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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 207, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide; it is caused by Schistosoma, the only dioecious flukes with ZW systems. Schistosoma japonicum is endemic to Asia; the Z chromosome of S. japonicum comprises one-quarter of the entire genome. Detection of positive selection using resequencing data to understand adaptive evolution has been applied to a variety of pathogens, including S. japonicum. However, the contribution of the Z chromosome to evolution and adaptation is often neglected. METHODS: We obtained 1,077,526 high-quality SNPs on the Z chromosome in 72 S. japonicum using re-sequencing data publicly. To examine the faster Z effect, we compared the sequence divergence of S. japonicum with two closely related species, Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni. Genetic diversity was compared between the Z chromosome and autosomes in S. japonicum by calculating the nucleotide diversity (π) and Dxy values. Population structure was also assessed based on PCA and structure analysis. Besides, we employed multiple methods including Tajima's D, FST, iHS, XP-EHH, and CMS to detect positive selection signals on the Z chromosome. Further RNAi knockdown experiments were performed to investigate the potential biological functions of the candidate genes. RESULTS: Our study found that the Z chromosome of S. japonicum showed faster evolution and more pronounced genetic divergence than autosomes, although the effect may be smaller than the variation among genes. Compared with autosomes, the Z chromosome in S. japonicum had a more pronounced genetic divergence of sub-populations. Notably, we identified a set of candidate genes associated with host-parasite co-evolution. In particular, LCAT exhibited significant selection signals within the Taiwan population. Further RNA interference experiments suggested that LCAT is necessary for S. japonicum survival and propagation in the definitive host. In addition, we identified several genes related to the specificity of the intermediate host in the C-M population, including Rab6 and VCP, which are involved in adaptive immune evasion to the host. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of the Z chromosome in S. japonicum and further advances our understanding of the co-evolution of this medically important parasite and its hosts.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Schistosoma japonicum , Animais , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Evolução Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Seleção Genética , Schistosoma haematobium/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Evolução Biológica , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia
2.
Nat Aging ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724731

RESUMO

The uptake of COVID-19 booster vaccination among older adults in China is suboptimal. Here, we report the results of a parallel-group cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of promoting COVID-19 booster vaccination among grandparents (≥60 years) through a health education intervention delivered to their grandchildren (aged ≥16 years) in a Chinese cohort (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2200063240 ). The primary outcome was the uptake rate of COVID-19 booster dose among grandparents. Secondary outcomes include grandparents' attitude and intention to get a COVID-19 booster dose. A total of 202 college students were randomized 1:1 to either the intervention arm of web-based health education and 14 daily reminders (n = 188 grandparents) or control arm (n = 187 grandparents) and reported their grandparents' COVID-19 booster vaccination status at baseline and 21 days. Grandparents in the intervention arm were more likely to receive COVID-19 booster vaccination compared to control cohort (intervention, 30.6%; control, 16.9%; risk ratio = 2.00 (95% CI, 1.09 to 3.66)). Grandparents in the intervention arm also had greater attitude change (ß = 0.28 (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.52)) and intention change (ß = 0.32 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.52)) to receive a COVID-19 booster dose. Our results show that an educational intervention targeting college students increased COVID-19 booster vaccination uptake among grandparents in China.

3.
Transl Oncol ; 45: 101993, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To construct and validate the CT-based radiomics model for predicting the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) effects in osteosarcoma (OS) patients with pulmonary metastasis. METHODS: OS patients with pulmonary metastasis treated with TKIs were randomly separated into training and testing cohorts (2:1 ratio). Radiomic features were extracted from the baseline unenhanced chest CT images. The random survival forest (RSF) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to construct and evaluate radiomics signatures (R-model-derived). The univariant and multivariant Cox regression analyses were conducted to establish clinical (C-model) and combined models (RC-model). The discrimination abilities, goodness of fit and clinical benefits of the three models were assessed and validated in both training and testing cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients, 57 men and 33 women, with a mean age of 18 years and median progression-free survival (PFS) of 7.2 months, were enrolled. The R-model was developed with nine radiomic features and demonstrated significant predictive and prognostic values. In both training and testing cohorts, the time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of the R-model and RC-model exhibited obvious superiority over C-model. The calibration and decision curve analysis (DCA) curves indicated that the accuracy of the R-model was comparable to RC-model, which exhibited significantly better performance than C-model. CONCLUSIONS: The R-model showed promising potential as a predictor for TKI responses in OS patients with pulmonary metastasis. It can potentially identify pulmonary metastatic OS patients most likely to benefit from TKIs treatment and help guide optimized clinical decisions.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(19): 13391-13398, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691098

