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1.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478183

RESUMO

ß-amyloid protein (Aß) is thought to be the primary cause of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Niacin has been reported to have beneficial effects on AD. Previously, we synthesized a novel compound lipoicacid-niacin dimer (N2L) and revealed that it had potent blood-lipid regulation and antioxidative properties without aflushing effect. Given that lipid metabolism is also associated with AD, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of N2L on Aß1-42-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. We found that N2L significantly attenuated cell apoptosis, MDA level, ROS content, and the mitochondrial membrane potential corruption induced by Aß1-42 in HT22 cells. In addition, the activities of SOD, GSH-px and CAT that were decreased by Aß1-42 were also restored by N2L. Furthermore, N2L reduced proapoptotic signaling by increasing the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreasing the protein expression of both pro-apoptotic Bax and cleaved Caspase-3. Together, these findings indicate that N2L holds great potential for neuroprotection against Aß1-42-induced cytotoxicity via inhibition of oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, suggesting that N2L may be a promising agent for AD therapy.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NOS1AP is an adaptor protein and its SNP rs12742393 was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it remains uncertain whether NOS1AP plays a role in regulation of insulin sensitivity. Hepatic insulin resistance contributed to the development of T2D. Here, our investigation was focused on whether NOS1AP is involved in the regulation of hepatic insulin sensitivity and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Liver specific NOS1AP condition knockout (CKO) and NOS1AP overexpression mice were generated and given a high fat diet. SNPs of NOS1AP gene were genotyped in 86 human subjects. FINDINGS: NOS1AP protein is expressed in human and mouse liver. CKO mice exhibited impaired pyruvate, glucose and insulin tolerance, and increased lipid deposits in the liver. Conversely, NOS1AP overexpression in livers of obese mice improved pyruvate and/or glucose, and insulin tolerance, and attenuated liver lipid accumulation. Moreover, hepatocytes from CKO mice exhibited an elevated glucose production and mRNA expressions of Pc and Pck1. Overexpression of NOS1AP potentiated insulin-stimulated activation of IR/Akt in livers from obese mice. The insulin sensitizing effect of NOS1AP could be mimicked by overexpression of C-terminal domain of NOS1AP in ob/ob mice. Furthermore, NOS1AP overexpression in liver significantly inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and maintained ER homeostasis through p-eIF2a-ATF4-CHOP pathway. Subjects with rsl2742393 of NOS1AP have higher risk to develop hepatic steatosis. INTERPRETATION: Our data demonstrate a novel role of NOS1AP in regulating hepatic insulin sensitivity and p38 MAPK inactivation in obese mice, which makes NOS1AP a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of T2D. FUND: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81670707, 31340072) (to C. Wang), and National Basic Research Program of China (Nation 973 Program) (2011CB504001) (to W. Jia).

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474337

RESUMO

To explore the effect of double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase (PKR) in acute lung injury (ALI) and resultant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI was used to evaluate the levels of phosphorylated (p)-PKR and NLRP3 in lung tissue, and the protective effects of a PKR inhibitor on lung injury. And in vitro, macrophages were incubated with LPS, with or without PKR inhibitor pre-treatment. It was observed that the levels of p-PKR protein and NLRP3 protein were significantly increased compared with those in control tissues after LPS administration. Meanwhile, treatment with PKR inhibitor decreased inflammation, injury score, wet/dry weight ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein levels, neutrophil count in BALF, myeloperoxidase activity and expression of high-mobility group box1(HMGB1) and interleukin(IL)-1ß in the lungs of LPS-challenged mice. In vitro, we demonstrated that the levels of p-PKR and NLRP3, and cell mortality rate were increased in macrophages which were incubated with LPS compared with those without LPS administration, and PKR inhibitor significantly suppressed the level of NLRP3, caspase-1, HMGB1 and IL-1ß. These results indicate that PKR plays a key role in ALI through NLRP3-pyrotosis pathway and pharmacological inhibition of PKR may have potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of patients with ALI and ARDS.

