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1.
Burns ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Allogeneic and xenogeneic skin are recognized as the best coverings for skin burn wounds, but currently face a supply shortage. To solve this problem, our research group developed a standardized manufactured hydrogel dressing based on a new type of highly bioactive recombinant human collagen. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective self-controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human collagen hydrogel in the treatment of partial burn wounds to the skin compared to those of xenogeneic skin. METHODS: This study included twenty-one patients admitted to Shanghai Changhai Hospital within 48 h after receiving partial-thickness skin burns. The wounds were symmetrically separated along the axis and treated with recombinant human collagen hydrogel (RHCH) or a human-CTLA4-Ig gene-transferred pig skin xenotransplant. The condition of the wound surfaces was recorded on days 0 (of enrollment), 5, 10, 15, and 20, and bacterial drug sensitivity testing, hematuria examination, and electrocardiographic tests were conducted on days 0, 10, 20, or on the day of wound healing. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in wound healing time between the two groups. The median number of days to healing was 11.00 ± 0.56 for xenogeneic skin vs. 11.00 ± 1.72 for RHCH. CONCLUSION: During the observation period, the therapeutic effect of the RHCH developed by our group on partial-thickness burn wounds was not significantly different from that of gene-transferred xenogeneic skin. Thus, our designed RHCH shows potential for clinical use to treat burn wounds on the skin.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432671

RESUMO

Glassy polymer can hardly self-heal at room temperature because of their frozen polymer chains under such a state. Now, we designed and synthesized a colorless and transparent glassy polyurethane assembled using low-molecular-weight oligomers carrying a large number of loosely packed weak hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), which has a glass transition temperature (T g ) up to 36.8 °C and behaves unprecedentedly robust stiffness with a tensile Young's modulus of 1.56±0.03 GPa. Fast room-temperature self-healing was observed in this polymer network that the broken glassy polyurethane (GPU) specimen can recover to a tensile strength up 7.74±0.76 MPa after healing for as little as 10 min, which is quite prominent compared to the reported room-temperature self-healing polymers. We revealed that the high density of loose-packed hydrogen bonds can reversibly dissociate/associate below T g of GPU (that is secondary relaxation), which enables the reconfiguration of the damaged network in the fractured interfaces, in spite of the extremely slow diffusion dynamics of molecular chains under room temperature. Based on these features, we demonstrate that our GPU shows potential application as an optical lens.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(2): 756-766, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404229

RESUMO

An effective and sensitive method for the determination of isopyrazam (IZM) isomers (syn-IZM and anti-IZM) and their metabolites (syn545364 and syn545449) in tomato and soil by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed in the present study. The method showed excellent linearities (R2 = 0.999) at 0.005-5 mg/L. The recoveries were 92.0-107%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were lower than 9.40% in tomato and soil matrices at 0.01, 0.1, and 10 mg/kg. The limits of detection (LODs) of the four compounds ranged from 6.88 × 10-5 to 2.70 × 10-4 mg/kg, while the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.20 × 10-4 to 9.20 × 10-4 mg/kg. The storage stability test results showed that syn-IZM, anti-IZM, syn545449, and syn545364 were stable in tomato at -20 °C within 36 weeks, and the maximum degradation rates were 16.0, 12.0, 7.10, and 12.0%, respectively. The field dissipation test results showed that the half-lives of syn-IZM in tomato and soil were 2.60-10.2 and 13.6-33.0 days, respectively, while the half-lives of anti-IZM in soil were 21.7-46.2 days, and no residues of anti-IZM were detected in tomato. The terminal residue test results showed that the residue of syn-IZM and anti-IZM in tomato ranged from <0.0100-0.490 to <0.0100-0.0850 mg/kg. The present results showed that anti-IZM degraded faster than syn-IZM in tomato and soil, and had a lower residue level in tomato.

5.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 5, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446092

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is associated with articular cartilage destruction, subchondral bone alterations, synovitis, and even joint deformity and the loss of joint function. Although current basic research on the pathogenesis of OA has made remarkable progress, our understanding of this disease still needs to be further improved. Recent studies have shown that the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) family members ERRα and ERRγ may play significant roles in the pathogenesis of OA. In this review, we refer to the latest research on ERRs and the pathogenesis of OA, elucidate the structure and physiopathological functions of the ERR orphan nuclear receptor family, and systematically examine the relationship between ERRs and OA at the molecular level. Moreover, we also discuss and predict the capacity of ERRs as potential targets in the clinical treatment of OA.

