous identification of the aerosol components' molecular composition and allow a clear separation between adjacent peaks, which would be significantly overlapping if a medium-resolution (20 000) mass analyzer was used. Furthermore, the tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) capability provides valuable insights into the compound structure. For instance, the MS2 analysis of ambient OA samples and lab-generated biogenic SOAs points to specific SOA precursors in ambient air among a range of possible isomers based on fingerprint fragment ions. Overall, this newly developed and characterized EESI-Orbitrap system will advance our understanding of the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175289

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral therapy does not effectively eradicate HBV and further investigations into the mechanisms of viral infection are needed to enable the development of new therapeutic agents. The sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as a functional receptor for HBV entry in liver cells. However, the NTCP receptor is not sufficient for entry and other membrane proteins contribute to modulate HBV entry. This study seeks to understand how the NTCP functions in HBV entry. Herein we show that knockdown of the cell-cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin significantly reduced infection by HBV particles and entry by HBV pseudoparticles in infected liver cells and cell lines. The glycosylated NTCP localizes to the plasma membrane through interaction with E- cadherin, which increases interaction with the preS1 portion of the Large HBV surface antigen. Our study contributes novel insights that advance knowledge of HBV infection at the level of host cell binding and viral entry.

12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 322: 108587, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203767

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen spreading worldwide. Pig was known as its first and main animal reservoir. In China, pork consumption is very large and the risk of potential HEV contamination should not be underestimated. The present study aims to develop a quantitative real-time reverse transcription combining recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RT-qRPA) for the rapid detection of HEV RNA presence in raw pork liver on the Jinzhou markets in China. Methods: the specific primers and probes for RT-qRPA assay were designed targeting the ORF2/3 conserved region in genotype 4 swine HEV isolate (accession no. DQ279091.2) according to the TwistDx manual instructions. The specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility evaluations of the RT-qRPA method were subsequently conducted in assessing agreement with the standard RT-qPCR method. Results: the qRPA method step exhibited the obvious time-saving advantage which worked under the isothermal condition at 39 °C within about 30 min to complete the run while the compared standard qPCR method in the same cycle took almost 60 min to do. Both methods could exclusively detect the HEV genome equivalents from the quantified HEV-VLPs spiked samples. And both methods shared the same limit of detection (LOD) that was estimated at 1.25 × 103 genome equivalents copies/g spiked sample by the probit analysis. The recovery rate of HEV-VLPs reached a range of 9.56-14.65% by the RT-qRPA method which was higher than that of 1.34-2.34% by the standard RT-qPCR method. The detected HEV RNA positive rate in the field was 1.8% (1 out of 55) by both methods under Cohen's kappa statistic accessing with perfect agreement (κ = 1.00, p < 0.0005). The viral load in positive sample detected by the RT-qRPA method was estimated at 2.2125 × 105 genome copies/g pork liver sample. Conclusions, the present reported RT-qRPA method mainly targeting genotype 4 HEV is a rapid and reliable method. Its time-saving quality offers a promising for the development of a portable tool used in the routine monitoring of HEV contamination in the field.

13.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 32(6): 582-593, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209208

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for testicular development and spermatogenesis. In order to further characterise these physiological processes, three immature and three mature testes of the Mongolian horse were collected and six libraries were established. Using small RNA sequencing technology, 531 mature miRNAs were identified, including 46 novel miRNAs without previously ascribed functions. Among the 531 miRNAs, 421 were expressed in both immature and mature libraries, 65 miRNAs were found solely in immature testis libraries and 45 miRNAs were found solely in mature testis libraries. Furthermore, among the miRNAs that were identified in both immature and mature libraries, 107 were significantly differentially expressed (corrected P value (padj)<0.05). Among the miRNAs that were only expressed in immature testes, two miRNAs were differentially expressed, whereas among the miRNAs that were only expressed in mature testes, nine miRNAs were differentially expressed. Comprehensive analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles predicted 107 miRNA-mRNA interaction sites. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the predicted target genes suggested roles of the differentially expressed miRNAs in testicular development and spermatogenesis. These findings identify miRNAs as key factors in the development of the testes and spermatogenesis in the Mongolian horse, which may also help us to understand the mechanisms of fertility in related mammalian species.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209731

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation and deposition of a beta-amyloid (Αß) peptide in the brain, resulting in increased neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction. Intranasal delivery of targeted drugs to the brain represents a noninvasive pathway that bypasses the blood-brain barrier and minimizes systemic exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intranasally delivered 9-cis retinoic acid (RA) on the neuropathology of an AD mouse model. Herein, we observed dramatically decreased Αß deposition in the brains of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double-transgenic mice (APP/PS1) treated intranasally with 9-cis RA for 4 weeks compared to that in the brains of vehicle-treated mice. Importantly, intranasal delivery of 9-cis RA suppressed Αß-associated astrocyte activation and neuroinflammation and ultimately restored synaptic deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. These results support the critical roles of Αß-associated neuroinflammation responses to synaptic deficits, particularly during the deposition of Αß. Our findings provide strong evidence that intranasally delivered 9-cis RA attenuates neuronal dysfunction in an AD mouse model and is a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of AD.

