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1.
Res Sq ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559202

RESUMO

Background: Nurse practitioners (NPs) increasingly deliver primary care in the United States. Yet, poor working conditions strain NP care. We examined whether racial/ethnic health disparities in ED visits among older adults with asthma are moderated by primary care NP work environments. Methods: Survey data on NP work environments in six states were collected from 1,244 NPs in 2018-2019. 2018 Medicare claims data from 46,658 patients with asthma was merged with survey data to assess the associations of all-cause and ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) ED visits with NP work environment and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. Results: NP work environment moderated the association of race (Black patients versus White patients) with all-cause (odds ratio [OR]: 0.91; p-value = 0.045) and ACSC (OR: 0.90; p-value = 0.033) ED visits. Conclusions: Disparities in ED visits between Black and White patients with asthma decrease when these patients receive care in care clinics with favorable NP work environments.

2.
RSC Adv ; 14(12): 8464-8480, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482065

RESUMO

Anti-wear performance is a crucial quality of lubricants, and it is important to conduct research into the structure-activity relationship of anti-wear additives in bio-based lubricants. These lubricants are eco-friendly and energy-efficient. A literature review resulted in the construction of a dataset comprising 779 anti-wear properties of 79 anti-wear additives in rapeseed oil, at various loadings and additive levels. The anti-wear additives were classified into six groups, including phosphoric acid, formate esters, borate esters, thiazoles, triazine derivatives, and thiophene. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the quantity and kind of anti-wear agents had significant effects on the anti-wear properties of rapeseed oil, with phosphoric acid being the most effective and thiophene being the least effective. To identify the specific structural data that affect the anti-wear capabilities of additives in bio-based lubricants of rapeseed oil, a random forest classification model was developed. The results showed a 0.964 accuracy (ACC) and a 0.931 Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) on the test set. The ranking of importance and characterization of MACCS descriptors in the model confirms that anti-wear additives with chemical structures containing P, O, N, S and heterocyclic groups, along with more than two methyl groups, improve the anti-wear performance of rapeseed oil. The application of data analysis and machine learning to investigate the classifications and structural characteristics of anti-wear additives in rapeseed oil provides data references and guiding principles for designing anti-wear additives in bio-based lubricants.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(6): e031283, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of heart failure with a poor prognosis. Recent studies suggest that endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) may be involved in the pathogenesis and cardiac remodeling during DCM development. EDIL3 (epidermal growth factor-like repeats and discoidin I-like domains 3) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that has been reported to promote EndMT in various diseases. However, the roles of EDIL3 in DCM still remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mouse model of DCM and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to explore the roles and mechanisms of EDIL3 in DCM. The results indicated that EndMT and EDIL3 were activated in DCM mice. EDIL3 deficiency attenuated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in DCM mice. EDIL3 knockdown alleviated EndMT by inhibiting USP10 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 10) dependent Smad4 deubiquitination in vivo and in vitro. Recombinant human EDIL3 promoted EndMT via reinforcing deubiquitination of Smad4 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with IL-1ß (interleukin 1ß) and TGF-ß (transforming growth factor beta). Inhibiting USP10 abolished EndMT exacerbated by EDIL3. In addition, recombinant EDIL3 also aggravates doxorubicin-induced EndMT by promoting Smad4 deubiquitination in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate that EDIL3 deficiency attenuated EndMT by inhibiting USP10 dependent Smad4 deubiquitination in DCM mice.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Discoidinas , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) affect over 55 million globally. Current clinical trials suffer from low recruitment rates, a challenge potentially addressable via natural language processing (NLP) technologies for researchers to effectively identify eligible clinical trial participants. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the sociotechnical feasibility of NLP-driven tools for ADRD research prescreening and analyzes the tools' cognitive complexity's effect on usability to identify cognitive support strategies. METHODS: A randomized experiment was conducted with 60 clinical research staff using three prescreening tools (Criteria2Query, Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside [i2b2], and Leaf). Cognitive task analysis was employed to analyze the usability of each tool using the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale. Data analysis involved calculating descriptive statistics, interrater agreement via intraclass correlation coefficient, cognitive complexity, and Generalized Estimating Equations models. RESULTS: Leaf scored highest for usability followed by Criteria2Query and i2b2. Cognitive complexity was found to be affected by age, computer literacy, and number of criteria, but was not significantly associated with usability. DISCUSSION: Adopting NLP for ADRD prescreening demands careful task delegation, comprehensive training, precise translation of eligibility criteria, and increased research accessibility. The study highlights the relevance of these factors in enhancing NLP-driven tools' usability and efficacy in clinical research prescreening. CONCLUSION: User-modifiable NLP-driven prescreening tools were favorably received, with system type, evaluation sequence, and user's computer literacy influencing usability more than cognitive complexity. The study emphasizes NLP's potential in improving recruitment for clinical trials, endorsing a mixed-methods approach for future system evaluation and enhancements.