RESUMO

Inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are easy to process but need improved interface characteristics with reduced energy loss to prevent efficiency drops when increasing the active photovoltaic area. Here, we report a series of poly ferrocenyl molecules that can modulate the perovskite surface enabling the construction of small- and large-area PSCs. We found that the perovskite-ferrocenyl interaction forms a hybrid complex with enhanced surface coordination strength and activated electronic states, leading to lower interfacial nonradiative recombination and charge transport resistance losses. The resulting PSCs achieve an enhanced efficiency of up to 26.08% for small-area devices and 24.51% for large-area devices (1.0208 cm2). Moreover, the large-area PSCs maintain >92% of the initial efficiency after 2000 h of continuous operation at the maximum power point under 1-sun illumination and 65 °C.

5.
Biomater Res ; 28: 0020, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715911

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia was one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel held great potential to replace volumetric brain tissue loss following ischemic injury but with limited regenerative effect for functional restoration when implanted alone. In the present study, an engineered basic fibroblast growth factor (EBP-bFGF) was constructed, which fused a specific ECM-binding peptide (EBP peptide) with bFGF. The recombinant EBP-bFGF showed typical binding capacity with ECM without affecting the bioactivity of bFGF both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the EBP-bFGF was used for bioactive modification of ECM hydrogel to repair cerebral ischemia. The combination of EBP-bFGF and ECM hydrogels could realize the sustained release of bFGF in the ischemic brain and improve the regenerative effect of ECM, which protected the survival of neurons, enhanced angiogenesis, and decreased the permeability of blood-brain barrier, ultimately promoted the recovery of motor function. In addition, transcriptome analysis revealed neuregulin-1/AKT pathway involved in this process. Therefore, EBP-bFGF/ECM hydrogel would be a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia.

6.
J Biol Chem ; : 107345, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718864

RESUMO

Canonical oncohistones are histone H3 mutations in the N-terminal tail associated with tumors and affect gene expression by altering H3 post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the epigenetic landscape. Noncanonical oncohistone mutations occur in both tails and globular domains of all 4 core histones and alter gene expression by perturbing chromatin remodeling. However, the effects and mechanisms of noncanonical oncohistones remain largely unknown. Here we characterized 16 noncanonical H2B oncohistones in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We found that 7 of them exhibited temperature sensitivities and 11 exhibited genotoxic sensitivities. A detailed study of 2 of these onco-mutants H2BG52D and H2BP102L revealed that they were defective in homologous recombination (HR) repair with compromised histone eviction and Rad51 recruitment. Interestingly, their genotoxic sensitivities and HR defects were rescued by inactivation of the H2BK119 deubiquitination function of Ubp8 in the Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex. The levels of H2BK119 monoubiquitination (H2Bub) in the H2BG52D and H2BP102L mutants are reduced in global and local DNA break sites presumably due to enhanced recruitment of Ubp8 onto nucleosomes, and are recovered upon loss of H2B deubiquitination function of the SAGA complex. Moreover, H2BG52D and H2BP102L heterozygotes exhibit genotoxic sensitivities and reduced H2Bub in cis. We therefore conclude that H2BG52D and H2BP102L oncohistones affect HR repair and genome stability via reduction of H2Bub and propose that other noncanonical oncohistones may also affect histone PTMs to cause diseases.