15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124178

RESUMO

As a key integrator of shoot branching, BRANCHED 1 (BRC1) coordinates and is orchestrated by endogenous and environmental signals involved in the regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. In the present study, we characterized the regulatory roles of five BRC gene members in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) using CRISPR site-directed mutagenesis and overexpression assays. It was shown that lateral branching was negatively regulated by NtBRC1A-1, 1B-1, and 1B-2, but was unexpectedly promoted by NtBRC2A. Suppression of bud growth may be attained by direct binding of NtBRCs to the Tassels Replace Upper Ears 1 (TRU1) genes. It was speculated that NtBRC2A probably confers a dominant negative effect by interfering with the branching-inhibitory BRC1 genes. Our results suggested that highly homologous gene family members may function antagonistically in the same signaling pathway. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NtBRC2A-mediated outgrowth of axillary buds needs to be further addressed. KEY MESSAGE: Axillary bud outgrowth in general is negatively regulated by the BRANCHED gene. Here we show that the BRANCHED genes play opposing regulatory roles in tobacco lateral branching.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are shown to cause small, but significant changes of lipid profiles, we aim to investigate whether such altered lipid profiles can be translated into clinically meaningful changes in dyslipidemia. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared SGLT2 inhibitors with placebo or other oral glucose-lowering drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and reported the events of dyslipidemia. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled estimates with risk ratio (RR) for dyslipidemia risk and weighted mean difference for lipid profiles with their 95% confidential intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of 2427 studies identified, 15 RCTs involving 7578 patients were included. This meta-analysis found no association between SGLT2 inhibitors and risk of dyslipidemia (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.91-1.40). However, SGLT2 inhibitors were significantly associated with increases in total cholesterol by 0.15 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.12 mmol/L, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.07 mmol/L while they can significantly decrease triglycerides by -0.12 mmol/L compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2 inhibitors were not associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia. Further trials with longitudinal assessment are needed to assess the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on trajectories of changes of lipid metabolism.

17.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921580, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Codonopsis pilosula is a traditional Chinese medicine that has an anti-aging effect. However, the anti-aging effect of Codonopsis pilosula on the lungs remains largely unknown, and the molecular mechanism also needs to be further studied. Thus, we investigated the protective effect of Codonopsis pilosula on the lungs of aging mice, and explored the underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established an aging mouse model and then treated the mice with Codonopsis pilosula. Microarray analysis and bioinformatics methods were used to comprehensively analyze the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA (ceRNA) network. RESULTS Our results showed that we successfully established the aging mouse model. The microarray analysis showed that 138 lncRNAs, 128 mRNAs, and 7 miRNAs were significantly changed after aging, and 282 lncRNAs, 283 mRNAs, and 19 miRNAs were dysregulated after treatment with Codonopsis pilosula. To explore the signaling pathways involved, KEGG pathway analysis was performed. Compared with the ceRNA network in aging mice and after treatment with Codonopsis pilosula, we found that 3 mRNAs (Hif3a, Zbtb16, Plxna2) and 1 lncRNA (NONMMUT063872) were associated with the anti-aging effect of Codonopsis pilosula and they were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that Codonopsis pilosula has a protective effect on the aging lung, and the ceRNA network plays an important role in the anti-aging effect of Codonopsis pilosula.

19.
Clin Ther ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acid-suppressive medications are widely used in non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) patients for stress ulcer (SU) prophylaxis. However, SU prophylaxis in this population is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of these agents for SU prophylaxis in non-ICU patients. METHODS: Electronic databases including Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov, Ovid-Medline, Embase, Chinese CNKI, and Wanfang Data were systematically searched on July 10, 2019, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated acid-suppressive medications in non-ICU patients. Network meta-analysis and pairwise meta-analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. A random-effects model was used for generating pooled estimates. The primary outcome was occurrence of SU bleeding, and the adverse drug events (ADEs) were described as the secondary outcome. FINDINGS: A total of 17 RCTs involving 1985 patients were eligible. Meta-analysis results indicated that the occurrence of SU bleeding was significantly decreased with all acid-suppressive medications compared with placebos (gastric mucosa protectants, OR = 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14-0.61]; H2-receptor antagonists, OR = 0.3 [95% CI, 0.18-0.50]; proton pump inhibitors [PPIs]: OR = 0.08 [95% CI, 0.04-0.16]). The occurrence of SU bleeding was significantly decreased with PPIs compared with gastric mucosa protectants (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.72) and H2-receptor antagonists (OR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.48). There was no significant difference between any 2 classes of PPIs on SU bleeding or any 2 acid-suppressive medications on ADEs. IMPLICATIONS: PPIs could significantly decrease SU bleeding risk without increasing ADEs than other acid-suppressive medications for SU prophylaxis in non-ICU patients. However, RCTs of high quality were required to confirm the findings of this investigation.

20.
Circulation ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098504

RESUMO

Background: Pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a common predecessor of heart failure, the latter of which remains a major cardiovascular disease with increasing incidence and mortality worldwide. Current therapeutics typically involve partially relieving the heart's workload after the onset of heart failure. Thus, more etiology-, stage-, and cell type-specific treatment strategies require refined dissection of the entire progression at the cellular and molecular level. Methods: By analyzing the transcriptomes of 11,492 single cells and identifying major cell types, including both cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes, based on their molecular signatures, at different stages during the progression of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model, we characterized the spatiotemporal interplay amongst cell types, and tested potential pharmacologic treatment strategies to retard its progression in vivo. Results: We illustrated the dynamics of all major cardiac cell types, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages, as well as those of their respective subtypes, during the progression of disease. Cellular crosstalk analysis revealed stagewise utilization of specific non-cardiomyocytes during the deterioration of heart function. Specifically, macrophage activation and subtype switching, a key event at middle-stage of cardiac hypertrophy, was successfully targeted by Dapagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in clinical trials for patients with heart failure, as well as TD139 and Arglabin, two anti-inflammatory agents new to cardiac diseases, to preserve cardiac function and attenuate fibrosis. Importantly, similar molecular patterns of hypertrophy were also observed in human patient samples of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Conclusions: Together, our study not only illustrated dynamically changing cell type crosstalk during pathological cardiac hypertrophy, but also shed light on strategies for cell type- and stage-specific intervention in cardiac diseases.

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