5.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 14(3): 2345-2356, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545062

RESUMO

Background: Conventional computed tomography (CT) has low sensitivity for the diagnosis of bone marrow infiltration in nonosteolytic multiple myeloma (NOL-MM). This study aimed to compare the performance of the two-material decomposition technique of spectral CT with the removal of X-ray absorption components of calcium (Ca) versus that of hydroxyapatite (HAP) for diagnosis of NOL-MM. Methods: From October 2022 to March 2023, a total of 41 consecutive patients with MM without focal bone lesions undergoing chest spectral CT and thoracic spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital were prospectively enrolled; meanwhile, another set of 41 age- and sex-matched healthy consecutive participants were selected as a comparison group. Based on MRI findings, patients with MM were classified with a diffuse infiltration pattern MM (DP-MM) or a normal pattern MM (NP-MM). Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually drawn on vertebrae. CT values of 70-keV images and basic material density within the ROIs were stored. The basic two-material pairs included a Ca-related pair (Ca-X) and an HAP-related pair (HAP-X), with X referring to fat, water, or muscle. Material density values DCa(X), DX(Ca), DHAP(X), and DX(HAP) were each used to diagnose MM, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess diagnostic performance. Results: The 41 patients with NOL-MM included 30 with DP-MM and 11 with NP-MM. CT value, DCa(X), and DHAP(X) were comparable between the NOL-MM, DP-MM, NP-MM, and comparison groups. DX(HAP) was better than DX(Ca) for distinguishing the NOL-MM group from the comparison group {AUC [95% confidence interval (CI)], 0.874 (0.800, 0.949) vs. 0.737 (0.630, 0.844); P=0.02}, the DP-MM group from the comparison group [AUC (95% CI), 0.933 (0.878, 0.989) vs. 0.785 (0.677, 0.894); P=0.01], the NP-MM group from the comparison group [AUC (95% CI), 0.714 (0.540, 0.888) vs. 0.605 (0.429, 0.782); P=0.03], and the DP-MM group from the NP-MM group [AUC (95% CI), 0.809 (0.654, 0.964) vs. 0.736 (0.566, 0.907); P=0.049]. The diagnostic performance of DX(HAP) and DX(Ca) was influenced only by the removed material, while the X material had no influence. Conclusions: The spectral CT two-material decomposition technique with removal of X-ray absorption components of HAP is useful for diagnosis of NOL-MM, irrespective of the paired material.

6.
MedComm (2020) ; 5(3): e491, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38463394

RESUMO

Hypertensive vascular remodeling is defined as the changes in vascular function and structure induced by persistent hypertension. Maresin-1 (MaR1), one of metabolites from Omega-3 fatty acids, has been reported to promote inflammation resolution in several inflammatory diseases. This study aims to investigate the effect of MaR1 on hypertensive vascular remodeling. Here, we found serum MaR1 levels were reduced in hypertensive patients and was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP). The treatment of MaR1 reduced the elevation of blood pressure and alleviated vascular remodeling in the angiotensin II (AngII)-infused mouse model. In addition, MaR1-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibited reduced excessive proliferation, migration, and phenotype switching, as well as impaired pyroptosis. However, the knockout of the receptor of MaR1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 6 (LGR6), was seen to aggravate pathological vascular remodeling, which could not be reversed by additional MaR1 treatment. The mechanisms by which MaR1 regulates vascular remodeling through LGR6 involves the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 signaling pathway. Overall, supplementing MaR1 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