7.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 189, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep loss is a common public health problem that causes hyperalgesia, especially that after surgery, which reduces the quality of life seriously. METHODS: The 48-h sleep restriction (SR) mouse model was created using restriction chambers. In vivo imaging, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were performed to detect the status of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) was measured to track mouse pain behavior. The role of infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) and endothelial cells (ECs) in mouse glycolysis and BSCB damage were analyzed using flow cytometry, Western blot, CCK-8 assay, colorimetric method and lactate administration. RESULTS: The 48-h SR made mice in sleep disruption status and caused an acute damage to the BSCB, resulting in hyperalgesia and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. In SR mice, the levels of glycolysis and glycolysis enzymes of ECs in the BSCB were found significantly decreased [CON group vs. SR group: CD31+Glut1+ cells: p < 0.001], which could cause dysfunction of ECs and this was confirmed in vitro. Increased numbers of infiltrating T cells [p < 0.0001] and Treg population [p < 0.05] were detected in the mouse spinal cord after 48-h SR. In the co-cultured system of ECs and Tregs in vitro, the competition of Tregs for glucose resulted in the glycolysis disorder of ECs [Glut1: p < 0.01, ENO1: p < 0.05, LDHα: p < 0.05; complete tubular structures formed: p < 0.0001; CCK8 assay: p < 0.001 on 24h, p < 0.0001 on 48h; glycolysis level: p < 0.0001]. An administration of sodium lactate partially rescued the function of ECs and relieved SR-induced hyperalgesia. Furthermore, the mTOR signaling pathway was excessively activated in ECs after SR in vivo and those under the inhibition of glycolysis or co-cultured with Tregs in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Affected by glycolysis disorders of ECs due to glucose competition with infiltrating Tregs through regulating the mTOR signaling pathway, hyperalgesia induced by 48-h SR is attributed to neuroinflammation and damages to the barriers, which can be relieved by lactate supplementation.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Glucose , Hiperalgesia , Privação do Sono , Medula Espinal , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Animais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Camundongos , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Masculino , Privação do Sono/complicações , Glicólise/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1383477, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721338

RESUMO

Introduction: Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. is a perennial herb in the Compositae family, often employed in traditional Chinese medicine due to its medicinal value. The planting of C. morifolium faces the challenges of continuous cropping, and intercropping is able to somewhat overcome the obstacles of continuous cropping. Methods: In our study, we designed two different C. morifolium-maize intercropping patterns, including C. morifolium-maize narrow-wide row planting (IS) and C. morifolium-maize middle row planting (IM). Compared with monoculture, the agronomic traits, yield, active ingredients, soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and rhizosphere soil microbial communities of C. morifolium and maize were measured under the two C. morifolium-maize intercropping patterns. Results: The findings indicated that (1) Intercropping elevated the agronomic traits, yield, and active ingredients of C. morifolium, especially in C. morifolium-maize narrow-wide row planting pattern, which indicating that interspecific distance played an important role in intercropping system; (2) Intercropping enhanced soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities of C. morifolium and maize; (3) Intercropping altered rhizosphere soil microbial communities of C. morifolium and maize, making microbial interrelationships more complex. (4) Intercropping could recruit a large number of beneficial microorganisms enrich in the soil, including Bacillus, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia, Chaetomium, and Ceratorhiza, which may increase the content of AN, NN, AvK, ExCa, AvCu, AvZn and other nutrients in soil and promoted the growth and quality of C. morifolium. Discussion: In summary, intercropping with maize could promote the accumulation of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, thus improving the overall growing environment, and finally realizing the growth and improvement of C. morifolium.

9.
ACS Nano ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721835

RESUMO

For most frequent respiratory viruses, there is an urgent need for a universal influenza vaccine to provide cross-protection against intra- and heterosubtypes. We previously developed an Escherichia coli fusion protein expressed extracellular domain of matrix 2 (M2e) and nucleoprotein, named NM2e, and then combined it with an aluminum adjuvant, forming a universal vaccine. Although NM2e has demonstrated a protective effect against the influenza virus in mice to some extent, further improvement is still needed for the induction of immune responses ensuring adequate cross-protection against influenza. Herein, we fabricated a cationic solid lipid nanoadjuvant using poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB) and loaded NM2e to generate an NM2e@DDAB/PLA nanovaccine (Nv). In vitro experiments suggested that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells incubated with Nv exhibited ∼4-fold higher antigen (Ag) uptake than NM2e at 16 h along with efficient activation by NM2e@DDAB/PLA Nv. In vivo experiments revealed that Ag of the Nv group stayed in lymph nodes (LNs) for more than 14 days after initial immunization and DCs in LNs were evidently activated and matured. Furthermore, the Nv primed T and B cells for robust humoral and cellular immune responses after immunization. It also induced a ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 higher than that of NM2e to a considerable extent. Moreover, NM2e@DDAB/PLA Nv quickly restored body weight and improved survival of homo- and heterosubtype influenza challenged mice, and the cross-protection efficiency was over 90%. Collectively, our study demonstrated that NM2e@DDAB/PLA Nv could offer notable protection against homo- and heterosubtype influenza virus challenges, offering the potential for the development of a universal influenza vaccine.

