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1.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(1): 42-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950788

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the value of a radiomics approach based on MRI texture analysis (TA) in identifying intraductal carcinoma of the prostate gland (IDCP). Methods: MRI images of 56 patients with pathological proven prostate cancer were analyzed retrospectively, including 31 patients with pure prostate adenocarcinoma and 25 patients with IDCP component in the prostate adenocarcinoma lesions. After imaging features of lesions were analyzed, then enhanced arterial and venous phase images were imported into Omni-Kinetics software for the extraction the TA features of region of interests' lesion according to the T2-weighted imaging. In order to set up a regression prediction model which based on texture parameters and morphological features. Furthermore, the comparison of diagnostic accuracy of each TA regression models were assessed by operating characteristic curves (ROC). Results: Among the imaging features of peripheral lesions, the incidence of surgical capsule invasion, prostatic capsule involvement, and seminal vesicle invasion in patients with IDCP was higher than that in patients with adenocarcinoma alone ( P<0.05). Among the imaging features of transitional zone lesions, patients with adenocarcinoma containing IDCP had a higher incience of imaging features as benign prostatic hyperplasia, extracapsular invasion of the prostate, seminal vesicles invasion, and vascular nerve bundles than that in pure adenocarcinoma group ( P<0.05). In order to differential diagnosis of simple adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma containing IDCP, 4 arterial phase texture features were used to build the regression model in the peripheral zone group, and the area under the curve ( AUC) of the TA model and combined model with or without seminal vesicles invasion were 0.890 and 0.938, respectively. In the transitional zone group, 2 arterial phase texture features and 2 venous phase features were used in TA regression model, and the AUC of texture model and the combined model with or without vascular nerve bundles were 0.844 and 0.901, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of adenocarcinoma with IDCP is higher in high-grade invasive prostate cancer. It is wonderful that when compared with T2WI, enhanced sequential texture analysis is more valuable when using the radiomics approach based on MRI texture analysis in identifying IDCP in prostate cancer.

2.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963465

RESUMO

Hf(OTf)4 was identified as a highly potent catalyst (0.1-0.5 mol%) for three-component Mannich reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hf(OTf)4-catalyzed Mannich reaction exhibited excellent regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity when alkyl ketones were employed as substrates. 1H NMR tracing of the H/D exchange reaction of ketones in MeOH-d4 indicated that Hf(OTf)4 could significantly promote the keto-enol tautomerization, thereby contributing to the acceleration of reaction rate.

3.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 70(2): 180-192, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913781

RESUMO

To solve the disposal problem of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash sludge (MSWI-BAS), using it as the main raw material to prepare lightweight aggregates (LWA) for resource utilization. Sintering is an important process to achieve the desired microstructure and material properties. This paper investigates the characteristics of LWA affected by single factor of sintering mechanism (sintering temperature, heating rate and soaking time). Results show that sintering temperature increased from 1130°C to 1160°C caused high-density microstructure materials gradually formed in LWA, leading to particle strength increased from 0.1 MPa to 3.64 MPa, particle density showed an overall upward trend, reaching a maximum of 916 Kg/m3 at 1160°C, and 1 h water absorption reduced from 68% to 25%. The heating rate of 15 K/min was beneficial to the formation of dense phase structure which could increase the particle strength, and the water absorption rate reached the lowest at this time, while the particle density was less affected by heating rate. When soaking time extended from 5 min to 20 min, particle strength and compressive density were gradually increased, and 1 h water absorption showed an overall downward trend, indicating that a longer soaking time was not conducive to the retention of pores. This study demonstrates that the utilization of MSWI-BAS to make high-performance LWA is feasible, along with the preferable environmental and economic benefits.Implications: MSWI-BAS were selected to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA), so that the sludge disposal problem is reduced. The effects of sintering temperature, heating rate and soaking time on the characteristics of LWA were investigated. Compact glass structures are formed at 1150°C and 1160°C which greatly improve the strength. The heating rate has little influence on the physical properties of LWA products. The particle density of LWA increases after the sintering soaking time reaches 15 minutes.