6.
Analyst ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465208

RESUMO

RNA-protein interactions play important roles in almost every step of the lifetime of RNAs, such as RNA splicing, transporting, localization, translation and degradation. Post-translational modifications, such as O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation, and their "cross-talk" (OPCT) are essential to the activity and function regulation of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). However, due to the extremely low abundance of O-GlcNAcylation and the lack of RBP-targeted enrichment strategies, large-scale simultaneous profiling of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation on RBPs is still a challenging task. In the present study, we developed a tandem enrichment strategy combining metabolic labeling-based RNA tagging for selective purification of RBPs and HILIC-based enrichment for simultaneous O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation profiling. Benefiting from the sequence-independent RNA tagging by ethynyluridine (EU) labeling, 1115 RBPs binding to different types of RNAs were successfully enriched and identified by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Further HILIC enrichment on the tryptic-digested RBPs and MS analysis led to the first large-scale identification of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation in the RNA-binding proteome, with 461 O-GlcNAc peptides corresponding to 300 RBPs and 671 phosphopeptides corresponding to 389 RBPs. Interestingly, ∼25% RBPs modified by two PTMs were found to be related to multiple metabolism pathways. This strategy has the advantage of high compatibility with MS and provides peptide-level evidence for the identification of O-GlcNAcylated RBPs. We expect it will support simultaneous mapping of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation on RBPs and facilitate further elucidation of the crucial roles of OPCT in the function regulation of RBPs.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470924

RESUMO

An aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, actinobacterial strain, designated 1.0914T, was isolated from a stalactite sample collected from a cave located in Guizhou Province, southwest PR China. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain 1.0914T shared highest similarities values with Nocardioides pelophilus CGMCC 4.7388T (97.7 %), Nocardioides immobilis CCTCC AB 2017083T (97.5 %) and Nocardioides silvaticus CCTCC AB 2018079T (97.3 %) and values lower than 97.0 % to other members of the genus Nocardioides. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1.0914T formed an isolated branch with N. pelophilus CGMCC 4.7388T, N. immobilis CCTCC AB 2017083T and N. silvaticus CCTCC AB 2018079T. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and one unidentified phospholipid in the cellular membrane. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c, C17 : 1 ω8c and C16 : 0. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-8(H4) and ll-diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71.1 mol%. The orthologous average nucleotide identiy values between N. pelophilus CGMCC 4.7388T, N. immobilis CCTCC AB 2017083T, N. silvaticus CCTCC 2018079T and strain 1.0914T were 82.3, 81.7 and 81.9 % respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization values between N. pelophilus CGMCC 4.7388T, N. immobilis CCTCC AB 2017083T, N. silvaticus CCTCC 2018079T and strain 1.0914T were 25.2, 24.6 and 24.5 % respectively. The phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data supported the classification of strain 1.0914T as representing a new species of Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides stalactiti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1.0914T (=CCTCC AB 2018266T=KCTC 49243T).

8.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 69, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy that may increase fracture risk and decrease bone mineral density (BMD). Some patients develop distal renal tubular acidification dysfunction under conditions of hyperchloraemia or hyperchloraemic acidosis. To examine whether this dysfunction influences the clinical outcome, we explored the distal renal tubular acidification function in patients with PHPT and its effects on the clinical manifestations of the disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 75 PHPT patients with regard to renal tubular acidification and blood gas analysis. The patients were divided into two groups, the renal tubular acidification dysfunction group and normal function group. RESULTS: Serum phosphate level and total hip bone density were significantly decreased and 25OHD level was significantly increased in the renal tubular acidification dysfunction group in comparison to the normal function group. Female patients in the renal tubular acidification dysfunction group showed significantly decreased femoral neck and total hip BMD and increased susceptibility to fracture. However, there were no such differences in male patients between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: About 54.6 % of PHPT patients in our study population had abnormal distal renal tubular acidification. PHPT patients with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification may have lower hip bone density. Female PHPT patients with abnormal distal renal tubular acidification showed increased susceptibility to fractures and the development of osteoporosis.

