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1.
ERJ Open Res ; 10(1)2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410711

RESUMO

Significant changes were observed in the lung imaging of hospitalised COVID-19 patients from 2020 to 2023, with the emergence of more signs of co-infection https://bit.ly/3TaQlJ2.

2.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12192, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328616

RESUMO

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) remains life-threatening in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Our study investigated risk factors one-year before PcP. We conducted a monocentric, case-control study including all KTR at the Dijon University Hospital (France) with a diagnosis of PcP between 2005 and 2022 (cases), and matched control KTR with no history of PcP (3 controls/case). Among all 1,135 KTR, 57 cases (5%) and 169 matched-controls were included. PcP was associated with 18% mortality. Compared to controls, cases were older, with a higher immunological risk, and CMV infection was more frequent in the year preceding the occurrence of PcP (23% vs. 4%; p < 0.001). As early as 1 year before PcP, lymphocyte counts were lower and serum creatinine levels were higher in cases, but immunosuppressive regimens were not significantly different. Multivariable analysis identified lymphocyte count, serum creatinine level, being treated by immunosuppressive therapy other than anti-rejection drugs, and CMV infection in the year preceding the time PcP as independently associated with the occurrence of PcP. PcP was associated with an increased risk of subsequent chronic rejection (27% vs. 3%; p = 0.001) and return to dialysis (20% vs. 3%; p = 0.002). The occurrence of CMV infection and a low lymphocyte count could redefine the indications for continuation or reinitiation of anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim , Linfopenia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Creatinina , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Linfopenia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Transplantados , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 78(4): 937-948, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2023 Duke-International Society for Cardiovascular Diseases (ISCVID) criteria for infective endocarditis (IE) were proposed as an updated diagnostic classification of IE. Using an open prospective multicenter cohort of patients treated for IE, we compared the performance of these new criteria to that of the 2000 Modified Duke and 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) criteria. METHODS: Cases of patients treated for IE between January 2017 and October 2022 were adjudicated as certain IE or not. Each case was also categorized as either definite or possible/rejected within each classification. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of the 1194 patients analyzed (mean age, 66.1 years; 71.2% males), 414 (34.7%) had a prosthetic valve and 284 (23.8%) had a cardiac implanted electronic device (CIED); 946 (79.2%) were adjudicated as certain IE; 978 (81.9%), 997 (83.5%), and 1057 (88.5%) were classified as definite IE in the 2000 modified Duke, 2015 ESC, and 2023 Duke-ISCVID criteria, respectively. The sensitivity of each set of criteria was 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.6-94.8), 95.0% (95% CI, 93.7-96.4), and 97.6% (95% CI, 96.6-98.6), respectively (P < .001 for all 2-by-2 comparisons). Corresponding specificity rates were 61.3% (95% CI, 55.2-67.4), 60.5% (95% CI, 54.4-66.6), and 46.0% (95% CI, 39.8-52.2), respectively. In patients without CIED, sensitivity rates were 94.8% (95% CI, 93.2-96.4), 96.5% (95% CI, 95.1-97.8), and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.6-98.8); specificity rates were 59.0% (95% CI, 51.6-66.3), 56.6% (95% CI, 49.3-64.0), and 53.8% (95% CI, 46.3-61.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the 2023 Duke-ISCVID criteria had a significantly higher sensitivity but a significantly lower specificity compared with older criteria. This decreased specificity was mainly attributable to patients with CIED.

5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 54(1): e14077, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37642230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating endotoxins could result from bacterial digestive translocation during sepsis, thus contributing to uncontrolled systemic inflammation, leading in turn to organ dysfunction. We addressed this issue in the setting of severe pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS: Endotoxemia was measured in a clinically relevant rabbit model of ventilated pneumococcal pneumonia and in 110 patients with bacteraemic pneumonia, using a patented mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection of 3-OH fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18), which are molecules bound to the lipid A motif of LPS. RESULTS: Whereas higher levels of systemic inflammation and organ dysfunctions were found, there was no significant difference in lipopolysaccharide concentrations when infected rabbits were compared to non-infected ones, or when patients were compared to healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: Seemingly, endotoxins do not drive the overwhelming inflammation associated with severe forms of pneumococcal pneumonia.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica , Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/diagnóstico , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Endotoxinas
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 43(3): e110-e113, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100728

RESUMO

Our study aimed to compare children under 5 years hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus in prepandemic and late-pandemic periods. We included 209 children at the Dijon University Hospital (France). We observed a nearly 3-fold increase in the number of cases in the late period, with older children, but less frequently requiring intensive care. These observations could help prepare a new pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos
7.
BMJ Med ; 2(1): e000427, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37920150