7.
FASEB J ; 38(5): e23513, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421300

RESUMO

Targeting cardiac remodeling is regarded as a key therapeutic strategy for heart failure. Kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) is a secretory protein with 18 cysteine-rich domains and associated with kidney and liver fibrosis. However, the relationship between KCP and cardiac remodeling remains unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of KCP in cardiac remodeling induced by pressure overload and explore its potential mechanisms. Left ventricular (LV) KCP expression was measured with real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in mice. Cardiac function and remodeling were evaluated in wide-type (WT) mice and KCP knockout (KO) mice by echocardiography, which were further confirmed by histological analysis with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining. RNA sequence was performed with LV tissue from WT and KO mice to identify differentially expressed genes and related signaling pathways. Primary cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were used to validate the regulatory role and potential mechanisms of KCP during fibrosis. KCP was down-regulated in the progression of cardiac remodeling induced by pressure overload, and was mainly expressed in fibroblasts. KCP deficiency significantly aggravated pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. RNA sequence revealed that the role of KCP deficiency in cardiac remodeling was associated with cell division, cell cycle, and P53 signaling pathway, while cyclin B1 (CCNB1) was the most significantly up-regulated gene. Further investigation in vivo and in vitro suggested that KCP deficiency promoted the proliferation of CFs via P53/P21/CCNB1 pathway. Taken together, these results suggested that KCP deficiency aggravates cardiac dysfunction and remodeling induced by pressure overload via P53/P21/CCNB1 signaling in mice.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Deficiência de Proteína , Animais , Camundongos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ciclina B1 , Remodelação Ventricular , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 50(1): 8-14, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170463

RESUMO

One in three nursing home (NH) residents experience adverse events. One strategy for safer NH care is health information technology (HIT). Two national NH surveys measuring HIT maturity were administered in 2020 (N = 719) and 2021 (N = 312). Quarterly NH survey deficiencies from the same years were linked to HIT maturity surveys. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analysis. NHs were of similar size and location, with more for-profit facilities. Most (67.5% and 61.9%, respectively) NH administrators reported having capabilities to share data internally within their facility, and not externally. Mean HIT maturity scores increased from Year 1 to Year 2. Over 2 years, 5,406 deficiencies were reported, mostly (31.3%) for nutrition and dietary deficiencies. There were negative associations between HIT maturity and deficiency scope. With a 1-unit increase in HIT maturity, relative risk of widespread scope decreased by 14%. Among covariates, bed size, staffing, and year were significant factors associated with deficiency scope. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 50(1), 8-14.].


Assuntos
Casas de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem , Modelos Logísticos
9.
Heliyon ; 10(1): e24198, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226205

RESUMO

Meropenem, linezolid, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and vancomycin are six important antimicrobials used for severe infections in critically ill patients listed in special-grade antimicrobials in China. The six antimicrobials' highly variable pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in critically ill pediatric patients present significant challenges to clinicians in ensuring optimal therapeutic targets. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring of these antimicrobials in human plasma is necessary to obtain their plasma concentration. A rapid, simple, and sample-saving high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed, which could simultaneously determine all six antimicrobials. It required only 10 µL of plasma and a one-step protein precipitation process. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase column (C18, 30 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm) via gradient elution using water and acetonitrile containing 0.1 % formic acid as mobile phase. The injection volume was 2 µL, and the total run time was only 2.5 min. Detection was done using a Triple Quad™ 4500MD tandem mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive mode. The calibration curves ranged from 0.5 to 64 µg/mL for meropenem and fluconazole, 0.2-25.6 µg/mL for linezolid and voriconazole, 0.1-12.8 µg/mL for posaconazole and 1-128 µg/mL for vancomycin, with the coefficients of correlation all greater than 0.996. Furthermore, the method was validated rigorously according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines, demonstrating excellent accuracy (from 93.0 % to 110.6 %) and precision (from 2.0 % to 12.8 %). Moreover, its applicability to various matrices (including serum, hemolytic plasma, and hyperlipidemic plasma) was evaluated. Thus, this method was successfully applied to routine therapeutic drug monitoring for critically ill pediatric patients and other patients in need.