9.
Nat Plants ; 7(1): 50-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452489

RESUMO

Long-distance RNA movement is important for plant growth and environmental responses; however, the extent to which RNAs move between distant tissues, their relative magnitude and functional importance remain to be elucidated on a genomic scale. Using a soybean (Glycine max)-common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grafting system, we identified 100 shoot-root mobile microRNAs and 32 shoot-root mobile phased secondary small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs), which were predominantly produced in shoots and transported to roots, and, in most cases, accumulated to a level similar to that observed in shoots. Many of these microRNAs or phasiRNAs enabled cleavage of their messenger RNA targets or phasiRNA precursors in roots. In contrast, most mobile-capable mRNAs were transcribed in both shoots and roots, with only small proportions transported to recipient tissues. These findings suggest that the regulatory mechanisms for small RNA movement are different from those for mRNA movement, and that the former is more strictly regulated and, probably, more functionally important than the latter.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116269, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338958

RESUMO

The enantioselective toxic effect and environmental behavior of chiral pesticides have attracted increasing research attention. In this study, the enantioselective toxicity and residues of hexaconazole (HEX) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. In the present study, significant enantioselective degradation characteristics were observed in artificial soil with the R-enantiomer preferentially degrading (p < 0.05); however, no significant enantioselective bioaccumulation was observed in the earthworms (p > 0.05). The acute toxicity of S-(+)-HEX was higher than that of R-(-)-HEX in earthworms, with 48-h LC50 values of 8.62 and 22.35 µg/cm2, respectively. At 25 mg/kg, enantiospecific induction of oxidative stress was observed in earthworms; moreover, S-(+)-HEX had a greater influence on the contents of malonaldehyde, cytochrome P450, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine than R-(-)-HEX. These results were consistent with those of the enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes. The transcriptome sequencing results showed that S-(+)-HEX had a more significant influence on steroid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, and cell cycle processes than R-(-)-HEX, leading to abnormal biological function activities. These results indicate that S-(+)-HEX may pose a higher risk to soil organisms than R-(-)-HEX. This study suggests that the environmental risk of chiral pesticides to nontarget organisms should be assessed at the enantiomeric level.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Triazóis/análise , Triazóis/toxicidade
11.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 87-102, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108223

RESUMO

AIM: MicroRNA-21 is an oncogenic miRNA that modulates the expression of multiple cancer-related target genes. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess diagnostic role of circulating miR-21 in CRC, hoping to choose the best biomarker in CRC diagnosis. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, CNKI and WanFang database to identify records related to diagnostic role of circulating miR-21 in CRC. The search words were "microRNA-21", "miRNA-21", "colorectal cancer", "colorectal carcinoma" and "diagnosis". The searched articles were published before 14th July 2020. RESULTS: We got 18 studies to conduct this meta-analysis including 1129 blood specimens of CRC patients and 951 control specimens. The meta-analysis showed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity of circulating miR-21 for CRC diagnosis were 77% (95% CI, 70-82) and 83% (95% CI, 78-88). The combined positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 4.20 (95% CI, 3.12-5.66) and the combined negative likelihood ratio(NLR) was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.23-0.38). The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 16.48 (95% CI 10.09-26.91) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) for the included studies was 0.87(95%CI, 0.84-0.90). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis results suggest that circulating miR-21 has a potential diagnostic value with moderate sensitivity and good specificity for CRC.

12.
Food Chem ; 338: 127828, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822904

RESUMO

The fatty acid content of flour is an important indicator for determining the deterioration of flour. We propose a novel rapid measurement method for fatty acid content during flour storage based on a self-designed color-sensitive gas sensor array. First, a color-sensitive gas sensor array was prepared to capture the odor changes during flour storage. The sensor features were then optimized using genetic algorithm (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Finally, back propagation neural network (BPNN) models were established to measure the fatty acid content during flour storage. Experimental results showed that the optimization effects of the three algorithms improved in the following order: GA < ACO < PSO, for the sensor features optimization. In the validation set, the determination coefficient of the best PSO-BPNN model was 0.9837. The overall results demonstrate that the models established on the optimized features can realize rapid measurements of fatty acid content during flour storage.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Farinha/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Cor , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Redes Neurais de Computação , Triticum/química
13.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(21): 5487-5493, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patellar instability is an uncommon complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Partial lateral patella facetectomy (LPF) with lateral retinaculum release treatment of patellar instability is rarely reported. CASE SUMMARY: We present a case of patellar instability 8 mo after primary TKA. Treatment of this complication was adapted to address the cause of the dislocation. To eliminate patellar instability, we restored the vastus medialis and performed LPF with lateral retinaculum release. We achieved normal patellar tracking. Clinical and radiographic evaluations at the 1-year postoperative follow-up were satisfactory. CONCLUSION: LPF with lateral retinaculum release represents a promising option to restore central patellar tracking in patients with patellar instability after TKA in cases without component malposition.