4.
Int J Med Robot ; : e2076, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma is considered one of the most complicated abdominal operations. We report our initial experience with robotic radical resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: Between March 2017 and February 2019, the perioperative outcomes of 48 patients were analysed. In addition, there were two techniques for hepaticojejunostomy in the robotic approach. Comparison of the conventional and novel methods for hepaticojejunostomy was also performed to assess the efficacy of the technique. RESULTS: The operative duration and intraoperative blood loss volume was 276 minutes and 150 mL, respectively. The overall morbidity was 58.3% and the major morbidity was 10.4%. The overall mortality was 0%. No significant differences in the perioperative outcomes of hepaticojejunostomy were found between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Robotic resection is a potential alternative to open surgery for appropriately selected patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Further studies are required to detect the long-term outcomes of this procedure.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 608, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953461

RESUMO

Multiple kinases converge on the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to enhance the expression of proteins essential for long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is one of these kinases, although its role is poorly understood. The present study exploited the technical advantages of the Aplysia sensorimotor culture system to examine the role of RSK in long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) and long-term enhancement of neuronal excitability (LTEE), two correlates of long-term memory (LTM). Inhibition of RSK expression or RSK activity both significantly reduced CREB1 phosphorylation, LTF, and LTEE, suggesting RSK is required for learning-related synaptic plasticity and enhancement in neuronal excitability. In addition, knock down of RSK by RNAi in Aplysia sensory neurons impairs LTF, suggesting that this may be a useful single-cell system to study aspects of defective synaptic plasticity in Coffin-Lowry Syndrome (CLS), a cognitive disorder that is caused by mutations in rsk2 and associated with deficits in learning and memory. We found that the impairments in LTF and LTEE can be rescued by a computationally designed spaced training protocol, which was previously demonstrated to augment normal LTF and LTM.

6.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902446

RESUMO

Wireless capsule endoscopy has been used for the clinical examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for two decades. However, most commercially available devices only utilise optical imaging to examine the GI wall surface. Using this sensing modality, pathology within the GI wall cannot be detected. Micro-ultrasound (µUS) using high-frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound can provide a means of transmural or cross-sectional image of the GI tract. Depth of imaging is approximately 10 mm with a resolution of between 40-120 µm that is sufficient to differentiate between subsurface histologic layers of the various regions of the GI tract. Ultrasound capsule endoscopy (USCE) uses a capsule equipped with µUS transducers that are capable of imaging below the GI wall surface, offering thereby a complementary sensing technique to optical imaging capsule endoscopy. In this work, a USCE device integrated with a ∼30 MHz ultrasonic transducer was developed to capture a full 360° image of the lumen. The performance of the device was initially evaluated using a wire phantom, indicating an axial resolution of 69.0 µm and lateral resolution of 262.5 µm. Later, in vivo imaging performance was characterised in the oesophagus and small intestine of anaesthetized pigs. The reconstructed images demonstrate clear layer differentiation of the lumen wall. The tissue thicknesses measured from the B-scan images show good agreement with ex vivo images from the literature. The high-resolution ultrasound images in the in vivo porcine model achieved with this device is an encouraging preliminary step in the translation of these devices toward future clinical use.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102602, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports that the immune infiltration of tumours is associated with prognosis. Here, we sought to assess the relevance of the cellular composition of the immune infiltrate to survival after platinum-based chemotherapy amongst patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer and evaluate these effects by molecular subtype. METHODS: We searched publicly available databases and identified 13 studies with more than 2000 patients. We estimated the proportions of 22 immune cell subsets by using a computational approach (CIBERSORT). Then, we investigated the associations between each immune cell subset and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), with cellular proportions modelled as quartiles. FINDINGS: A high fraction of M1 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-0.99] and M0 (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) macrophages emerged as the most closely associated with favourable OS. Neutrophils were associated with poor OS (HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13) and PFS (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.02-1.13). Amongst the immunoreactive tumours, the M0 macrophages and the CD8+ T cells were associated with improved OS, whereas the M2 macrophages conferred worse OS. Interestingly, PD-1 was associated with good OS (HR=0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-1.00) and PFS (HR=0.89, 95% CI = 0.79-1.01) in this subtype. Four subgroups of tumours with distinct survival patterns were identified using immune cell proportions with unsupervised clustering. INTERPRETATION: Further investigations of the quantitative cellular immune infiltrations in tumours may contribute to therapeutic advances.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859475