10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 204(1): 15-26, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38038766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the association of clinicopathologic and molecular factors with the occurrence of positive margins after first surgery in breast cancer. METHODS: The clinical and RNA-Seq data for 951 (75 positive and 876 negative margins) primary breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used. The role of each clinicopathologic factor for margin prediction and also their impact on survival were evaluated using logistic regression, Fisher's exact test, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. In addition, differential expression analysis on a matched dataset (71 positive and 71 negative margins) was performed using Deseq2 and LASSO regression. RESULTS: Association studies showed that higher stage, larger tumor size (T), positive lymph nodes (N), and presence of distant metastasis (M) significantly contributed (p ≤ 0.05) to positive surgical margins. In case of surgery, lumpectomy was significantly associated with positive margin compared to mastectomy. Moreover, PAM50 Luminal A subtype had higher chance of positive margin resection compared to Basal-like subtype. Survival models demonstrated that positive margin status along with higher stage, higher TNM, and negative hormone receptor status was significant for disease progression. We also found that margin status might be a surrogate of tumor stage. In addition, 29 genes that could be potential positive margin predictors and 8 pathways were identified from molecular data analysis. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of positive margins after surgery was associated with various clinical factors, similar to the findings reported in earlier studies. In addition, we found that the PAM50 intrinsic subtype Luminal A has more chance of obtaining positive margins compared to Basal type. As the first effort to pursue molecular understanding of the margin status, a gene panel of 29 genes including 17 protein-coding genes was also identified for potential prediction of the margin status which needs to be validated using a larger sample set.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Mastectomia , Margens de Excisão , Mama/patologia , Mastectomia Segmentar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia
11.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 55(1): 42-48, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37921477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries (PIs) are costly to hospitals and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Despite the use of validated tools that describe PI risk, such as the Braden Scale, the incidence of PIs remains high. Studies have shown that Braden Scale subscale scores should be considered when planning care; however, there is a discrepancy between understanding the importance of subscale-specific interventions and implementation. The goal of this study was to test the ability of an educational intervention tailored to specific interventions based on the subscales of the Braden Scale to improve knowledge among nurses. METHOD: This study was a prospective, quasi-experimental, single-group design where nurses (n = 35) from a neurosurgery stepdown unit in a large teaching hospital completed a preintervention survey (T1), attended an educational presentation, and then completed an immediate postintervention survey (T2) and a 2-month postintervention survey (T3). RESULTS: Data analysis compared presurvey scores with postsurvey scores. Nursing comprehension improved from the preintervention survey (T1, M = 5.57) to the postintervention surveys (T2, M = 6.34; T3, M = 6.42) (p = .031). CONCLUSION: Nurses showed increased comprehension after the educational intervention from T1 to T3. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2024;55(1):42-48.].


Assuntos
Lesão por Pressão , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estudos Prospectivos , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Hospitais de Ensino
12.
J Hypertens ; 42(3): 420-431, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937508

