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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 122, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing respiratory fit test panels (RFTPs) are based on Bivariate and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which utilise American and Chinese head and facial dimensions. As RFTPs based on local facial anthropometric data for Malaysia are not available, this study was conducted with the aim to develop new RFTPs using Malaysian data. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted across Malaysia among 3,324 participants of the study of National Health and Morbidity Survey 2020 aged 18 and above. Ten head and facial dimensions were measured. Face length and face width were used to construct bivariate facial panel, whereas the scores from the first two PCA were used to develop the PCA panel. RESULTS: This study showed that Malaysians have the widest upper limit for facial width. It also found that three factors could be reduced from the PCA analysis. However only 2 factors were selected with PCA 1 representing head and facial size and PCA 2 representing facial shape. Our bivariate panel could accommodate 95.0% of population, while our PCA panel accommodated 95.6%. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to use Malaysian head and facial anthropometry data to create bivariate and PCA panels. Respirators constructed using these panels are likely to fit ≥ 95.0% of Malaysia's population.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , População do Sudeste Asiático , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Desenho de Equipamento , Face/anatomia & histologia , Malásia
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e16906, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361766

RESUMO

Background: School teachers may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), potentially affecting their work productivity. However, limited data exists on the impact of CVD on teachers' productivity in Malaysia. Our objectives were to assess work productivity loss (absenteeism and presenteeism) as well as to determine the associated annual monetary loss among school teachers who experienced incident CVD in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We adopted a nested case-control design within a cohort of school teachers. Working teachers from six states of Peninsular Malaysia, and had experienced incident CVD before a right-censored date (31st December 2021) were defined as cases. Incident CVD was operationally defined as the development of non-fatal acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke, congestive cardiac failure, deep vein thrombosis or peripheral arterial disease before the censored date. Controls were working teachers who did not acquire an incident CVD before the similar right-censored date. All controls were randomly selected, with a ratio of one case to four controls, from among the working teachers in one of the states in Peninsular Malaysia. We used a shortened version of the Malay-validated World Health Organization-Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) to estimate the workplace productivity effect among teachers with incident CVD (cases). The same questionnaire was distributed to teachers in a single state of Peninsular Malaysia who did not experience incident CVD (controls). Absenteeism, presenteeism and annual monetary loss were computed based on the scoring rules in the WHO-HPQ. Analysis of covariance was performed with covariate adjustment using propensity scores. The bootstrapping method was applied to obtain better estimates of marginal mean differences, along with standard errors (SE) and appropriate effect sizes. Results: We recruited 48 cases (baseline mean age = 42.4 years old, 54.2% females) and 192 randomly selected controls (baseline mean age = 36.2 years old, 99.0% females). The majority of the cases had ACS (73.9%). No significant difference was observed in absenteeism between cases and controls. The mean self-rated job performance score was lower for cases (7.63, SE = 0.21) compared to controls (8.60, SE = 0.10). Marginal mean scores of absolute presenteeism among cases (76.30) were lower (p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.075) than controls (85.97). The marginal mean annual cost of presenteeism was higher in cases (MYR 21,237.52) compared to controls (MYR 12,089.74) (p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.082). Conclusion: Absolute presenteeism was lower among school teachers who experienced incident CVD and the annual cost of presenteeism was substantial. Implementing supportive work strategies in school settings is recommended to increase absolute presenteeism, which can lead to a reduction in the annual cost of presenteeism among teachers experiencing incident CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Desempenho Profissional , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Malásia/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles
3.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0288105, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38019763

RESUMO

This study examined the association of various brands of NIOSH-certified N95 filtering face-piece respirators (FFR) fit with facial dimensions and gender. One hundred and thirty-five participants (77 females and 58 males) were recruited from the previous facial anthropometry study among Malaysians in 2020. Quantitative respirator fit testing of six FFR were performed using the TSI Portacount Pro+ 8038 which comprised of four exercises (bending over, talking, up-down head movement, and side to side head movement). An overall fit factor (FF) of ≥ 100 was considered a pass for each FFR. Analysis was done using T-test, Pearson's correlations, and generalised linear regression. The passing rates for the six FFR were 36.3% (Cup B), 50.4% (Trifold A), 54.1% (Duckbill A), 57.0% (Cup A), 74.1% (Trifold B), and 83.7% (Duckbill B). Both Duckbill B and Trifold B had the highest passing rates for both genders. However, certain FFR models (Cup B, Trifold A, Trifold B, and Duckbill A) fit better for participants with large facial size who were mostly males, while others (Cup A and Duckbill B) specifically fit better for those with small facial size, who were mostly females. This study showed significant positive effect of nose protrusion, nasal root and subnasale-sellion and the negative effect of menton-sellion, bigonial breadth and nose breadth on fit factors of various FFR. The results of this study emphasized the importance of choosing and designing FFR based on local anthropometry data, with careful consideration on the dimensions that affect the respirator fit. Since N95 are commonly used in the healthcare settings to prevent airborne transmission, the practice of respirator fit testing and selecting N95 with high passing rates for healthcare workers need to be emphasized.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Desenho de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Antropometria , Respiradores N95 , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
4.
Cureus ; 15(10): e46965, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38022363

