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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130886, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455320

RESUMO

A simple and sensitive method based on surface molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (SMISPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine the residues of vancomycin (VCM) and norvancomycin (NVCM) in milk samples. The imprinted polymer prepared with teicoplanin as a virtual template can specifically recognize VCM and NVCM. The samples were purified with SMISPE and analyzed by LC-MS/MS in positive ionization mode. The results showed that the VCM and NVCM had a good linear correlation in the range of 0.5 µg/kg to 50 µg/kg. The recoveries of target analytes were from 83.3% to 92.1%, and the limits of quantification were both 1.0 µg/kg. The matrix effects of VCM and NVCM were -11.0% and -3.43%, respectively. The proposed method can efficiently eliminate the interference from matrix compounds and reduce baseline noise, which is useful for the monitoring of the residues of VCM and NVCM in milk samples.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Leite , Extração em Fase Sólida , Vancomicina/análogos & derivados
2.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 707165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733151

RESUMO

Aging is a major risk factor contributing to neurodegeneration and dementia. However, it remains unclarified how aging promotes these diseases. Here, we use machine learning and weighted gene co-expression network (WGCNA) to explore the relationship between aging and gene expression in the human frontal cortex and reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of neurodegeneration and dementia related to aging. The transcriptional profiling data of the human frontal cortex from individuals ranging from 26 to 106 years old was obtained from the GEO database in NCBI. Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOM) was conducted to find the clusters in which gene expressions downregulate with aging. For WGCNA analysis, first, co-expressed genes were clustered into different modules, and modules of interest were identified through calculating the correlation coefficient between the module and phenotypic trait (age). Next, the overlapping genes between differentially expressed genes (DEG, between young and aged group) and genes in the module of interest were discovered. Random Forest classifier was performed to obtain the most significant genes in the overlapping genes. The disclosed significant genes were further identified through network analysis. Through WGCNA analysis, the greenyellow module is found to be highly negatively correlated with age, and functions mainly in long-term potentiation and calcium signaling pathways. Through step-by-step filtering of the module genes by overlapping with downregulated DEGs in aged group and Random Forest classifier analysis, we found that MAPT, KLHDC3, RAP2A, RAP2B, ELAVL2, and SYN1 were co-expressed and highly correlated with aging.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 557678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733857

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the use of tourniquet and forceps to reduce bleeding during surgical treatment of severe placenta accreta spectrum (placenta increta and placenta percreta). Methods: A tourniquet was used in the lower part of the uterus during surgical treatment of severe placenta accreta spectrum. Severe placenta accreta spectrum was classified into two types according to the relative position of the placenta and tourniquet during surgery: upper-tourniquet type, in which the entire placenta was above the tourniquet, and lower-tourniquet type, in which part or all of the placenta was below the tourniquet. The surgical effects of the two types were retrospectively compared. We then added forceps to the lower-tourniquet group to achieve further bleeding reduction. Finally, the surgical effects of the two types were prospectively compared. Results: During the retrospective phase, patients in the lower-tourniquet group experienced more severe symptoms than did patients in the upper-tourniquet group, based on mean intraoperative blood loss (upper-tourniquet group 787.5 ml, lower-tourniquet group 1434.4 ml) intensive care unit admission rate (upper-tourniquet group 1.0%, lower-tourniquet group 33.3%), and length of hospital stay (upper-tourniquet group 10.2d, lower-tourniquet group 12.1d). During the prospective phase, after introduction of the revised surgical method involving forceps (in the lower-tourniquet group), the lower-tourniquet group exhibited improvements in the above indicators (intraoperative average blood loss 722.9 ml, intensive care unit admission rate 4.3%, hospital stays 9.0d). No increase in the rate of complications was observed. Conclusion: The relative positions of the placenta and tourniquet may influence the perioperative risk of severe placenta accreta spectrum. The method using a tourniquet (and forceps if necessary) can improve the surgical effect in cases of severe placenta accreta spectrum.