RESUMO

The proliferation, migration and phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells contribute to vascular remodeling and hypertension. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and can protect against different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role and mechanism of RvD1 in hypertension are not clear. The current study investigated the role of RvD1 in Ang II-induced hypertensive mice and Ang II-stimulated rat vascular smooth muscle cells. The results showed that RvD1 treatment significantly attenuated hypertension and vascular remodeling, as indicated by decreases in blood pressure, aortic media thickness and collagen deposition. In addition, RvD1 inhibited the proliferation, migration and phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vivo and in vitro . Notably, the protective effects of RvD1 were mediated by the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated the potential benefits of RvD1 as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular remodeling and hypertension.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Hipertensão , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Células Cultivadas
13.
J Pediatr ; 265: 113812, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of change in lung function and body weight during health care transition in cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry and the web-based transition program CF RISE (Responsibility. Independence. Self-care. Education) for patients aged 16-25 years who transitioned to adult care from 2013 through 2019. We modeled change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted and weight using linear regression fit with generalized estimating equations. Predictors included gap in care (time between last pediatric and first adult outpatient visit), transition program engagement, and sociodemographic and medical factors. RESULTS: Among 12 420 adolescents and young adults (AYAs), 3876 transitioned to adult care with a median gap in care of 7.6 months. Patients from CF centers with greater rates of CF RISE engagement had improved lung function and weight at their first adult outpatient visit. Coverage on a parent's insurance plan and absence of CF complications predicted increased lung function. History of a nonlung transplant and sinus disease predicted increased weight. Comorbid diabetes mellitus and gaps in care >3 months predicted decreased lung function with longer gaps in care associated with greater decrease. A gap in care of 6-9 months predicted decreased weight. Control variables including baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second and weight, and exacerbation status were also statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest 2 promising targets to improve transition of AYAs with CF: increasing AYA engagement in CF RISE and reducing gaps in care during the transition period.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autocuidado , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Sistema de Registros
14.
J Gen Intern Med ; 39(1): 61-68, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37620724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurse practitioners care for patients with cardiovascular disease, particularly those from racial and ethnic minority groups, and can help assure equitable health outcomes. Yet, nurse practitioners practice in challenging care environments, which limits their ability to care for patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether primary care nurse practitioner care environments are associated with racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalizations among older adults with coronary heart disease. DESIGN: In this observational study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among primary care nurse practitioners in 2018-2019 who completed a valid measure of care environment. The data was merged with 2018 Medicare claims data for patients with coronary heart disease. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1244 primary care nurse practitioners and 180,216 Medicare beneficiaries 65 and older with coronary heart disease were included. MAIN MEASURES: All-cause and ambulatory care sensitive condition hospitalizations in 2018. KEY RESULTS: There were 50,233 hospitalizations, 9068 for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. About 28% of patients had at least one hospitalization. Hospitalizations varied by race, being highest among Black patients (33.5%). Care environment moderated the relationship between race (Black versus White) and hospitalization (OR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.98). The lowest care environment was associated with greater hospitalization among Black (odds ratio=1.34; 95% CI, 1.20-1.49) compared to White beneficiaries. Practices with the highest care environment had no racial differences in hospitalizations. There was no interaction effect between care environment and race for ambulatory care sensitive condition hospitalizations. Nurse practitioner care environment had a protective effect on these hospitalizations (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) for all beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable care environments were associated with higher hospitalization rates among Black than among White beneficiaries with coronary heart disease. Racial disparities in hospitalization rates were not detected in practices with high-quality care environments, suggesting that improving nurse practitioner care environments could reduce racial disparities in hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Etnicidade , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Medicare , Grupos Minoritários , Hospitalização , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde
15.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 25(1): 6-11, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37837997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adoption of health information technology (HIT) in nursing homes (NHs) improves quality of care. Although there is a robust body of research on HIT adoption, the closely related process of technology abandonment is not well understood. As NHs grow more reliant on HIT, problems of technology abandonment, defined as failure to scale up, spread, and sustain HIT need to be studied. Our objective is to describe HIT abandonment and its associations with organizational characteristics among a national sample of US NHs. DESIGN: Longitudinal, retrospective analysis of data from 2 sources: HIT Maturity Survey and Staging model and public data from the Care Compare database. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of NHs (n = 299) representing each US state that completed the HIT maturity survey in 2 consecutive years: year 1 (Y1) was June 2019-August 2020 and year 2 (Y2) was June 2020-August 2021. METHODS: The primary dependent variable was technology abandonment, operationalized by using total HIT maturity score, HIT maturity stage, and subscale scores within each dimension/domain. Independent variables were NH organizational characteristics including bed size, type of ownership, urbanicity, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Five-Star Overall Rating and Staffing Rating. RESULTS: Over the 2-year period, HIT abandonment occurred in 28% (n = 85) of NHs compared with 44% (n = 133) that experienced growth in HIT systems. HIT capabilities in resident care were abandoned most frequently. Using multivariable multinomial logistic regression, we found that large NHs (bed size greater than 120) were more likely to experience technology abandonment in administrative activities. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Technology abandonment can increase strain on scarce resources and may impact administrators' ability to oversee clinical operations, especially in large NHs. This study contributes to the limited understanding of technology abandonment and can serve as a building block for others working to ensure limited resources are used effectively to improve care for NH residents.