RESUMO

Due to the inconvenience of application, risk of extra damage to fragile soft tissues, and the high incidence of late-stage complications, significant research endeavors have been focused on developing safe and effective bioadhesives to replace or assist the traditional suture techniques for wound closure. Here, we describe a fast and high strength bioadhesive based on polysaccharides and peptide dendrimers (OCMC/G3KP) with inherent hemostatic ability and antibacterial properties. Compared with the commercial bioadhesive Coseal, the OCMC/G3KP hydrogel shows a remarkable 5-fold increase in adhesion strength. The in vivo studies further confirm the superior wound healing performance of the OCMC/G3KP hydrogel in contrast with Coseal and conventional sutures. The OCMC/G3KP hydrogels are efficient and biocompatible bioadhesives with precise controllability that could be flexibly modulated to meet diverse clinical demands.

9.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(1): 33-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880483

RESUMO

Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a major proinflammatory cytokine that has been posited to be involved in the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Several studies have been carried out that explored the association between the TNF-α -308A/G polymorphism and CP; however, conflicting results have emerged. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to provide a more precise assessment of the relationship between the TNF-α -308A/G polymorphism and CP risk. Methods: Case-control studies were identified using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure through January 2019 from which seven were identified that met all inclusion criteria. Results: This meta-analysis included 695 CP cases and 742 controls. A positive association was found between the A allele and the risk of CP using the additive model (OR [odds ratio] = 1.83, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.08-3.10). We also found, after excluding the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium-violating studies, that the AA genotype was significantly associated with CP in both the additive and recessive models (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.27-4.07; OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.26-3.81). Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicates that the A allele of the TNF-α -308A/G polymorphism increases the risk of CP.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 1324, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798446

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharides are pro-inflammation mediators that can induce inflammation in the serum, hippocampus, and cortex of animals. And lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory state resulted in significant depression-like behaviors, including reduced locomotor activity in the open field test, reduced saccharin preference, added immobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test, decreased comb time in the splash test, and increased latency to food in the novelty suppressed feeding test time, and reduced the levels of neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins, and decreased Nissl bodies. Treatment with Xiaoyao Pills ameliorated the depression-like behavior, decreased the levels of inflammatory indicators, increased those of neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins, and restored Nissl bodies. Our study suggests that lipopolysaccharides induce inflammation and nerve injury, thereby leading to depression. Xiaoyao Pills could be considered a potential therapeutic candidate for inflammation-induced depression.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Registry studies in high-income countries have defined contemporary management of heart failure (HF), but few such data exist in the large aging population of China. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of the Heart Failure Registry of Patient Outcomes (HERO) study, undertaken to determine evidence-practice gaps in the management of HF in a broad and representative population of China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HERO study is a prospective, longitudinal, seasonally-rotating, multicentre registry study of patients hospitalized with acute HF who are followed up over 12 months. Patients were recruited on the basis of primary admission clinical diagnosis of acute HF at 73 hospitals in Henan, the largest and most socio-economically diverse province in China, from November 2017 to November 2018; follow-up is ongoing. For each patient, data obtained through interview and medial record review by independent clinical research staff include: socio-demographics, clinical features, diagnostic investigations, and treatment, with a subset of patients providing blood samples for future biomarker investigation. Surviving patients are scheduled to be followed up by telephone at 2 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months post-admission, or until death or study withdrawal. A total of 5620 patients (mean age 72 ± 12 years; 50% female) with acute HF were recruited from 8 provincial-, 22 municipal-, and 43 county-level hospitals. Patients had co-morbid hypertensive (48%), coronary (29%), or metabolic (20%) diseases. Among 3147 patients who had echocardiography, 54%, 20% and 25% of patients had ejection fraction of ≥50%, 40-50%, and < 40%, respectively. In-hospital or 3-day post-discharge mortality was 3.2% (182/5620). Death or readmission rate from the 4th day post-discharge to first follow-up (median 32 days) was 22.4% (977/4368). CONCLUSIONS: The HERO study provides a unique opportunity to profile evidence-practice gaps across a broad spectrum of patients with acute HF in China.