4.
Br J Surg ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive right posterior sectionectomy (RPS) is a technically challenging procedure. This study was designed to determine outcomes following robotic RPS (R-RPS) and laparoscopic RPS (L-RPS). METHODS: An international multicentre retrospective analysis of patients undergoing R-RPS versus those who had purely L-RPS at 21 centres from 2010 to 2019 was performed. Patient demographics, perioperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were analysed retrospectively from a central database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed, with analysis of 1 : 2 and 1 : 1 matched cohorts. RESULTS: Three-hundred and forty patients, including 96 who underwent R-RPS and 244 who had L-RPS, met the study criteria and were included. The median operating time was 295 minutes and there were 25 (7.4 per cent) open conversions. Ninety-seven (28.5 per cent) patients had cirrhosis and 56 (16.5 per cent) patients required blood transfusion. Overall postoperative morbidity rate was 22.1 per cent and major morbidity rate was 6.8 per cent. The median postoperative stay was 6 days. After 1 : 1 matching of 88 R-RPS and L-RPS patients, median (i.q.r.) blood loss (200 (100-400) versus 450 (200-900) ml, respectively; P < 0.001), major blood loss (> 500 ml; P = 0.001), need for intraoperative blood transfusion (10.2 versus 23.9 per cent, respectively; P = 0.014), and open conversion rate (2.3 versus 11.4 per cent, respectively; P = 0.016) were lower in the R-RPS group. Similar results were found in the 1 : 2 matched groups (66 R-RPS versus 132 L-RPS patients). CONCLUSION: R-RPS and L-RPS can be performed in expert centres with good outcomes in well selected patients. R-RPS was associated with reduced blood loss and lower open conversion rates than L-RPS.

5.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy was considered the standard method of left lateral sectionectomy. The robotic approach showed advantages in complex cases of left lateral sectionectomy. However, the impact of the robotic system on ordinary cases is still unknown. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive robotic left lateral sectionectomy (R-LLS) and laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (L-LLS) from January 2015 to December 2019. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the effects of surgical method and surgical complexity on postoperative length of stay, surgical and overall cost. RESULTS: 258 consecutive patients who underwent minimally invasive left lateral sectionectomy were analyzed. L-LLS had comparable outcomes and decreased surgery (USD 2416.3 vs 4624.5; p < 0.001) and overall costs (USD 8004.5 vs 11897.1; p < 0.001) compared with R-LLS in the ordinary-case group, whereas R-LLS was associated with shorter postoperative LOS (5.0 vs 3.5 days; p = 0.004) in the complex-case group. On multivariable analysis, R-LLS was predictive of shorter postoperative LOS [odds ratio (OR) 0.388, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.198-0.760, p = 0.006], whereas R-LLS was predictive of higher surgery (OR 65.640, 95% CI 17.406-247.535, p < 0.001) and overall costs (OR 102.233, 95% CI 22.241-469.931, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed no clinical benefit to the R-LLS compared with L-LLS in ordinary cases. R-LLS had potential advantages in selected complex cases.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806379

RESUMO

A rapid, sensitive, and effective multiresidue analytical method was established to investigate the degradation rate and final residues of bifenthrin, bifenazate, and its metabolite bifenazate-diazene in apples, and the dietary risk of consumers was evaluated. The residues of bifenthrin, bifenazate, and bifenazate-diazene in apple samples from 12 different apple-producing areas of China were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of the three compounds in apples were 88.4-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.3-10.5%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for each compound was 0.01 mg/kg. Although the degradation half-lives of bifenthrin, bifenazate, and bifenazate-diazene were 17.8-28.9, 4.3-7.8, and 5.0-5.8 days, under good agricultural practice (GAP) conditions, the final residues of bifenthrin, bifenazate, and the sum of bifenazate and its metabolite bifenazate-diazene in apples were <0.01-0.049, < 0.01-0.027, and <0.02-0.056 mg/kg, respectively, which were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) in China. By comparing the deterministic model with the probabilistic model, the results of the probabilistic model at the P95 level (12.91-48.9% for bifenthrin, 17.48-52.01% for bifenazate including its metabolite) were selected as reasonable assessment criteria for chronic dietary risk, and the acute risk was at the P99.9 level (3.00-15.59% for bifenthrin). Although the exposure risk calculated by both the deterministic model and the probabilistic model was less than 100%, the risk to children is significantly higher than that of the general population. This suggests that in future research and policy making, we should pay more attention to the risk of vulnerable groups such as children.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6622, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785650