Assuntos
Medicare , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 157: 209285, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38159910

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) is growing among older adults, and older adults in rural areas face disparities in access to SUD care. Rural older adults with SUDs commonly have comorbid chronic conditions that puts them at risk for frequent acute healthcare utilization. In rural areas, primary care for patients with SUDs are increasingly provided by nurse practitioners (NPs), and quality primary care services may decrease ED visits in this population. Yet, NP-delivered primary care for rural older adults with SUDs may be limited by work environment barriers, which include lack of support, autonomy, and visibility. This study assessed the relationship between the NP work environment and ED utilization among rural older adults with SUDs. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from a large survey of NPs in six U.S. states merged with Medicare claims. The study measured the NP work environment by the four subscales of the Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire (NP-PCOCQ), which measure 1) independent practice and support, 2) NP-physician relations, 3) NP-administration, and 4) professional visibility. Multilevel logistic regression models, adjusted for practice and patient covariates, assess the relationship between the NP work environment and all-cause ED use. RESULTS: The sample included 1152 older adults with SUDs who received care at 126 rural NP primary care practices. NP independent practice and support at the practice was associated with 49 % lower odds of all-cause ED visits among older adults with SUDs. There were no relationships between the other NP-PCOCQ subscales and all-cause ED visits. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational support for NP independent practice is associated with lower odds of all-cause ED utilization among rural older adults with SUDs. Practice administrators should ensure that NPs have access to support and resources to enhance their ability to care for rural older adults with SUDs. Ultimately, these practice changes could reduce ED utilization and health disparities in this population.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medicare , Inquéritos e Questionários , Condições de Trabalho , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580231219108, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38146179

RESUMO

Nurse practitioners (NPs) represent the fastest-growing workforce of primary care clinicians in the United States. Their numbers are projected to grow in the near future. The NP workforce can help the country meet the rising demand for care services due to the aging population and increasing chronic disease burden. Yet, increased burnout among these clinicians may affect their ability to deliver high-quality, safe care. We investigated how NP burnout in primary care practices affects patient outcomes, including emergency department (ED) use and hospitalizations, among older adults with chronic conditions. In 2018-2019, we collected survey data from 1244 primary care NPs from 6 geographically diverse states on their burnout and merged the survey data with data from Medicare claims on ED use and hospitalizations among 467 466 older adults with chronic conditions. 26.3% of NPs reported burnout. Using logistic regression models, we found that with a 1-unit increase in the standardized burnout score, the odds of an ED visit increased by 2.8% (OR = 1.028; P-value = .035); Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) ED visit by 3.2% (OR = 1.032; P-value = .019); hospitalization by 3.9% (OR = 1.039; P-value = .001); and ACSC hospitalization by 6.2% (OR = 1.062; P-value = .001). Our findings indicate that if chronically ill older adults receive care in primary care practices with higher NP burnout rates they are more likely to use EDs and hospitals. Policy and practice efforts, such as improving NP working conditions, should be undertaken to reduce NP burnout in primary care practices to potentially prevent acute care use.