5.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 75(Pt 9): 570-575, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475923

RESUMO

Moenomycin-type antibiotics are phosphoglycolipids that are notable for their unique modes of action and have proven to be useful in animal nutrition. The gene clusters tchm from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus and moe from Streptomyces are among a limited number of known moenomycin-biosynthetic pathways. Most genes in tchm have counterparts in the moe cluster, except for tchmy and tchmz, the functions of which remain unknown. Sequence analysis indicates that TchmY belongs to the isoprenoid enzyme C2-like superfamily and may serve as a prenylcyclase. The enzyme was proposed to be involved in terminal cyclization of the moenocinyl chain in teichomycin, leading to the diumycinol chain of moenomycin isomers. Here, recombinant TchmY protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and its crystal structure was solved by SIRAS. Structural analysis and comparison with other prenylcyclases were performed. The overall fold of TchmY consists of an (α/α)6-barrel, and a potential substrate-binding pocket is found in the central chamber. These results should provide important information regarding the biosynthetic basis of moenomycin antibiotics.

6.
Theriogenology ; 140: 124-135, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473495

RESUMO

Bacteriospermia is a documented risk to sperm quality when boar semen is stored at 17 °C. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of kojic acid (KA) on sperm quality and anti-bacterial effect during liquid storage boar semen at 17 °C, as well as to explore sperm-oocyte binding and embryonic development in vitro. Boar semen was diluted with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), and it contained KA at different concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/L). Bacterial concentrations and sperm quality parameters (motility, mitochondrial membrane potential, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity) were evaluated on each experimental day. Differences in microbial compositions were compared using 16S rDNA sequencing among the control group, 0.04 g/L KA, and 0.25 g/L gentamycin groups on experimental day 5, and the effects of KA on sperm capacitation, Western blot, total anti-oxidant capacity (T-AOC), reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters, sperm-oocyte binding, cleavage rates, and blastocyst rates were evaluated. The results showed that KA at the optimum concentration of 0.04 g/L significantly improved sperm quality parameters and sperm capacitation, increased T-AOC ability, enhanced IVF parameters and sperm-oocyte binding, increased cleavage and blastocyst rates, inhibited bacterial concentrations, reduced ROS and MDA content, and altered bacterial compositions (P < 0.05). Moreover, KA also increased the expression of anti-oxidant-related proteins, SOD1, SOD2 and CAT, and anti-apoptosis-related protein, Bcl 2, and decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, caspase 3 and Bax in sperm (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated that supplementation of antibiotic-free extenders for boar semen with 0.04 g/L KA has beneficial effects on liquid boar sperm preservation.

7.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e10473, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486227

RESUMO

The light-sensitive photoreceptors in the retina are extremely metabolically demanding and have the highest density of mitochondria of any cell in the body. Both physiological and pathological retinal vascular growth and regression are controlled by photoreceptor energy demands. It is critical to understand the energy demands of photoreceptors and fuel sources supplying them to understand neurovascular diseases. Retinas are very rich in lipids, which are continuously recycled as lipid-rich photoreceptor outer segments are shed and reformed and dietary intake of lipids modulates retinal lipid composition. Lipids (as well as glucose) are fuel substrates for photoreceptor mitochondria. Dyslipidemia contributes to the development and progression of retinal dysfunction in many eye diseases. Here, we review photoreceptor energy demands with a focus on lipid metabolism in retinal neurovascular disorders.

8.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486580

RESUMO

The thermosensitive genic male sterile 5 (tms5) mutation causes thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa) through loss of RNase ZS1 function, which influences ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein L40 (UbL40 ) mRNA levels during male development. Here, we employed ATAC-seq, combined with analysis of H3K9ac and H3K4me2, to identify changes in accessible chromatin during fertility conversion of the two-line hybrid rice Wuxiang S (WXS) derived from a mutant tms5 allele. Furthermore, RNA-seq and bioinformatic analyses identified specific transcription factors (TFs) in differentially accessible chromatin regions. Among these TFs, only GATA10 targeted UbL40 . Osgata10 knockout mutations, which resulted in low expression of UbL40 and a tendency toward male fertility, confirmed that GATA10 regulated fertility conversion via the modulation of UbL40 . Meanwhile, GATA10 acted as a mediator for interactions with ERF65, which revealed that transcriptional regulation is a complex process involving multiple complexes of TFs, namely TF modules. It appears that the ERF141/MADS7/MADS50/MYB modules affect metabolic processes that control anther and pollen development, especially cell wall formation. Our analysis revealed that these modules directly or indirectly affect metabolic pathway-related genes to coordinate plant growth with proper anther development, and furthermore, that GATA10 regulates fertility conversion via the modulation of UbL40 expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488722