12.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score is a nutritional indicator that serves as a prognostic factor for many malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of pre-treatment CONUT scores in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: We evaluated newly diagnosed patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who were treated at the Nantong Tumor Hospital, between January 2013 and April 2016. Pre-treatment CONUT scores were calculated using serum albumin levels, total lymphocyte counts, and cholesterol levels. The optimal CONUT score cut-off was determined via receiver operating characteristic curve and Youden's index. The difference in survival rates between the high-CONUT score group and the low-CONUT score group was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify prognostic factors influencing survival in these patients. RESULTS: In total, 206 patients were included. The optimal cut-off value for the CONUT score was 3. The high-CONUT score group (score ≥3) had higher International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages, medium-large amounts of ascitic fluid, higher CA125 levels, and more chemoresistance than those with a low-CONUT score (score <3). The low-CONUT score group had longer median overall survival (64.8 vs 32.3 months, respectively; p<0.001) and longer median progression-free survival (32.3 vs 18.8 months, respectively; p=0.002) than those in the high-CONUT score group. Multivariate analysis showed that the CONUT score was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The CONUT score predicts the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer and is thus helpful for individualizing treatment and improving survival in these patients.

13.
Exp Physiol ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808213

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The concentrations of ß1 adrenergic receptor autoantibody and M2 muscarinic receptor autoantibody in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients as well as the relationship between the cardiac autoantibodies and clinical manifestations of HCM are rarely reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We found the concentrations of the two autoantibodies in HCM patients were significantly higher than normal controls' levels. Further, we also found that the concentrations of the two autoantibodies could reflect myocardial injury and diastolic dysfunction in HCM patients to some extent and might be involved in the occurrence of arrhythmia. These findings may be valuable to explore the mechanisms of occurrence and progression of HCM. ABSTRACT: Objective Increasing attention is given to the role of immunological mechanisms in the development of heart failure. The purpose of the study was to investigate the concentration of serum ß1 adrenergic receptor autoantibody (ß1-AAb) and M2 muscarinic receptor autoantibody (M2-AAb) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and the relationship between ß1-AAb, M2-AAb and clinical indexes. Methods One hundred and thirty four patients with HCM were consecutively recruited into the HCM group. Forty healthy subjects were assigned as the normal controls (NC). Serum samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ß1-AAb and M2-AAb by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical data of HCM patients were collected. Results The concentrations of serum ß1-AAb and M2-AAb of HCM patients were significantly higher than NC levels. In HCM patients, those with left atrial diameter≥50 mm or moderate-severe mitral regurgitation had significantly higher concentrations of the two autoantibodies. Patients with history of syncope had higher concentrations of ß1-AAb. Female patients, patients with family history of sudden cardiac death or atrial fibrillation (Af) had higher concentrations of M2-AAb. Maximum wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness and resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient (LVOTG) were positively correlated with logß1-AAb or logM2-AAb in HCM patients. Conclusions The concentrations of serum ß1-AAb and M2-AAb of HCM patients were significantly higher than NC levels. Being female, syncope, family history of sudden death, Af, left atrial diameter ≥50 mm, moderate- severe mitral regurgitation, maximum wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness and resting LVOTG may affect concentrations of the two autoantibodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Gene ; : 144270, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809839

RESUMO

Gene oct4 (also called oct3/4 or pou5f1) encodes an octamer-binding transcription factor and is best known for its pluripotency-specific expression and pluripotency-maintaining role in early embryos and embryonic stem cells of mouse and human. Its fish paralog oct4 (also called pou2 or pou5f3) plays divergent roles in embryos and stem cells development. Here the expression and function of the medaka oct4 (Oloct4) during gastrulation and organogenesis were analysed. Oloct4 RNA was abundant in pluripotent cells and differentiated extraembryonic cells of blastula embryos. It was also detectable in primordial germ cells, brain, eye and tail bud at advanced stages. Importantly, oct4 depletion at high dosages severely affected gastrulation and axis formation. Surprisingly, Oloct4 depletion at low dosages also led to embryos that either had defective brain, eye and/or blood vessels or completely lacked them. Oloct4 depletion in transgenic embryos caused the loss of rx2-positive retinal stem cells in the developing eye. Therefore, Oloct4 is essential for gastrulation, central nervous system development as well as angiogenesis in medaka besides its role in pluripotency maintenance. These results together with previous studies suggest that Oloct4 play pleiotropic roles and represent the ancestral prototype of vertebrate oct4 and pou2 genes.