Assuntos
Medicare , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Hospitalização , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Doença Crônica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Esgotamento Psicológico
18.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 218: 115912, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956894

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that neutrophils play an important role in the development and progression of heart failure. Developmental endothelial locus-1 (DEL-1) is an anti-inflammatory glycoprotein that has been found to have protective effects in various cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of DEL-1 in chronic heart failure is not well understood. In a mouse model of pressure overload-induced non-ischemic cardiac failure, we found that neutrophil infiltration in the heart increased and DEL-1 levels decreased in the early stages of heart failure. DEL-1 deficiency worsened pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in mice. Mechanistically, DEL-1 deficiency promotes neutrophil infiltration and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through the regulation of P38 signaling. In vitro experiments showed that DEL-1 can inhibit P38 signaling and NETs formation in mouse neutrophils in a MAC-1-dependent manner. Depleting neutrophils, inhibiting NETs formation, and inhibiting P38 signaling all reduced the exacerbation of heart failure caused by DEL-1 deletion. Overall, our findings suggest that DEL-1 deficiency worsens pressure overload-induced heart failure by promoting neutrophil infiltration and NETs formation.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Armadilhas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos
19.
Med Care ; 61(12): 882-889, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of structure for care delivery (ie, structural capabilities) has been linked to lower quality of care and negative patient outcomes. However, little research examines the relationship between practice structural capabilities and nurse practitioner (NP) job outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between structural capabilities and primary care NP job outcomes (ie, burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave). RESEARCH DESIGN: Secondary analysis of 2018-2019 cross-sectional data. SUBJECTS: A total of 1110 NPs across 1002 primary care practices in 6 states. MEASURES: We estimated linear probability models to assess the association between structural capabilities and NP job outcomes, controlling for NP work environment, demographics, and practice features. RESULTS: The average structural capabilities score (measured on a scale of 0-1) across practices was 0.6 (higher score indicates more structural capabilities). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that a 10-percentage point increase in the structural capabilities score was associated with a 3-percentage point decrease in burnout ( P <0.001), a 2-percentage point decrease in job dissatisfaction ( P <0.001), and a 3-percentage point decrease in intent to leave ( P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Primary care NPs report lower burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave when working in practices with greater structural capabilities for care delivery. These findings suggest that efforts to improve structural capabilities not only facilitate effective care delivery and benefit patients but they also support NPs and strengthen their workforce participation. Practice leaders should further invest in structural capabilities to improve primary care provider job outcomes.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Estudos Transversais , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 17: 3073-3083, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37849783

RESUMO

Background: Increased inflammation contributes to pressure overload-induced myocardial remodeling. 17(R)-Resolvin D1 (17(R)-RvD1), a potent lipid mediator derived from docosahexaenoic acid, possesses anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties. However, the association between 17(R)-RvD1 and pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Methods: Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery was performed to establish a cardiac hypertrophy model. C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to the Sham, TAC and TAC+17(R)-RvD1 groups. 17(R)-RvD1 was injected (2 µg/kg, i.p.) before TAC surgery and once every other day after surgery for 4 weeks. The same volume of saline was injected into the mice in both Sham group and TAC group. Then, cardiac function was evaluated and heart tissues were collected for biological analysis. Results: 17(R)-RvD1 treatment attenuated TAC-induced increase in left ventricular diameter and decrease in left ventricular contractility, mitigated increased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, and downregulated the expression of hypertrophic genes. Besides, 17(R)-RvD1 attenuated myocardial fibrosis, as indicated by the decreased LV collagen volume and expression of fibrotic genes. In addition, 17(R)-RvD1 ameliorated the inflammatory response in cardiac tissue, as illustrated by the decreased infiltration of CD68+ macrophages and reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. 17(R)-RvD1 treatment significantly suppressed the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome after TAC surgery, which might be responsible for the attenuation of inflammation in cardiac tissue. Conclusion: 17(R)-RvD1 attenuated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and the possible mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. 17(R)-RvD1 may serve as a potential drug for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Inflamassomos , Camundongos , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Miócitos Cardíacos , Fibrose , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular
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