RESUMO

Different memory components are forgotten through distinct molecular mechanisms. In Drosophila, the activation of 2 Rho GTPases (Rac1 and Cdc42), respectively, underlies the forgetting of an early labile memory (anesthesia-sensitive memory, ASM) and a form of consolidated memory (anesthesia-resistant memory, ARM). Here, we dissected the molecular mechanisms that tie Rac1 and Cdc42 to the different types of memory forgetting. We found that 2 WASP family proteins, SCAR/WAVE and WASp, act downstream of Rac1 and Cdc42 separately to regulate ASM and ARM forgetting in mushroom body neurons. Arp2/3 complex, which organizes branched actin polymerization, is a canonical downstream effector of WASP family proteins. However, we found that Arp2/3 complex is required in Cdc42/WASp-mediated ARM forgetting but not in Rac1/SCAR-mediated ASM forgetting. Instead, we identified that Rac1/SCAR may function with formin Diaphanous (Dia), a nucleator that facilitates linear actin polymerization, in ASM forgetting. The present study, complementing the previously identified Rac1/cofilin pathway that regulates actin depolymerization, suggests that Rho GTPases regulate forgetting by recruiting both actin polymerization and depolymerization pathways. Moreover, Rac1 and Cdc42 may regulate different types of memory forgetting by tapping into different actin polymerization mechanisms.

10.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaax0341, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489372

RESUMO

Surface ocean phosphate is commonly below the standard analytical detection limits, leading to an incomplete picture of the global variation and biogeochemical role of phosphate. A global compilation of phosphate measured using high-sensitivity methods revealed several previously unrecognized low-phosphate areas and clear regional differences. Both observational climatologies and Earth system models (ESMs) systematically overestimated surface phosphate. Furthermore, ESMs misrepresented the relationships between phosphate, phytoplankton biomass, and primary productivity. Atmospheric iron input and nitrogen fixation are known important controls on surface phosphate, but model simulations showed that differences in the iron-to-macronutrient ratio in the vertical nutrient supply and surface lateral transport are additional drivers of phosphate concentrations. Our study demonstrates the importance of accurately quantifying nutrients for understanding the regulation of ocean ecosystems and biogeochemistry now and under future climate conditions.

11.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 5): 1790-1796, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490171

RESUMO

A multimodal imaging instrument has been developed that integrates scanning near-field optical microscopy with nanofocused synchrotron X-ray diffraction imaging. The instrument allows for the simultaneous nanoscale characterization of electronic/near-field optical properties of materials together with their crystallographic structure, facilitating the investigation of local structure-property relationships. The design, implementation and operating procedures of this instrument are reported. The scientific capabilities are demonstrated in a proof-of-principle study of the insulator-metal phase transition in samarium sulfide (SmS) single crystals induced by applying mechanical pressure via a scanning tip. The multimodal imaging of an in situ tip-written region shows that the near-field optical reflectivity can be correlated with the heterogeneously transformed structure of the near-surface region of the crystal.

12.
Phytopathology ; : PHYTO01190008R, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479403

RESUMO

Plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a structural protein that can specifically recognize and bind to fungal polygalacturonase (PG). PGIP plays an important role in plant antifungal activity. In this study, a maize PGIP gene, namely ZmPGIP3, was cloned and characterized. Agarose diffusion assay suggested that ZmPGIP3 could inhibit the activity of PG. ZmPGIP3 expression was significantly induced by wounding, Rhizoctonia solani infection, jasmonate, and salicylic acid. ZmPGIP3 might be related to disease resistance. The gene encoding ZmPGIP3 was posed under the control of the ubiquitin promoter and constitutively expressed in transgenic rice. In an R. solani infection assay, ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice was more resistant to sheath blight than the wild-type rice regardless of the inoculated plant part (leaves or sheaths). Digital gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of some rice PGIP genes significantly increased in ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice, suggesting that ZmPGIP3 might activate the expression of some rice PGIP genes to resist sheath blight. Our investigation of the agronomic traits of ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice showed that ZmPGIP3 overexpression in rice did not show any detrimental phenotypic or agronomic effect. ZmPGIP3 is a promising candidate gene in the transgenic breeding for sheath blight resistance and crop improvement.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(7): 074708, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370484

RESUMO

Coaxial coupled structure of wireless power transfer, applied to high-precision instruments in aerospace, can eliminate interference sources by spatial isolation. For the optimization of the electromagnetic structure, a C-shaped magnetic structure is presented for both shielding electromagnetic simulation and improving coupling. By comparing of spiral and coaxial structures, an analysis is presented and validated in the effect of positional offset on inductive coupling, voltage gain, and efficiency. To obtain a stable and sufficient power supply, the prototype is implemented based on primary series-secondary series compensation topology with a maximum output power of 200 W, and a DC-DC efficiency of 82% is achieved.