15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(24)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817067

RESUMO

With the rapid development of low-power consumption wireless sensors and wearable electronics, harvesting energy from human motion to enable self-powered sensing is becoming desirable. Herein, a pair of smart insoles integrated with piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanogenerators (NGs) are fabricated to simultaneously harvest energy from human motion and monitor human gait signals. Multi-target magnetron sputtering technology is applied to form the aluminum electrode layers on the surface of the PVDF film and the self-powered insoles are fabricated through advanced 3D seamless flat-bed knitting technology. Output responses of the NGs are measured at different motion speeds and a maximum value of 41 V is obtained, corresponding to an output power of 168.1 µW. By connecting one NG with an external circuit, the influence of external resistance, capacitor, and motion speed on the charging characteristics of the system is systematically investigated. To demonstrate the potential of the smart insoles for monitoring human gait signals, two subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill at different speeds or with a limp. The results show that one can clearly distinguish walking with a limp from regular slow, normal, and fast walking states by using multiscale entropy analysis of the stride intervals.

16.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-16, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833411

RESUMO

Chrysin amino acid derivatives were synthesized to evaluate for their antiproliferative activities. Among them, N-(7-((5-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)valeryl)-L-leucine (8c) displayed the most remarkable inhibitory activities against MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 16.6 µM. Preliminary mechanistic studies showed that 8c could inhibit the colony formation and migration of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that 8c mediated cell apoptosis and the prolongation of cell cycle progression in G1/S-phase against MCF-7 cells. Besides, 8c displayed the moderate inhibition against EGFR. Western blot assay suggested that 8c significantly inhibited EGFR phosphorylation. Molecular docking showed that 8c can bind the EGFR kinase well.

17.
Toxicol Lett ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matters (PMs) can lead to an acute exacerbation of allergic airway diseases, increasing the severity of symptoms and mortality. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PMs on acute exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation and seek potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: Non-allergic control and ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic wide-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor 2 knockout (Tlr2-/- ) mice were exposed to 100 µg of PM (diameter 5.85 µm) or saline by the oropharyngeal instillation. The responses were examined three days after exposure. In the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, Tlr2 was knocked down by small-interfering RNA or the NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 was used, and then the cells were stimulated with PMs for 12 h before comparison of the inflammatory responses. RESULTS: PM exposure led to increased inflammatory cell recruitment and airway intensity of PAS + staining in OVA-allergic WT mice, accompanied with an accumulation of inflammatory cells and elevated inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-18, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, the protein levels of TLR2 and the NLRP3 inflammasome were elevated concomitantly with the airway inflammation post-OVA/PMs challenge. Tlr2 deficiency effectively inhibited the airway inflammation, including pulmonary inflammatory cell recruitment, mucus secretion, serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and BALF inflammatory cytokine production. Additionally, the P-induced NLRP3 activation in the RAW 264.7 cell line was diminished by the knockdown of Tlr2 or JSH-23 treatment in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that PMs exacerbate the allergic airway inflammation mediated by the TLR2/ NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB seems to be a possible treatment.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the microstructure of the lacrimal canaliculus and the characteristics of lacrimal canalicular diseases by 80-MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). METHODS: This study included 33 participants: 20 normal subjects (40 eyes), 2 patients with chronic lacrimal canaliculitis (4 eyes), 10 patients with chronic dacryocystitis (16 eyes), and 1 patient with lacrimal punctum atresia (2 eyes). All participants underwent 80-MHz UBM; disease-specific features were noted. RESULTS: On 80-MHz UBM of the lacrimal canaliculi (vertical section) in normal subjects, low echo of the lacrimal canalicular lumen and high echo of the lacrimal canalicular wall were observed. The uniform low echo near the wall was the mucosal epithelium. The outermost layer of medium-to-high echo was the subepithelial elastic fibrous layer. In the horizontal section, the lumen was continuous. Two linear high echoes parallel to the canalicular wall could be observed at the center of the lacrimal canaliculus, which were sometimes attached and sometimes separated. When separated, the center of the lacrimal canaliculus was a low echo area (lumen). Lacrimal canaliculitis (vertical section) showed obvious ectasia of the lacrimal canalicular lumen, with a high echo mass shadow, which might have been calculi, and uneven thickness of the mucosal epithelium with a slightly high echo shadow. In the horizontal section, the lumen varied in size with clear boundaries of medium and high echoes. The central linear high echoes of the lumen were absent, and the echoes of the mucosal epithelium were discontinuous. In chronic dacryocystitis, the lacrimal canalicular lumen was extensively enlarged, with continuous echoes and uniform thickness of the mucosal epithelium and homogeneous patches of slightly higher echoes. Lacrimal punctum atresia indicated that the lacrimal canaliculus existed in both eyes and its structure was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The 80-MHz UBM is a new non-invasive technique that can be used for clear visualization of the fine structure of the lacrimal canaliculus, including the mucosal epithelium and subepithelial elastic fiber layer. The use of this approach will improve understanding of the hierarchical structure of the lacrimal canaliculi and provide a comprehensive basis for diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment plan in patients with lacrimal passage diseases.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860982