RESUMO

Introduction Noise-related hearing disorder (NRHD) is the second most common sensorineural hearing loss, right after age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). It is the highest reported occupational disease and a major compensable occupational hazard in Malaysia. With the increase in dengue cases, the need for vector control workers to control the spread of dengue at the expense of being exposed to noisy fogging machines is critical. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of vector control workers conducted by a local authority in Kuala Lumpur. Participants were categorised as either vector control workers who were directly involved in fogging activities or those who were not. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, medical and occupational information. NRHD was confirmed by an audiogram test. Results This study found a high prevalence of NRHD among vector control workers exposed to fogging activity (occupational noise hazards), with 51.4% of them experiencing this condition. The predictors of NRHD include fogging status adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.94 (95% CI: 1.19 - 3.17), sex 18.28 (95% CI: 2.33 - 143.16) and age 2.03 (95% CI: 1.27 - 3.25). Conclusion The findings of this study imply that vector control workers are at risk of NRHD. The predictors of NRHD are fogging status, sex and age. These findings emphasise the major impact of occupational noise hazards on NRHD and emphasise the importance of addressing this issue to preserve employees' health; especially among male and older employees with chronic noise exposure.

5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 730, 2023 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37408024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies in advanced care settings reported that the increasing workload increases the work-life imbalance and harms the mental health of health workers. The COVID-19 Pandemic's tracing, testing, treatment, and mass vaccination also have multiplied the primary healthcare workers' workload. Nevertheless, studies on primary care workers are scarce. This study aimed to investigate how the COVID-19-related work-life balance impact stress on primary healthcare workers in the third years of the pandemic. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional, web-based survey conducted on primary healthcare workers in Kediri Regency, Indonesia, with the highest Omicron case surge worldwide. It was conducted right after the surge between July and August 2022, the third year of the COVID-19 pandemic hit Indonesia. Under coordination with the local government health officials, primary healthcare workers were invited to participate in an online survey. The respondents were asked to evaluate their sociodemography, work conditions, personal life, and perceived stress (using the Perceived Stress Scale) during the pandemic. Their work-life balance was evaluated using the Work/Non-work Interference and Enhancement Scale. We used several hierarchical linear regression models to determine which variables contribute to work stress among primary healthcare workers. RESULTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, including gender, age, marital status, years of professional experience, and educational level, were not significantly associated with stress levels among our respondents. Separately, work conditions and personal life variables did not associate with stress levels. However, primary healthcare workers' work and personal lives interfere with each other during the pandemic and are associated with their higher stress. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, the work life of primary health workers interferes with their personal life more than the interference of personal life on their work life. At the same time, the work life's enhancement on the personal life and vice versa were lower than its interference. Those conditions are associated with higher perceived stress of primary health workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Pessoal de Saúde
6.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1028443, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36935685

RESUMO

Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have been continually exposed to patients with COVID-19 and are at higher risk of contracting the disease. Their psychological health is important for overall wellbeing and productivity, which could lead to a reduction in human errors during the pandemic crisis. This study aimed to measure the level of concerns, work practices, adequacy of preventive measures among HCWs, and the impacts on their life and work, including mental health status during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed randomly to 1,050 HCWs from the Ministry of Health facilities in the Klang Valley who were involved directly in managing or screening COVID-19 cases from May to August 2020. The questionnaire was divided into five domains, which were concerns, impact on life and work, practice, perceived adequacy of preventive measures, and Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R). Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic predictors of the five domains. Results: A total of 907 respondents (86.4%) participated in this survey. Approximately half of the respondents had a low concern (50.5%), most of them had a good practice (85.1%), with 67.5% perceiving there were adequate preventive measures, and they perceived the outbreak had a low impact (92%) on their life and work. From the IES-R domain, 18.6% of respondents potentially suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Conclusion: During the second wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia, HCWs practiced high levels of precautions and preventive measures because they were aware of the risk of infection as an occupational hazard. With the adequate implementation of policy and control measures, the psychological wellbeing of the majority HCWs remained well and adequately supported.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 972249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091510

