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1.
Mycologia ; 112(1): 9-23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852403

RESUMO

Practices, perceptions, beliefs, and other forms of relationships between rural inhabitants and fungi have scarcely been studied in Patagonia. In this work, we analyze species richness, cultural importance, and modes of use of wild edible fungi in five Mapuche communities in northwest Patagonia of Argentina. Through an ethnobiological approach, we carried out semistructured interviews, walks in forests, and participant observations. Data were analyzed qualitative and quantitatively. Community members collected 17 species in environments with different degrees of human disturbance that they consumed fresh in situ, after some processing or stored for later consumption or trade. Indigenous morels such as Morchella aff. tridentina, M. aff. septimelata, and an unidentified species of Morchella had the greatest cultural importance at the regional level, followed by the exotic Suillus luteus and the native Cyttaria hariotti. Most of these species were frequently mentioned as having commercial value, continuity of use over time, and outstanding organoleptic properties. The remaining species currently have occasional use. The differential use of edible fungi, practices, transferences, and resignifications, as well as new technologies for storage, were analyzed. Regional knowledge about fungi reflects important features of Mapuche tradition but also the process of change in responding to complex and dynamic socioeconomic and ecological contexts.


Assuntos
Fagales/microbiologia , Florestas , Fungos , Indígenas Sul-Americanos , Argentina/etnologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Humanos , Conhecimento
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(1): 41-52, ene. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-907516

RESUMO

Los cercos vivos urbanos tienen un rol significativo por ser reservorios de biodiversidad y por las funciones socioeconómicas que pueden sustentar. En Bariloche (Río Negro, Patagonia Argentina) se estudiaron 300 cercos familiares, la riqueza de especies leñosas componentes, sus usos medicinales y comestibles, presencia de aromaticidad, como así también su disponibilidad en comercios locales. Los cercos se componen de 86 especies, entre estas las más frecuentes son las exóticas: Cytisus scoparius, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Cupressus macrocarpa y Rosa sp., y las nativas: Chusquea culeou y Nothofagus antarctica. El 73 por ciento de las especies son medicinales, el 59 por ciento comestibles y el 33 por ciento. Solo el 24 por ciento de las especies están disponibles en comercios de la ciudad dedicados a la venta de alimentos y/o productos herbolarios. Se concluye que los cercos de Bariloche tienen un alto potencial para la complementación, diversificación de la dieta y el tratamiento de dolencias menores de los pobladores locales.


Urban hedges have a significant role to be reservoirs of biodiversity and socio-economic functions that it can sustain. In Bariloche (Río Negro, Patagonia Argentina) we studied 300 family hedges, the richness of woody components, their medicinal and edible uses, presence of aromaticity, as well as their availability in local stores. The hedges are composed of 86 species, among these the most common are the exotics: Cytisus scoparius, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Cupressus macrocarpa y Rosa sp., and the natives: Chusquea culeou and Nothofagus antarctica. 73 percent of these one are medicinal, 59 percent are edible and 33 percent are aromatic plants. Only 24 percent of the species are available in shops of the city dedicated to the sale of food and/or herbal products. We conclude that the hedges of Bariloche have a high potential for supplementation, dietary diversification, and treatment of minor ailments of the local people.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Argentina , Biodiversidade , Área Urbana
3.
Blacpma ; 14(3): 237-250, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-877608

RESUMO

Este trabajo presenta resultados de un estudio sobre la presencia de complejos vegetales en la flora medicinal y comestible mapuche de la Patagonia Argentina. A partir de una revisión bibliográfica y datos de campo, se reconocieron diez complejos recurrentes en la región, conformados por especies nativas y exóticas. Los nombres de cada complejo llevan la etiqueta de sus componentes exóticos. En la mayoría de los casos las especies exóticas son plantas cultivadas, con mayor versatilidad utilitaria y disponibilidad ambiental que las nativas. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los componentes nativos son plantas de gran consenso de uso a nivel regional. Los componentes de cada complejo comparten características morfológicas, organolépticas, utilitarias y, en seis casos, pertenecen a la misma familia. Se discute la dinámica y complejidad de los sistemas clasificatorios tradicionales en interacción con elementos exóticos a lo largo del tiempo. Se concluye que los complejos estudiados son el resultado de factores tanto quimio-taxonómicos como socioculturales y ambientales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica/classificação , Argentina
4.
Blacpma ; 14(5): 366-378, 2015. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-877586