10.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 51(1)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome has been reported in patients with COVID-19, although minimal data are available. This investigation assessed the incidence and impact of takotsubo syndrome on patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes to identify patients with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 with or without takotsubo syndrome in the National Inpatient Sample 2020 database. Outcomes between groups were compared after propensity score matching for patient and hospital demographics and comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 211,448 patients with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 were identified. Of these, 171 (0.08%) had a secondary diagnosis of takotsubo syndrome. Before matching, patients with COVID-19 and takotsubo syndrome, compared with patients without takotsubo syndrome, were older (68.95 vs 64.26 years; P < .001); more likely to be female (64.3% vs 47.2%; P < .001); and more likely to have anxiety (24.6% vs 12.8%; P < .001), depression (17.5% vs 11.4%; P = .02), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (24.6% vs 14.7%; P < .001). The takotsubo syndrome group had worse outcomes than the non-takotsubo syndrome group for death (30.4% vs 11.1%), cardiac arrest (7.6% vs 2.1%), cardiogenic shock (12.9% vs 0.4%), length of hospital stay (10.7 vs 7.5 days), and total charges ($152,685 vs $78,468) (all P < .001). After matching and compared with the non-takotsubo syndrome group (n = 508), the takotsubo syndrome group (n = 170) had a higher incidence of inpatient mortality (30% vs 14%; P < .001), cardiac arrest (7.6% vs 2.8%; P = .009), and cardiogenic shock (12.4% vs 0.4%; P < .001); a longer hospital stay (10.7 vs 7.6 days; P < .001); and higher total charges ($152,943 vs $79,523; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Takotsubo syndrome is a rare but severe in-hospital complication in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Comorbidade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Mater Horiz ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716898

RESUMO

Correction for 'A differential-targeting core-shell microneedle patch with coordinated and prolonged release of mangiferin and MSC-derived exosomes for scarless skin regeneration' by Shang Lyu et al., Mater. Horiz., 2024, https://doi.org/10.1039/D3MH01910A.

12.
J Environ Manage ; 359: 121041, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703651

RESUMO

Bisphenol analogues (BPs) have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their ubiquitousness and potential endocrine disrupting properties in environments. However, little information is available on their spatiotemporal distribution, source apportionment and ecological risk in river sediments, especially the case in river basins with a high population density and those typical regions with agricultural-urban gradient, where land use patterns and intensity of human activity are varying. In this study, field investigations of BPs in the sediment of the entire Qinhuai River Basin, a typical agricultural-suburban agricultural-urban gradient area, were conducted before and after the flood period. Thirty-two sites were sampled for six types of BPs, resulted in no significant difference in the concentration of ΣBPs between the two periods, with ΣBPs ranging from 3.92 to 151 ng/g and 2.16-59.0 ng/g, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA) was the main contributor. Whereas a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) suggested that the composition structure of BPs had been influenced by water periods. The land use patterns had an impact on the distribution of ΣBPs in river sediments, which was more significant in after the flood period, with ΣBPs in urban rivers was 1.85 times, 3.44 times, and 3.08 times higher than the suburban rivers, agricultural rivers, and reservoirs, respectively. Yet land use types did not significantly alter the composition structure of BPs. The correlation analysis between BPs and the physicochemical properties of sediments showed a significant positive correlation between BPA and total organic carbon (TOC). The positive matrix factorization model (PMF) suggested that BPs in sediments of the basin might be influenced by industrial coatings, textiles, electronics and biopharmaceuticals, as well as urban wastewater or solid waste generated from daily life. The ecological risk assessment posed by BPA, based on the risk quotient, indicated that the ecological risk of BPA in sediments was low for three indicator benthic organisms: crustaceans, worms, and mollusks. However, the risk of BPA in river sediments varied among different land use patterns, with the risk ranking as follows: reservoirs < agricultural rivers < suburban rivers < urban rivers.

13.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 3): 119044, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697599

RESUMO

Rising temperatures can increase the risk of mental disorders. As climate change intensifies, the future disease burden due to mental disorders may be underestimated. Using data on the number of daily emergency department visits for mental disorders at 30 hospitals in Beijing, China during 2016-2018, the relationship between daily mean temperature and such visits was assessed using a quasi-Poisson model integrated with a distributed lag nonlinear model. Emergency department visits for mental disorders attributed to temperature changes were projected using 26 general circulation models under four climate change scenarios. Stratification analyses were then conducted by disease subtype, sex, and age. The results indicate that the temperature-related health burden from mental disorders was projected to increase consistently throughout the 21st century, mainly driven by high temperatures. The future temperature-related health burden was higher for patients with mental disorders due to the use of psychoactive substances and schizophrenia as well as for women and those aged <65 years. These findings enhance our knowledge of how climate change could affect mental well-being and can be used to advance and refine targeted approaches to mitigating and adapting to climate change with a view on addressing mental disorders.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 175: 116652, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692061