RESUMO

Background: Existing anthropometric studies for respirator designs are based on the head and facial dimensions of Americans and Chinese nationals, with no studies for multi-ethnic countries like Malaysia. This study aimed to create head and facial morphological database for Malaysia, specifically to identify morphological differences between genders, ethnicities, and birthplaces, as well as predictors of the dimensions. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Malaysia. Participants: A nation-wide cross-sectional study using a complex survey design with two stage-stratified random sampling was conducted among 3,324 participants, aged 18 years and above who were also participants of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2020. Primary and secondary outcomes: The study collected data on sociodemographic, measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) and 10 head and facial dimensions (3 dimensions were measured using direct measurement, and 7 others using Digimizer software for 2-dimension images). Linear regression was performed to determine the association between gender, ethnicity, birthplace, age and BMI and the dimensions. Results: There were significant differences in all the dimensions between sex, birthplace and ethnicity (p < 0.005). Further analysis using linear regression showed sex, ethnicity, birthplace, age and BMI were significant predictors of the dimensions. In comparison to studies from the United States and China, our study population had a wider interpupillary distance and nose breadth for both male and female participants, but smaller bigonial breadth and smaller minimal frontal breadth. Conclusion: These findings could assist in the design and sizing of respirators that will fit Malaysians and possibly other Southeast Asian population.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Estudos Transversais , Desenho de Equipamento , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
8.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 71-76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703638

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic adversely affected the preparation of Malaysia's National Health and Morbidity Survey for 2020 because conducting it would expose data collectors and participants to an increased risk of infection. CONTEXT: The survey is nationally representative and community based and is conducted by the Institute for Public Health, part of the National Institutes of Health, to generate health-related evidence and to support the Malaysian Ministry of Health in policy-making. Its planned scope for 2020 was the seroprevalence of communicable diseases such as hepatitis B and C. ACTION: Additional components were added to the survey to increase its usefulness, including COVID-19 seroprevalence and facial anthropometric studies to ensure respirator fit. The survey's scale was reduced, and data collection was changed from including only face-to-face interviews to mainly self-administered and telephone interviews. The transmission risk to participants was reduced by screening data collectors before the survey and fortnightly thereafter, using standard droplet and contact precautions, ensuring proper training and monitoring of data collectors, and implementing other administrative infection prevention measures. OUTCOME: Data were collected from 7 August to 11 October 2020, with 5957 participants recruited. Only 4 out of 12 components of the survey were conducted via face-to-face interview. No COVID-19 cases were reported among data collectors and participants. All participants were given their hepatitis and COVID-19 laboratory test results; 73 participants with hepatitis B and 14 with hepatitis C who had been previously undiagnosed were referred for further case management. DISCUSSION: Preparing and conducting the National Health and Morbidity Survey during the COVID-19 pandemic required careful consideration of the risks and benefits, multiple infection prevention measures, strong leadership and strong stakeholder support to ensure there were no adverse events.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 574135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643985