RESUMO

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1) has been shown to regulate autophagy at different steps. However, how mTORC1 regulates the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive protein receptor (SNARE) complex remains elusive. Here we show that mTORC1 inhibits formation of the SNARE complex (STX17-SNAP29-VAMP8) by phosphorylating VAMP8, thereby blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion. A VAMP8 phosphorylation mimic mutant is unable to promote autophagosome-lysosome fusion in vitro. Furthermore, we identify SCFD1, a Sec1/Munc18-like protein, that localizes to the autolysosome and is required for SNARE complex formation and autophagosome-lysosome fusion. VAMP8 promotes SCFD1 recruitment to autolysosomes when dephosphorylated. Consistently, phosphorylated VAMP8 or SCFD1 depletion inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and expression of phosphomimic VAMP8 leads to increased lipid droplet accumulation when expressed in mouse liver. Thus, our study supports that mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of VAMP8 blocks SCFD1 recruitment, thereby inhibiting STX17-SNAP29-VAMP8 complex formation and autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

8.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr ; 10(5): 587-597, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760963

RESUMO

Background: The application and feasibility of minimally invasive liver resection (MILR) for huge liver tumours (≥10 cm) has not been well documented. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on 6,617 patients who had MILR for liver tumours were gathered from 21 international centers between 2009-2019. Huge tumors and large tumors were defined as tumors with a size ≥10.0 cm and 3.0-9.9 cm based on histology, respectively. 1:1 coarsened exact-matching (CEM) and 1:2 Mahalanobis distance-matching (MDM) was performed according to clinically-selected variables. Regression discontinuity analyses were performed as an additional line of sensitivity analysis to estimate local treatment effects at the 10-cm tumor size cutoff. Results: Of 2,890 patients with tumours ≥3 cm, there were 205 huge tumors. After 1:1 CEM, 174 huge tumors were matched to 174 large tumors; and after 1:2 MDM, 190 huge tumours were matched to 380 large tumours. There was significantly and consistently increased intraoperative blood loss, frequency in the application of Pringle maneuver, major morbidity and postoperative stay in the huge tumour group compared to the large tumour group after both 1:1 CEM and 1:2 MDM. These findings were reinforced in RD analyses. Intraoperative blood transfusion rate and open conversion rate were significantly higher in the huge tumor group after only 1:2 MDM but not 1:1 CEM. Conclusions: MILR for huge tumours can be safely performed in expert centers It is an operation with substantial complexity and high technical requirement, with worse perioperative outcomes compared to MILR for large tumors, therefore judicious patient selection is pivotal.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anatomical structure around the pancreatic head is very complex, and it is important to understand its precise anatomy and corresponding anatomical approach to safely perform minimally invasive pancreatoduodenectomy (MIPD). This consensus statement aimed to develop recommendations for elucidating the anatomy and surgical approaches to MIPD. METHODS: Studies identified via a comprehensive literature search were classified using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network method. Delphi voting was conducted after experts had drafted recommendations, with a goal of obtaining >75% consensus. Experts discussed the revised recommendations with the validation committee and an international audience of 384 attendees. Finalized recommendations were made after a second round of online Delphi voting. RESULTS: Three clinical questions were addressed, providing six recommendations. All recommendations reached at least a consensus of 75%. Preoperatively evaluating the presence of anatomical variations and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) branching patterns was recommended. Moreover, it was recommended to fully understand the anatomical approach to SMA and intraoperatively confirm the SMA course based on each anatomical landmark before initiating dissection. CONCLUSIONS: MIPD experts suggest to surgical trainees to perform resection based on precise anatomical landmarks for safe and reliable MIPD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of Minimally invasive anatomic liver resection (MIALR) is gaining popularity. However, specific technical skills need to be acquired to safely perform MIALR. The "Expert Consensus Meeting: Precision Anatomy for Minimally Invasive HBP Surgery (PAM-HBP Surgery Consensus)" was developed as a special program during the 32nd meeting of the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery (JSHBPS). METHODS: Thirty-four international experts gathered online for the consensus. A Research Committee performed a comprehensive literature review, classifying studies according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) method. Based on the literature review and experts' opinions, tentative recommendations were drafted and circulated among experts using online Delphi Rounds. Finally, formulated recommendations were presented online in the Expert Consensus Meeting of the JSHBPS on February 23rd, 2021. The final recommendations were validated and finalized by the 2nd Delphi Round in May 2021. RESULTS: Seven Clinical Questions (CQs) were selected, and 22 recommendations were formulated. All recommendations reached more than 85% consensus among experts at the final Delphi Round. CONCLUSIONS: The Expert Consensus Meeting for safely performing MIALR has presented a set of clinical guidelines based on available literature and experts' opinions. We expect these guidelines to have a favorable effect on the safe implementation and development of MIALR.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767338