14.
Opt Lett ; 44(15): 3717-3720, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368951

RESUMO

We report the experimental observation of dark rectangular noise-like pulses (NLPs) in a novel figure-nine fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By strengthening the nonlinear and birefringent effects in the cavity, the fundamental and high-order harmonics of dark rectangular NLPs are achieved with net anomalous dispersion. The dynamics of dark rectangular NLP formation and the spectral evolution with pump power are experimentally investigated. The results demonstrated an interesting operation regime of the fiber laser, which will contribute to enrich the dynamics of mode-locked pulses.

15.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1161-1169, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381235

RESUMO

Sulfanilamide (SA) is an effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agent in human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of SA on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C and determine the optimal concentration of SA and its effects on bacterial growth, microbial composition, and maternal fertility. Boar ejaculates were diluted with a basic extender, containing different concentrations of SA, and stored in a 17°C incubator for 6 days. The sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were measured daily. The results showed that when the concentration of SA was 0.02 g/L, the sperm quality parameters were significantly higher than those of all other treatment groups (p < .05). We also monitored the bacterial growth and compared the differences in the microbial species between the 0.02 g/L SA group and the control by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results revealed that some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas, were considerably lower in the 0.02 g/L SA group than in the control group (p < .05). In addition, preserved semen was used for artificial insemination, and results showed that 0.02 g/L SA group had a higher litter size, and its pregnancy rate was 92.5%.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385700

RESUMO

The emergence and rapid spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) critically requires alternative therapeutic options. New antibacterial drugs and strategies are urgently needed to combat MRSA-associated infections. Here, we investigated the antibacterial activity of flavones from Morus alba and the potential mode of action against MRSA. Kuwanon G, kuwanon H, mulberrin, and morusin displayed high efficiency in killing diverse MRSA isolates. On the basis of structure-activity analysis, the cyclohexene-phenyl ketones and isopentenyl groups were critical to increase the membrane permeability and to dissipate the proton motive force. Meanwhile, mechanistic studies further showed that kuwanon G displayed rapid bactericidal activity in vitrowith difficulty in developing drug resistance. Kuwanon G targeted phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin in the cytoplasmic membrane through the formation of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. Additionally, kuwanon G promoted wound healing in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. In summary, these results indicate that flavones are promising lead compounds to treat MRSA-associated infections through disrupting the proton motive force and membrane permeability.

17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 340, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Photo-thermosensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) is a very important germplasm resource in two-line hybrid rice breeding. Although many circRNAs have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.), little is known about the biological roles of circRNAs in the fertility transition of the PTGMS rice line. RESULTS: In the present study, RNA-sequencing libraries were constructed from the young panicles of the Wuxiang S sterile line rice (WXS (S)) and its fertile line rice (WXS (F)) at three development stages with three biological replicates. A total of 9994 circRNAs were obtained in WXS rice based on high-throughput strand-specific RNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches, of which 5305 were known circRNAs and 4689 were novel in rice. And 14 of 16 randomly selected circRNAs were experimentally validated with divergent primers. Our results showed that 186 circRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in WXS (F) compared with WXS (S), of which 97, 87 and 60 circRNAs were differentially expressed at the pollen mother cell (PMC) formation stage (P2), the meiosis stage (P3) and the microspore formation stage (P4), respectively. Fertility specific expression patterns of eight circRNAs were analysis by qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis of the parental genes of differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) revealed that they mainly participated in various biological processes such as development, response to stimulation, hormonal regulation, and reproduction. Furthermore, 15 DECs were found to act as putative miRNA sponges to involved in fertility transition in PTGMS rice line. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the abundance and characteristics of circRNAs were investigated in the PTGMS rice line using bioinformatic approaches. Moreover, the expression patterns of circRNAs were different between WXS (F) and WXS (S). Our findings primarily revealed that circRNAs might be endogenous noncoding regulators of flower and pollen development, and were involved in the fertility transition in the PTGMS rice line, and guide the production and application of two-line hybrid rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , RNA/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Oryza/fisiologia , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA/fisiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services penalizes hospitals with higher than expected readmissions for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Little information exists regarding outcomes in patients who sustain an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and undergo CABG as the primary revascularization strategy. Our goal was to determine the unplanned 30-day readmission rate in this high-risk population and predictors of readmission. MATERIALS/METHODS: An institutional database was queried to identify patients from 2011 to 2017 who were admitted with an acute MI and underwent CABG within 30 days. Chart review was performed to collect demographics, medical comorbidities and clinical information related to hospital course and readmission status. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were included. The 30-day unplanned readmission rate was 23%, and the majority (80%) were non-cardiac related. Predictors of unplanned readmission included female sex (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.042-6.549, p = 0.041), CABG performed <7 days following MI (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.21-6.59, p = 0.017), and post-operative atrial fibrillation (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.07-9.87, p = 0.038). Complications were identified in 32% of clinic visits in patients who did not require readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo CABG following MI are a high-risk population with nearly one-quarter readmitted within 30 days. Female sex, <7 days between the index MI and CABG, and post-operative atrial fibrillation are strong predictors for readmission. Early outpatient follow-up may be an effective intervention to reduce hospital readmissions by reassuring patients that non-cardiac symptoms are in line with anticipated post-operative pain and healing.