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is utilized as a potential curative treatment for various hematologic malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) post-aHSCT is a severe complication that significantly impacts patients' quality of life and overall survival, becoming a major cause of non-relapse mortality. In recent years, the association between epigenetics and GVHD has garnered increasing attention. Epigenetics focuses on studying mechanisms that affect gene expression without altering DNA sequences, primarily including DNA methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulation, and RNA modifications. This review summarizes the role of epigenetic regulation in the pathogenesis of GVHD, with a focus on DNA methylation, histone modifications, ncRNA, RNA modifications and their involvement and applications in the occurrence and development of GVHD. It also highlights advancements in relevant diagnostic markers and drugs, aiming to provide new insights for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of GVHD.

15.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695653

RESUMO

Vicinal oxygen chelate (VOC) proteins are members of an enzyme superfamily with dioxygenase or non-dioxygenase activities. However, the biological functions of VOC proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we show that a VOC in Nicotiana benthamiana (NbVOC1) facilitates viral infection. NbVOC1 was significantly induced by infection by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). Transient overexpression of NbVOC1 or its homolog from Beta vulgaris (BvVOC1) enhanced BNYVV infection in N. benthamiana, which required the nuclear localization of VOC1. Consistent with this result, overexpressing NbVOC1 facilitated BNYVV infection, whereas, knockdown and knockout of NbVOC1 inhibited BNYVV infection in transgenic N. benthamiana plants. NbVOC1 interacts with the basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP17/28, which enhances their self-interaction and DNA binding to the promoters of unfolded protein response (UPR)-related genes. We propose that bZIP17/28 directly binds to the NbVOC1 promoter and induces its transcription, forming a positive feedback loop to induce the UPR and facilitating BNYVV infection. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NbVOC1 positively regulates the UPR that enhances viral infection in plants.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1364948, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694910

RESUMO

Morus alba L., a common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with a centuries-old medicinal history, owned various medicinal parts like Mori folium, Mori ramulus, Mori cortex and Mori fructus. Different medical parts exhibit distinct modern pharmacological effects. Mori folium exhibited analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic action and lipid-regulation effects. Mori ramulus owned anti-bacterial, anti-asthmatic and diuretic activities. Mori cortex showed counteraction action of pain, inflammatory, bacterial, and platelet aggregation. Mori fructus could decompose fat, lower blood lipids and prevent vascular sclerosis. The main chemical components in Morus alba L. covered flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and amino acids. This article comprehensively analyzed the recent literature related to chemical components and pharmacological actions of M. alba L., summarizing 198 of ingredients and described the modern activities of different extracts and the bioactive constituents in the four parts from M. alba L. These results fully demonstrated the medicinal value of M. alba L., provided valuable references for further comprehensive development, and layed the foundation for the utilization of M. alba L.

17.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 17: 1007-1026, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737944