14.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(11)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287079

RESUMO

A novel compressed air energy storage (CAES) system has been developed, which is innovatively integrated with a coal-fired power plant based on its feedwater heating system. In the hybrid design, the compression heat of the CAES system is transferred to the feedwater of the coal power plant, and the compressed air before the expanders is heated by the feedwater taken from the coal power plant. Furthermore, the exhaust air of the expanders is employed to warm partial feedwater of the coal power plant. Via the suggested integration, the thermal energy storage equipment for a regular CAES system can be eliminated and the performance of the CAES system can be improved. Based on a 350 MW supercritical coal power plant, the proposed concept was thermodynamically evaluated, and the results indicate that the round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency of the new CAES system can reach 64.08% and 70.01%, respectively. Besides, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effects of ambient temperature, air storage pressure, expander inlet temperature, and coal power load on the performance of the CAES system. The above work proves that the novel design is efficient under various conditions, providing important insights into the development of CAES technology.

15.
Ecol Evol ; 10(23): 13122-13133, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304522

RESUMO

Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Ambrosia trifida are two species of very harmful and invasive plants of the same genus. However, it remains unclear why A. artemisiifolia is more widely distributed than A. trifida worldwide. Distribution and abundance of these two species were surveyed and measured from 2010 to 2017 in the Yili Valley, Xinjiang, China. Soil temperature and humidity, main companion species, the biological characteristics in farmland ecotone, residential area, roadside and grassland, and water demand of the two species were determined and studied from 2017 to 2018. The area occupied by A. artemisiifolia in the Yili Valley was more extensive than that of A. trifida, while the abundance of A. artemisiifolia in grassland was less than that of A. trifida at eight years after invasion. The interspecific competitive ability of two species was stronger than those of companion species in farmland ecotone, residential, and roadside. In addition, A. trifida had greater interspecific competitive ability than other plant species in grassland. The seed size and seed weight of A. trifida were five times or eight times those of A. artemisiifolia. When comparing the changes under simulated annual precipitation of 840 mm versus 280 mm, the seed yield per m2 of A. trifida decreased from 50,185 to 19, while that of A. artemisiifolia decreased from 15,579 to 530.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309147

RESUMO

Low luminescence efficiency of rare-earth ions dopedupconversion (UC) nanomaterials is still a major limitation for their applications.Here, based on bismuth oxychloride nanosheets that show efficient photocarriers separation due to combining spontaneous polarization and layered semiconductor, we report a new carbon heterovalent doping strategy for efficient UC luminescence enhancement by suppressing the intermediate excited states of Er3+ ions. The first-principles calculations and photoelectrochemical characterizations provide evidences that the replacement of C ions for Cl strengthen the spontaneous polarization and inter electric field (IEF) of bismuth oxychloride nanosheets, which further improve the photocarriers separation efficiency. Under 808 or 980 nm excitation, the emission intensity of 4I13/2 energy level of Er3+ ions (1550 nm) increase slightly with C doping, but the its decay time and the visible UC emission are improved tremendously at the same time. We show that the recombination rate of intermediate excited state electrons of Er3+ ions with the ground state is inhibited by the enhanced IEF, which promotes the energy reabsorption transition to upper energy levels, thus enhancing the visible UC emission. This work not only may provide a new insight into the method for engineering of UC emissions but also deepen the understanding for layered semiconducting material to modify the transition of Lanthanide ions.