RESUMO

It has previously been shown that ex situ phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon on silicon oxide (poly-Si/SiOx) passivating contacts can suffer a pronounced surface passivation degradation when subjected to a firing treatment at 800 °C or above. The degradation behavior depends strongly on the processing conditions, such as the dielectric coating layers and the firing temperature. The current work further studies the firing stability of poly-Si contacts and proposes a mechanism for the observed behavior based on the role of hydrogen. Secondary ion mass spectrometry is applied to measure the hydrogen concentration in the poly-Si/SiOx structures after firing at different temperatures and after removing hydrogen by an anneal in nitrogen. While it is known that a certain amount of hydrogen around the interfacial SiOx can be beneficial for passivation, surprisingly, we found that the excess amount of hydrogen can deteriorate the poly-Si passivation and increase the recombination current density parameter J0. The presence of excess hydrogen is evident in selected poly-Si samples fired with silicon nitride (SiNx), where the injection of additional hydrogen to the SiOx interlayer leads to further degradation in the J0, while removing hydrogen fully recovers the surface passivation. In addition, the proposed model explains the dependence of firing stability on the crystallite properties and the doping profile, which determine the effective diffusivity of hydrogen upon firing and hence the amount of hydrogen around the interfacial SiOx after firing.

12.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106200, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740636

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis, caused by a parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, remains one of the most prevailing parasitic diseases in the world. While numerous studies have reported that the growth and reproduction of schistosomes in immunodeficient mice was significantly retarded, the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be revealed. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the microRNA expression of Schistosoma japonicum derived from SCID and BALB/c mice on the 35th day post-infection by high-throughput RNA sequencing as prominent morphological abnormalities had been observed in schistosomes from SCID mice when compared with those from BALB/c mice. The results revealed that more than 72% and 61% of clean reads in the small RNA libraries of female and male schistosomes, respectively, could be mapped to the selected miRs in the miRBase or the sequences of species-specific genomes. Further analysis identified 122 miRNAs using TPM >0.01 as the threshold value, including 75 known and 47 novel miRNAs, 96 of which were commonly expressed across all the four tested schistosome libraries. Comparative analysis of the libraries of schistosomes from SCID and BALB/c mice identified 15 differentially expressed miRNAs (5 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated) among females and 16 among males (9 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated). Integrated analysis of the two sets of differentially expressed miRNAs of female and male worms identified 2 miRNAs (sja-miR-3488 and sja-miR-novel_29) that overlapped between female and male datasets. Prediction of miRNA targets and Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of the predicted target genes revealed that these genes were involved in some important biological processes, such as nucleic acid metabolic process, macromolecule modification, and cellular aromatic compound metabolic process. The predicted target genes were further matched to the differentially expressed genes in male and female schistosomes from the above two hosts, obtaining 7 genes that may be responsible for regulating the growth, development and sex maturation of schistosomes. Taken together, this study provides the first identification of differentially expressed miRNAs in schistosomes from SCID and BALB/c mice. These miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs are probably involved in the regulation of development, growth, and maturation of schistosomes. Therefore, this study expands our understanding of schistosome development regulation and host-parasite relationship, and also provides a valuable set of potential anti-schistosomal targets for prevention and control of schistosomiasis.