RESUMO

Introduction: Skin disease is one of the most common diseases and can affect people of all ages and races. However, the diagnosis of skin diseases via observation is a highly challenging task for both doctors and patients, and would benefit from the use of an intelligent system. Building a large benchmark with professional dermatologists is resource-intensive, and we believe that few-shot learning (FSL) methods would be helpful in solving the problem of annotated data scarcity. In this paper, we propose CDD-Net (Context Feature Fusion and Dual Attention Dermatology Net), a plug-in module for FSL clinical skin disease classification. Methods: Current FSL methods used in skin disease classification are limited to nonuniversal approaches and few disease classes. Our CDD-Net has a flexible structure, including a context feature-fusion module and dual-attention module to extract discriminating texture feature and emphasize contributive regions and channels. The context feature-fusion module localizes discriminatory texture details of skin lesions by integrating features from different layers, while the dual-attention module highlights discriminative regions via channel-wise and pixel-wise depictions based on weight vectors and restrains the contributions of irrelevant areas. We also present Derm104, a new clinical skin disease data benchmark that has significant coverage of rare diseases and reliable annotation between primary species and subspecies for better validation of our approach. Results: Our experiments validated the versatility of CDD-Net for different FSL methods and achieved an improvement in accuracy of up to 9.14 percentage points compared with the vanilla network, which can be considered state of the art. The ablation study also showed that the dual-attention module and context feature-fusion module worked efficiently in CDD-Net.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) increased private non-employer health insurance options, expanded Medicaid eligibility, and provided pre-existing health conditions protections. We evaluated insurance coverage among long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer pre/post-ACA implementation. METHODS: Using the multicenter Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we included participants from two cross-sectional surveys: pre-ACA (2007-2009; survivors: N = 7,505; siblings: N = 2,175) and post-ACA (2017-2019; survivors: N = 4,030; siblings: N = 987). A subset completed both surveys (1,840 survivors; 646 siblings). Multivariable regression models compared post-ACA insurance coverage and type (private/public/uninsured) between survivors and siblings and identified associated demographic and clinical factors. Multinomial models compared gaining and losing insurance vs staying the same among survivors and siblings who participated in both surveys. RESULTS: The proportion with insurance was higher post-ACA (survivors pre-ACA 89.1% to post-ACA 92.0% [+2.9%]; siblings pre-ACA 90.9% to post-ACA 95.3% [+4.4%]). Post-ACA insurance coverage was greater among those age 18-25 (survivors: 15.8% vs < 2.3% ages 26+; siblings +17.8% vs < 4.2% ages 26+). Survivors were more likely to have public insurance than siblings post-ACA (18.4% vs 6.9%; odds ratios [OR]=1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.6). Survivors with severe chronic conditions (OR = 4.7, 95%CI 3.0-7.3) and those living in Medicaid expansion states (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.7-3.4) had increased odds of public insurance coverage post-ACA. Among the subset completing both surveys, low/mid income survivors (<$60,000) experienced both insurance losses and gains in reference to highest household income survivors (≥$100,000), relative to odds of keeping the same insurance status. CONCLUSIONS: Post-ACA, more childhood cancer survivors and siblings had health insurance, although disparities remain in coverage.

19.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 452, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704456

RESUMO

Echeneis naucrates, as known as live sharksucker, is famous for the behavior of attaching to hosts using a highly modified dorsal fin with oval-shaped sucking disc. Here, we generated an improved high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly of E. naucrates using Illumina short reads, PacBio long reads and Hi-C data. Our assembled genome spans 572.85 Mb with a contig N50 of 23.19 Mb and is positioned to 24 pseudo-chromosomes. Additionally, at least one telomere was identified for 23 out of 24 chromosomes. Furthermore, we identified a total of 22,161 protein-coding genes, of which 21,402 genes (96.9%) were annotated successfully with functions. The combination of ab initio predictions and Repbase-based searches revealed that 15.57% of the assembled E. naucrates genome was identified as repetitive sequences. The completeness of the genome assembly and the gene annotation were estimated to be 97.5% and 95.4% with BUSCO analyses. This work enhances the utility of the live sharksucker genome and provides a valuable groundwork for the future study of genomics, biology and adaptive evolution in this species.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Peixes , Genoma , Animais , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Peixes/genética
20.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731560

RESUMO

2, 6-diisopropylaniline (2, 6-DIPA) is a crucial non-intentionally organic additive that allows the assessment of the production processes, formulation qualities, and performance variations in biodegradable mulching film. Moreover, its release into the environment may have certain effects on human health. Hence, this study developed simultaneous heating hydrolysis-extraction and amine switchable hydrophilic solvent vortex-assisted homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the 2, 6-DIPA additive and its corresponding isocyanates in poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) biodegradable agricultural mulching films. The heating hydrolysis-extraction conditions and factors influencing the efficiency of homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction, such as the type and volume of amine, homogeneous-phase and phase separation transition pH, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The optimum heating hydrolysis-extraction conditions were found to be a H2SO4 concentration of 2.5 M, heating temperature of 87.8 °C, and hydrolysis-extraction time of 3.0 h. As a switchable hydrophilic solvent, dipropylamine does not require a dispersant. Vortex assistance is helpful to speed up the extraction. Under the optimum experimental conditions, this method exhibits a better linearity (0.0144~7.200 µg mL-1 with R = 0.9986), low limit of detection and quantification (0.0033 µg g-1 and 0.0103 µg g-1), high extraction recovery (92.5~105.4%), desirable intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation less than 4.1% and 4.7%), and high enrichment factor (90.9). Finally, this method was successfully applied to detect the content of the additive 2, 6-DIPA in PBAT biodegradable agricultural mulching films, thus facilitating production process monitoring or safety assessments.


Assuntos
Aminas , Compostos de Anilina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Solventes , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Solventes/química , Aminas/química , Aminas/análise , Compostos de Anilina/química , Hidrólise , Poliésteres/química
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