19.
J Nat Prod ; 82(8): 2189-2200, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393724

RESUMO

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) exerts hypoglycemic effects. However, the traditional method for DNJ extraction is inefficient, and the hypoglycemic mechanism of DNJ remains unclear. In this study, the mixed fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to enhance DNJ extraction efficiency. It was found that this strategy was more efficient than the traditional method as the yield improved from the original 3.24 mg/g to 5.97 mg/g. The purified DNJ significantly decreased serum glucose (P < 0.01) and insulin levels (P < 0.05), improved serum lipid levels (P < 0.05), and reversed insulin resistance (P < 0.05) in diabetic mice. These changes were caused by up-regulating the protein expression of insulin receptor and glycolysis enzymes (GK, PK, and PFK) (P < 0.05) and down-regulating the protein expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes (PCB, PEPCK, FBPase, and G-6-Pase) (P < 0.05), thus alleviating glucose tolerance. Additionally, DNJ treatment relieved gut dysbiosis in diabetic mice by promoting the growth of Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Oscillibacter, norank Lachnospiraceae, Alistipes, and Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05) and suppressing the growth of Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, Weissella, Ruminococcus, Prevotellaceae Ga6A1 group, Anaerostipes, Klebsiella, Prevotellaceae UCG-001, and Bacteroidales S24-7 group (P < 0.05).

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398024

RESUMO

Chin-brick tea polysaccharide conjugates (TPC-C) were prepared to study their emulsion capabilities. Interfacial tension and the effects of some factors, such as storage time, metal ion concentrations (Na+, Ca2+), pH (2.0-8.0), and heat treatment (70-100 °C) on the emulsions stabilized by TPC-C were studied. The interfacial tension of TPC-C (10.88 mN/m) was lower than that of gum arabic (15.18 mN/m) at a concentration of 0.08%. As the TPC-C concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 wt %, the mean particle diameter (MPD) (d32) of emulsions stabilized by TPC-C decreased from 1.88 to 0.16 µm. Furthermore, at a concentration of 0.5 wt % or higher, the MPD (d32) of emulsions stabilized by TPC-C at 25 and 60 °C for 10 days was between 0.20 and 0.50 µm. In the tested pH conditions from 2.0 to 8.0, the MPD (d32) of emulsions stabilized by 2.0 wt % TPC-C was less than 0.20 µm. At Na+ concentration conditions between 0.10 and 0.50 mol/L, the MPD (d32) of emulsions was between 0.19 and 0.20 µm, and the zeta potential values varied from -34.10 to -32.60 mV. However, with an increasing Ca2+ concentration from 0.01 to 0.05 mol/L, the MPD (d32) of emulsions was between 0.20 and 21.65 µm, and the zeta potential raised sharply from -34.10 to -28.46 mV. The emulsions stabilized by TPC-C have a decent storage stability after a high-temperature heat treatment. Overall, tea polysaccharide conjugates strongly stabilized the emulsions, which support their new application as natural emulsifiers.

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