13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The demand for grass peas (Lathyrus sativus L.) had increased as high nutritional safe food, but most of the accessions of South Asia and Africa had low grain harvest. Therefore, this study had been undertaken to collect grass pea germplasm for boosting yields and quality improvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 400 accessions of grass pea from different geographical regions had characterized by using 56 Simple Sequences Repeat (SSRs) markers. In total 253 alleles were detected, the maximum and minimum polymorphic information content (PIC) indices were 0.70 and 0.34 found in markers G17922 and G18078, correspondingly. The germplasm was split into two main and one sub-group by cluster assay, by SSR assay, and three populations by model-based population structure analysis (Pop1, Pop2 and admixed). Neighbors joining tree assay showed the tested germplasm highly diverse in structure. Three-dimensional principal components analysis (PCA) and two dimensional principles coordinate analysis (PCoA) exhibited two main and one admixed group (P1, P2 and P1P2). In addition, FST population value of pairwise mean and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed high population structure across all pairs of populations on an average 0.1710 advocating all population structure categories varied significantly. The average predictable heterozygosity distant was 0.4472-0.4542 in same cluster for the individuals. CONCLUSION: Discovery from this study revealed SSR markers based polymorphic bands showed in the diversified grasspea germplasm which might be utilized as genetic resource of a breeding scheme and prospective uses for mapping analyses of recombinant inbred lines (RIL).

14.
Front Nutr ; 8: 755007, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746211

RESUMO

Classification of beef cuts is important for the food industry and authentication purposes. Traditional analytical methods are time constraints and incompatible with the modern food industry. Taking advantage of its rapidness and being nondestructive, multispectral imaging (MSI) has been widely applied to obtain a precise characterization of food and agriculture products. This study aims at developing a beef cut classification model using MSI and machine learning classifiers. Beef samples are imaged with a snapshot multi-spectroscopic camera within a range of 500-800 nm. In order to find a more accurate classification model, single- and multiple-modality feature sets are used to develop an accurate classification model with different machine learning-based classifiers, namely, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) algorithms. The results demonstrate that the optimized LDA classifier achieved a prediction accuracy of over 90% with multiple modality feature fusion. By combining machine learning and feature fusion, the other classification models also achieved a satisfying accuracy. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the potential of machine learning and feature fusion method for meat classification by using multiple spectral imaging in future agricultural applications.

15.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624074

RESUMO

The biological functions of DNA and RNA generally depend on their interactions with other molecules, such as small ligands, proteins and nucleic acids. However, our knowledge of the nucleic acid binding sites for different interaction partners is very limited, and identification of these critical binding regions is not a trivial work. Herein, we performed a comprehensive comparison between binding and nonbinding sites and among different categories of binding sites in these two nucleic acid classes. From the structural perspective, RNA may interact with ligands through forming binding pockets and contact proteins and nucleic acids using protruding surfaces, while DNA may adopt regions closer to the middle of the chain to make contacts with other molecules. Based on structural information, we established a feature-based ensemble learning classifier to identify the binding sites by fully using the interplay among different machine learning algorithms, feature spaces and sample spaces. Meanwhile, we designed a template-based classifier by exploiting structural conservation. The complementarity between the two classifiers motivated us to build an integrative framework for improving prediction performance. Moreover, we utilized a post-processing procedure based on the random walk algorithm to further correct the integrative predictions. Our unified prediction framework yielded promising results for different binding sites and outperformed existing methods.

16.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report three-decade changes of clinical characteristics, progress of treatments and risk factors associated for mortality and enucleation in patients with retinoblastoma in China. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: This multicenter study included 2552 patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in 38 medical centers in 31 provinces in China from 1989 to 2017 with follow up data. Kendall's tau-b value was used to describe correlation coefficients between eras and clinical or demographic features. Hazard ratios and odds ratios were applied to measure risk factors. RESULTS: In this study, 324(13%) patients died of retinoblastoma and 1414(42%) eyes were removed. The 1-, 3-and 5- year disease-specific survival were 95%, 86% and 83%, respectively. Patients were diagnosed at a better stage by International Classification for Retinoblastoma over time (Kendall's tau-b value=-0.084, P<0.001). Pathological risk factors were also less observed in recent era. New conservative therapies were adopted and used in more patients. The eye removal rate gradually decreased (Kendall's tau-b value=-0.167, P<0.001). The disease-specific survival rate were 81%, 83% and 91% in the three eras. By multivariate cox regression, bilateral tumors and extraocular extension were risk factors for death. Among intraocular disease, group E indicated higher risk of mortality. By multivariate logistics regression, unilateral tumors, earlier era of diagnosis and extraocular extension were risk factors for eye salvage failure. Among intraocular retinoblastoma, groups D and E had higher risk of eye salvage failure. CONCLUSIONS: Patients were diagnosed at earlier stage in recent era. Conservative therapies including IAC were increasingly used. The above changes may contribute to the decreasing enucleation rate. Although no significant difference was identified in the mortality of the three eras, a decreasing trend was shown.