17.
Biomaterials ; 268: 120587, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296793

RESUMO

Combination cancer therapy (e.g., radiochemotherapy) is widely used to enhance the therapeutic effects and prevent the recurrence of cancer. However, the side effects of monotherapy are also amplified when treating cancer with combination therapy. A locally activated drug delivery strategy that can release the payload in a tumor-selective manner is greatly needed to overcome the side effects of combination therapy. Here, we explore the potential of combining boron neutron capture therapy and chemotherapy as a new type of radiochemotherapy. Two-dimensional (2D) boron-10-rich nanosheets (BNNSs) were fabricated as a dual-functional delivery system: targeted boron-10 delivery systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and drug delivery vehicles to load doxorubicin for chemotherapy. Irradiated by low-energy thermal neutron, BNNSs can produce high linear energy transfer (LET) particles to kill tumor cells, and the loaded doxorubicin can be released in situ at the same time. This neutron-triggered radiochemotherapy shows noteworthy efficacy in suppressing tumor growth in triple-negative breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to combine BNCT with chemotherapy as a new type of radiochemotherapy. We hope this study could inspire additional BNCT-induced combination cancer therapies and provide insight for the further clinical translation of BNCT.

18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291337

RESUMO

Microbial degradation is an effective and attractive method for eliminating aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which is severely toxic to humans and animals. In this study, Aspergillus niger RAF106 could effectively degrade AFB1 when cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) with contents of AFB1 ranging from 0.1 to 4 µg/mL. Treatment with yeast extract as a nitrogen source stimulated the degradation, but treatment with NaNO3 and NaNO2 as nitrogen sources and lactose and sucrose as carbon sources suppressed the degradation. Moreover, A. niger RAF106 still degraded AFB1 at initial pH values that ranged from 4 to 10 and at cultivation temperatures that ranged from 25 to 45 °C. In addition, intracellular enzymes or proteins with excellent thermotolerance were verified as being able to degrade AFB1 into metabolites with low or no mutagenicity. Furthermore, genomic sequence analysis indicated that the fungus was considered to be safe owing to the absence of virulence genes and the gene clusters for the synthesis of mycotoxins. These results indicate that A. niger RAF106 and its intracellular enzymes or proteins have a promising potential to be applied commercially in the processing and industry of food and feed to detoxify AFB1.

19.
J Therm Biol ; 94: 102747, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292988

RESUMO

Individual feed consumption and animal weight were continuously recorded in grower pigs using an automated feeding system. Infrared images were recorded each time a pig entered the feeding system and infrared thermography provided radiated thermal measurements of the dorsal surface of each animal. Feed was withdrawn and the animals fasted for a period of 24 h three times during the growth of the animals at body weights of approximately 35, 65 and 105 kg. There was a significant reduction of 0.28 °C in the maximum surface temperature (Tmax), and 0.48 °C in the average surface temperature (Tmean) during the periods of fasting. Maximum and average pig temperatures exhibited negative correlations to feed consumption and growth variables. There were negative correlations of residual feed intake (RFI) to Tmax and Tmean radiated temperatures. There were positive correlations of residual gain (RG) and residual intake and gain (RIG) with Tmax and Tmean. The Tmax and Tmean temperature responses to fasting were negatively associated with feed consumption and growth variables. Absolute temperature and temperature response variables were positively associated with RFI and negatively associated with residual intake and gain (RIG). These findings provide support for the concept of radiated heat losses as a measure of metabolic activity and a predictor of growth performance.

20.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110177, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254499

RESUMO

The mandatory use of facemasks is a public health measure implemented by various countries in response to the novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there have been case reports of sudden cardiac death (SCD) with the wearing of facemasks during exercise. In this paper, we hypothesize that exercise with facemasks may increase the risk of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) leading to SCD via the development of acute and/or intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms including increases in adrenergic stimulation and oxidative stress leading to electrophysiological abnormalities that promote arrhythmias via non-reentrant and reentrant mechanisms. Given the interplay of multiple variables contributing to the increased arrhythmic risk, we advise avoidance of a facemask during high intensity exercise, or if wearing of a mask is mandatory, exercise intensity should remain low to avoid precipitation of lethal arrhythmias. However, we cannot exclude the possibility of an arrhythmic substrate even with low intensity exercise especially in those with established chronic cardiovascular disease in whom baseline electrophysiological abnormalities may be found.

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