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in 2019 has inflicted numerous clinical and public health challenges worldwide. It was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and activated response teams at almost all Malaysian healthcare facilities. Upon activation of the National Crisis Preparedness and Response Center in January 2020, the National Institutes of Health Malaysia established a COVID-19 operation room at the facility level to address the rise in COVID-19 infection cases each day. The National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room committee formed a workforce mobilization team for an effective and efficient mobilization system to fulfill requests received for human resource aid within the Ministry of Health Malaysia facilities. Selected personnel would be screened for health and availability before mobilization letters and logistics arrangements if necessary. The workforce from the National Institutes of Health, consisting of various job positions, were mobilized every week, with each deployment cycle lasting 2 weeks. A total of 128 personnel from the six institutes under the National Institutes of Health were mobilized: tasks included fever screening, active case detection, health management at quarantine centers, and management of dead bodies. A well-organized data management system with a centralized online system integration could allow more rapid deployment and answer some of the key questions in managing a similar pandemic in the future. With improving infected COVID-19 cases throughout the country, the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room was effectively closed on June 15, 2020, following approval from the Deputy Director-General of Health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cooperação Internacional , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Administração em Saúde Pública , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 813058, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35155360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Facial anthropometric data is important for the design of respirators. Two-dimensional (2D) photogrammetry has replaced direct anthropometric method, but the reliability and accuracy of 2D photogrammetry has not been quantified. This study aimed to assess inter-rater reliability of 2D photogrammetry and to examine the reliability and accuracy of 2D photogrammetry with direct measurement. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: A subset of 96 participants aged 18 and above. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Ten facial dimensions were measured using direct measurement and 2D photogrammetry. An assessment of inter-rater reliability was performed using intra-class correlation (ICC) of the 2D images. In addition, ICC and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess the reliability and agreement of 2D photogrammetry with direct measurement. RESULTS: Except for head breadth and bigonial breadth, which were also found to have low inter-rater reliability, there was no significant difference in the inter-rater mean value of the 2D photogrammetry. The mean measurements derived from direct measurement and 2D photogrammetry were mostly similar. However, statistical differences were noted for two facial dimensions, i.e., bizygomatic breadth and bigonial breadth, and clinically the magnitude of difference was also significant. There were no statistical differences in respect to the remaining eight facial dimensions, where the smallest mean difference was 0.3 mm and biggest mean difference was 1.0 mm. The ICC showed head breadth had poor reliability, whilst Bland-Altman analyses showed seven out of 10 facial dimensions using 2D photogrammetry were accurate, as compared to direct measurement. CONCLUSION: Only certain facial measurements can be reliably and accurately measured using 2D photogrammetry, thus it is important to conduct a reliability and validation study before the use of any measurement methods in anthropometric studies. The results of this study also suggest that 2D photogrammetry can be used to supplement direct measurement for certain facial dimensions.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Fotogrametria , Estudos Transversais , Face , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e034455, 2020 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Night-shift work may adversely affect health. This study aimed to determine the impact of night-shift work on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to assess whether sleep quality was a mediating factor. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: 11 manufacturing factories in Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: 177 night-shift workers aged 40-65 years old were compared with 317 non-night-shift workers. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographics and lifestyle factors, 12-item Short Form Health Survey V.2 (SF-12v2) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The Baron and Kenny's method, Sobel test and multiple mediation model with bootstrapping were applied to determine whether PSQI score or its components mediated the association between night-shift work and HRQoL. RESULTS: Night-shift work was associated with sleep impairment and HRQoL. Night-shift workers had significantly lower mean scores in all the eight SF-12 domains (p<0.001). Compared with non-night-shift workers, night-shift workers were significantly more likely to report poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction (p<0.001). Mediation analyses showed that PSQI global score mediated the association between night-shift work and HRQoL. 'Subjective sleep quality' (indirect effect=-0.24, SE=0.14 and bias corrected (BC) 95% CI -0.58 to -0.01) and 'sleep disturbances' (indirect effect=-0.79, SE=0.22 and BC 95% CI -1.30 to -0.42) were mediators for the association between night-shift work and physical well-being, whereas 'sleep latency' (indirect effect=-0.51, SE=0.21 and BC 95% CI -1.02 to -0.16) and 'daytime dysfunction' (indirect effect=-1.11, SE=0.32 and BC 95% CI -1.86 to -0.58) were mediators with respect to mental well-being. CONCLUSION: Sleep quality partially explains the association between night-shift work and poorer HRQoL. Organisations should treat the sleep quality of night-shift workers as a top priority area for action to improve their employees' overall wellbeing.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
12.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(10): 716-723, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational factors, particularly night-shift work, are attracting growing interest as a possible determinant of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between night-shift work and MetS, and assess whether sleep quality is a mediating factor. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Malaysian manufacturing workers, aged 40-65 years old. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographics, lifestyle and family history, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein levels were measured. Baron and Kenny's method, Sobel test and multiple mediation models with bootstrapping were used to determine whether the PSQI global score or its components mediated the association between night-shift work and MetS. RESULTS: Of the 494 participants, 177 (36%) worked night shift and 51% were men. The prevalence of MetS was 37%. Night-shift work was independently associated with a twofold increase in the risk of MetS (adjusted OR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.97). However, the association between night-shift work and MetS did not appear to be modified by sex. Night-shift workers also reported significantly poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction. Robust mediation analysis nonetheless showed that neither PSQI global score nor its components mediated the association between night-shift work and MetS. CONCLUSION: Early screening and management of MetS and the development of programmes to improve sleep quality should be carried out among night-shift workers. Future research should investigate other modifiable mediators linking night-shift work and MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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