17.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(5): 507-511, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628762

RESUMO

A 3D printing based wrist orthosis device was developed. After collecting the contour information of the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the patients with a 3D scanner, the wrist orthotics were designed to meet the individual needs of the patients according to the relevant requirements of biomechanics. Choose TPU (thermoplastic polyurethanes) materials for preparation of 3D printing. It can functionally assist the smart brace after stroke patients with hemiplegia early rehabilitation training, the use of orthoses carry MPU6050 inertial sensor, magnetometer, time module device such as a sensor and monitor its movements and record the training time, ensure safe efficient rehabilitation training, help patients return to a normal life as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Punho , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Impressão Tridimensional , Articulação do Punho
18.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683715

RESUMO

Deep T-section beams have been widely used in engineering structures due to their high bearing capacity, high construction efficiency and economic benefits, while the current beam design theory can hardly interpret reasonably the mechanical behaviors of deep beams. The performance features of the deep T-beam were investigated, involving in strain distribution and principal stress trace using experimental tests. Different near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement schemes were proposed for deep T-beams aiming at improving the shear capacity. The results show that the behaviors of deep T-beams dissatisfy the assumption of plane cross-section, and the 'strut-and-tie' model is applicable in such structures. The reinforcement systems can significantly relieve the strain concentration, mid-span deflection and crack width in deep T-beams, consequently improving the shear capacity range from 45 to 65%. The scheme is preferential for the reinforcement of deep T-beams when the applied angles, positions and lengths of CFRP bars are optimized based on the 'strut-and-tie' model.

19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595812

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetics (PK), glucodynamics (GD), and tolerability following single and multiple daily subcutaneous (SC) doses of ultra rapid lispro (URLi) and Humalog® in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a two-part, randomized, double-blind, Phase 1b study. Part A used a six-period crossover design to assess PK and GD response to a solid mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) following a single dose of URLi or Humalog administered 15 min before, immediately before, and 15 min after the start of the meal. Part B evaluated URLi or Humalog during 2 weeks of multiple daily dosing with a parallel design. The PK and GD were assessed following MMTTs at the beginning and end of the 2-week period when insulins were administered immediately before the start of the meal. RESULTS: URLi increased the insulin exposure within the first 30 min postdose by 2.2-fold and reduced the time to early half-maximal drug concentration by 37% compared with Humalog. Overall, URLi resulted in better postprandial glucose lowering when dosed before, immediately before, or after a meal compared with Humalog. Comparing the same meal-to-dose timing between the insulins, postprandial glucose excursion over 5 hours was reduced by 40%-44% for all three dose timings (-15, 0, and +15 min) with URLi, achieving statistical significance for the 0- and +15-min timings. The PK and GD profiles were sustained after daily SC dosing for 2 weeks in patients with T1D. The number of documented hypoglycaemic events was similar between URLi and Humalog during the postprandial period of the MMTTs and the outpatient period. CONCLUSIONS: URLi showed accelerated insulin lispro absorption and greater postprandial glucose reduction at different meal-to-dose timings compared with Humalog and was well tolerated in patients with T1D.

20.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam (Moringaceae) is a perennial plant broadly used in South Asia and Africa as a traditional folk medicine to treat many ailments such as paralysis, helminthiasis, sores and skin infections. The review provides a critical and comprehensive evaluation of the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, agricultural economy and dietary benefit of M. oleifera and its future perspectives. KEY FINDINGS: In this review, the entire plant of M. oleifera, containing diverse phytochemicals, is summarized. The 163 chemical components, included flavonoids, carbamates, glucosinolates, phenols, and so on with various bioactivities, such as anti-tumour, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and so on. Additionally, M. oleifera is toxic at certain doses; and overuse can cause genotoxicity. SUMMARY: Although M. oleifera has been widely used in traditional medicine, the pharmacological studies that have been conducted so far are not sufficient for its use in the setting of evidence-based medicine. Little relevant data from clinical trials of M. oleifera have been reported. The majority of studies of its constituents, such as carbamates and glucosinolates, have been conducted only in vitro. Owing to a lack of available data, the pharmacology, toxicity, agricultural economy and dietary benefit of its constituents and extracts require further evaluation.

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