RESUMO

The incidence of breast cancer among Japanese women is substantially increasing. This study evaluated the effects of reproductive and lifestyle factors with respect to breast cancer overall and separately among pre- and postmenopausal women using data from the Three-Prefecture Cohort Study of Japan.A total of 33,410 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included items about menstrual and reproductive history and other lifestyle factors. The follow-up period was from 1984 to 1992 in Miyagi and 1985 to 2000 in Aichi Prefectures. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for confounding factors.After 9.8 mean years of follow-up, 287 cases of breast cancer were recorded. In the overall analysis, later menarche (≥16 years) and parity were significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, with HRs of 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.52-0.99), respectively. Further, there was a significant decline in the risk of breast cancer with increasing number of birth among parous women (P for trend = .010). On the contrary, a family history of breast cancer in the mother was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (HR 3.22, 95% CI 1.52-6.84). Analyses based on menopausal status at baseline indicated that height (≥160 cm) and weight (≥65 kg) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, with HRs of 1.34 (95% CI 0.72-2.50) and 3.13 (95% CI 1.75-5.60), respectively. Risk associated with BMI significantly differs by menopausal status.Our findings suggest the important role of reproductive factors in the development of breast cancer in Japanese women; however, body mass index (BMI) may have different effects on breast cancer in Japanese women compared with western women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Anamnese , Menarca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(11)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671682

RESUMO

In this study, cell death induced by the oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH) was observed in U2OS cells; this phenotype was rescued by Syntaxin 17 (STX17) knockout (KO) but the mechanism is unknown. STX17 plays dual roles in autophagosome-lysosome fusion and mitochondrial fission. However, the contribution of the two functions of STX17 to apoptosis has not been extensively studied. Here, we sought to dissect the dual roles of STX17 in oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis by taking advantage of STX17 knockout cells and an autophagosome-lysosome fusion defective mutant of STX17. We generated STX17 knockout U2OS cells using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system and the STX17 knockout cells were reconstituted with wild-type STX17 and its autophagosome-lysosome fusion defective mutant. Autophagy was assessed by autophagic flux assay, Monomer red fluorescent protein (mRFP)-GFP-LC3 assay and protease protection assay. Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and mitochondrial dynamics were examined by staining the different indicator proteins. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase cleavage assay. The general reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry. In STX17 complete knockout cells, sealed autophagosomes were efficiently formed but their fusion with lysosomes was less defective. The fusion defect was rescued by wild-type STX17 but not the autophagosome-lysosome fusion defective mutant. No obvious defects in Golgi, ERGIC or ER dynamics were observed. Mitochondria were significantly elongated, supporting a role of STX17 in mitochondria fission and the elongation caused by STX17 KO was reversed by the autophagosome-lysosome fusion defective mutant. The clearance of protein aggregation was compromised, correlating with the autophagy defect but not with mitochondrial dynamics. This study revealed a mixed role of STX17 in autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics and oxidative stress response. STX17 knockout cells were highly resistant to oxidative stress, largely due to the function of STX17 in mitochondrial fission rather than autophagy.

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