RESUMO

Los cercos vivos urbanos tienen un rol significativo por ser reservorios de biodiversidad y por las funciones socioeconómicas que pueden sustentar. En Bariloche (Río Negro, Patagonia Argentina) se estudiaron 300 cercos familiares, la riqueza de especies leñosas componentes, sus usos medicinales y comestibles, presencia de aromaticidad, como así también su disponibilidad en comercios locales. Los cercos se componen de 86 especies, entre estas las más frecuentes son las exóticas: Cytisus scoparius, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Cupressus macrocarpa y Rosa sp., y las nativas: Chusquea culeou y Nothofagus antarctica. El 73% de las especies son medicinales, el 59% comestibles y el 33% aromáticas. Solo el 24% de las especies están disponibles en comercios de la ciudad dedicados a la venta de alimentos y/o productos herbolarios. Se concluye que los cercos de Bariloche tienen un alto potencial para la complementación, diversificación de la dieta y el tratamiento de dolencias menores de los pobladores locales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cytisus , Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Argentina , Área Urbana
5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 10: 61, 2014 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25159153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The taste and smell of medicinal plants and their relation to the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in the Patagonian steppe was investigated. We assume that the landscapes as a source of therapeutic resources is perceived, classified and named according to different symbolic, ecological and utilitarian criteria which are influenced by chemosensorial appearance of medicinal plants which are valued by inhabitants. METHODS: Information relating to the cultural landscape experienced by 18 inhabitants, all representing 85% of the families, in terms of medicinal plants, knowledge of species and their organoleptic perception was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using cualitative and quantitative approach, including discourse analysis and non-parametric statistics. RESULTS: Informants use 121 medicinal species, obtained from both wild and non-wild environments, most of which (66%) present aroma and/or taste. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Flavor and/or aroma are interpreted as strong or soft, and the strongest are associated with treatment of supernatural ailments. Also, taste is a distinctive trait for the most of the species collected in all natural units of the landscape, while aroma is more closely associated with species growing at higher altitudes. The local pharmacopeia is also enriched with plants that come from more distant phytogeographical environments, such as the Andean forest and the Patagonian Monte, which are obtained through barter with neighboring populations. Herbal products are also obtained in regional shop. The practices of barter and purchase extend the limits of the landscape as a provider of therapeutic resources, improving the dynamics of its functions and structure, leading to more effective solutions to the various health needs that arise in the community. CONCLUSIONS: Herbal landscape perceived by the community exhibits notable eco sensorial and spatial heterogeneity. Local inhabitants' sensorial interpretations play a role as heuristic tools in the recreation and redefinition of old and new available resources.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Argentina , Ecologia , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(1): 24-37, ene. 2013. ilus, mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-722505

RESUMO

Edible and medicinal weeds being commercialised for the first time in an urban horticulturalists’ fair were studied with an ethnobotanical approach in Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina). The effects of three community workshops carried out previously were analysed, paying particular attention to the cosmovision, attitudes and behaviour of the horticulturalists regarding these plants. The methodology also included 25 open interviews, participative observation and a field surveys carried out together with the informants. A total richness of 29 species of edible and medicinal use was registered, the majority being of European origin. Before the workshops, the ideas and appreciation of the use of wild plants as food were generally negative, being associated with poverty. In contrast, their medicinal uses were more readily accepted. Following the workshops, however, attitudes and behaviour reflected a more positive general assessment, leading to their commercialisation and a marked tendency towards innovation in knowledge that could be combined with the participants’ traditional knowledge. The importance of this kind of applied ethnobotany project should be noted, and its contribution to the development of local communities.


Desde una aproximación etnobotánica, se estudiaron las malezas comestibles y medicinales comercializadas por primera vez en una feria urbana de horticultores de Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina), analizando los alcances de tres talleres comunitarios llevados a cabo previamente, y teniendo particular interés en las concepciones, actitudes y comportamientos acerca de dichas plantas entre los horticultores. La metodología incluyó también 25 entrevistas libres, observación participante y relevamientos a campo junto a informantes. Se registró una riqueza de total de 29 especies de uso medicinal y comestible, la mayoría de origen europeo. Antes de los talleres, las concepciones y valoraciones acerca de la utilización de las malezas como alimento eran en general negativas, asociándolas con la pobreza. En cambio, sus usos medicinales fueron mejor aceptados. Sin embargo, luego de los talleres, las actitudes y los comportamientos reflejaron valoraciones generales más positivas resultando en la comercialización de las mismas y una marcada tendencia hacia la innovación de saberes que podían hibridizarse con los saberes tradicionales de las personas. Se rescata la importancia de este tipo de proyectos de etnobotánica aplicada y su aporte al desarrollo de las comunidades locales.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Daninhas , Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Argentina , Comércio , Área Urbana
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22194774

RESUMO

Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species), mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 123(3): 397-406, 2009 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19501272

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: To document the richness of plant species used in gastrointestinal disorders and to investigate about the criteria of aroma and flavor associated with its recognition, classification, selection and use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of interviews to 30 inhabitants living in a Mapuche community of Northwestern Patagonia; data collected was analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics. RESULTS: This work records 75 ethnospecies, pertaining to 40 botanic families. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae were the most frequently mentioned and described in terms of smell and taste. Most of species (69%) have notable aroma and/or flavor characteristics. The species presenting highest consensus in the population are positively associated with a higher frequency of organoleptic descriptions. In addition, local people consider these perceptions to be potentially useful in the search for substitutes when species are scarce or disappear from a locality. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to establish a preliminary system of classification of medicinal plants based on their organoleptic characteristics and relate this to their effects on health. Moreover the cultural interpretation of smell and taste is of great heuristic importance to ethnopharmacology, in that it indicates which plants are most likely to contain the main active ingredients sought.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Olfato , Paladar , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes , Grupos Populacionais
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 122(2): 251-60, 2009 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19168122

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper aimed to present a quantitative review of information on Mapuche ethnobotany published for Argentina and Chile in the period 1955-2007. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen ethnobotanical articles were studied quantitatively by utilizing ethnobotanical indices, non-parametric and multivariate tests. RESULTS: A total of 505 medicinal species, 304 native (60%) and 196 exotic (39%) were registered. Ailments were treated with both native and exotic species, although native showed higher values of consensus (between studies) than exotic, and were more frequently used in all cases. The most common ailments were gastro-intestinal pains (26%). Most cures used herbs (56%). Native species were obtained mainly by gathering in forests and ecotones (40%), and exotics by gathering in anthropogenic environments (28%). Our results demonstrate the existence of a common, shared body of knowledge of the medicinal flora at a regional level, integrating ancestral knowledge with foreign knowledge accumulated over time. Finally, reflecting cultural erosion, modern articles cited significantly fewer native plants than older articles; a trend not found with exotic species. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The information offered can be used as a guide for future work on promising species for health care, and as background information for the development of bio-cultural conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Argentina , Biodiversidade , Chile , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Indígenas Sul-Americanos
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