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of covid-19 convalescent plasma to treat patients admitted to hospital for moderate covid-19 disease with or without underlying immunodeficiency (CORIPLASM trial). Design: Open label, randomised clinical trial. Setting: CORIMUNO-19 cohort (publicly supported platform of open label, randomised controlled trials of immune modulatory drugs in patients admitted to hospital with moderate or severe covid-19 disease) based on 19 university and general hospitals across France, from 16 April 2020 to 21 April 2021. Participants: 120 adults (n=60 in the covid-19 convalescent plasma group, n=60 in the usual care group) admitted to hospital with a positive SARS-CoV2 test result, duration of symptoms <9 days, and World Health Organization score of 4 or 5. 49 patients (n=22, n=27) had underlying immunosuppression. Interventions: Open label randomisation to usual care or four units (200-220 mL/unit, 2 units/day over two consecutive days) of covid-19 convalescent plasma with a seroneutralisation titre >40. Main outcome measures: Primary outcomes were proportion of patients with a WHO Clinical Progression Scale score of ≥6 on the 10 point scale on day 4 (higher values indicate a worse outcome), and survival without assisted ventilation or additional immunomodulatory treatment by day 14. Secondary outcomes were changes in WHO Clinical Progression Scale scores, overall survival, time to discharge, and time to end of dependence on oxygen supply. Predefined subgroups analyses included immunosuppression status, duration of symptoms before randomisation, and use of steroids. Results: 120 patients were recruited and assigned to covid-19 convalescent plasma (n=60) or usual care (n=60), including 22 (covid-19 convalescent plasma) and 27 (usual care) patients who were immunocompromised. 13 (22%) patients who received convalescent plasma had a WHO Clinical Progression Scale score of ≥6 at day 4 versus eight (13%) patients who received usual care (adjusted odds ratio 1.88, 95% credible interval 0.71 to 5.24). By day 14, 19 (31.6%) patients in the convalescent plasma group and 20 (33.3%) patients in the usual care group needed ventilation, additional immunomodulatory treatment, or had died. For cumulative incidence of death, three (5%) patients in the convalescent plasma group and eight (13%) in the usual care group died by day 14 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 1.53), and seven (12%) patients in the convalescent plasma group and 12 (20%) in the usual care group by day 28 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.51, 0.20 to 1.32). In a subgroup analysis performed in patients who were immunocompromised, transfusion of covid-19 convalescent plasma was associated with mortality (hazard ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.10). Conclusions: In this study, covid-19 convalescent plasma did not improve early outcomes in patients with moderate covid-19 disease. The efficacy of convalescent plasma in patients who are immunocompromised should be investigated further. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04345991.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37970975

RESUMO

We assessed cumulative detection and determinants of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in men who have sex with men living with HIV who underwent three visits over two years, with cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA), within the ANRS-EP57-APACHES study. Cumulative HSIL detection was 33% (134/410), of which 48% were detected at baseline. HSIL detection varied considerably by center (13-51%). Strongest HSIL determinants were baseline HPV16 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.2; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 3.6-18.9), and p16/Ki67 (aOR 4.6; 95%CI 2.3-9.1). Repeat annual cytology and HRA improved HSIL detection but did not fully compensate between-center heterogeneity.

9.
ERJ Open Res ; 9(5)2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37701363

RESUMO

In patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia, detection of Aspergillus is associated with a mortality rate surpassing 50%, irrespective of whether it is defined as invasion or colonisation https://bit.ly/46PMk1f.

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1183340, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37502605

RESUMO

Introduction: The diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations of deep mycoses relies on both histopathological and direct examinations. Yet, the current diagnostic criteria cannot prevent missed cases, including invasive aspergillosis, which requires the development of a novel diagnostic approach and imaging tools. We recently introduced the use of dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography (D-FF-OCT) in fungal diagnostics with a definition approaching that of conventional microscopy and the ability to return metabolic information regarding different fungal species. The present work focuses on subcellular dynamics and live-cell imaging of Aspergillus fumigatus with D-FF-OCT to follow the fungal growth stages. Methods: The A. fumigatus ATCC 204305 quality-control strain was used for all imaging experiments, following incubation times varying between 24 and 72 h at 30°C in a humidified chamber on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Fungal growth was subsequently monitored with D-FF-OCT for up to 5 h at room temperature and following the pharmacological stress of either voriconazole, amphotericin B, or caspofungin gradient concentration. Results: D-FF-OCT images allow not only the visualization of intracellular trafficking of vacuoles but also an evolving dynamic segmentation of conidiophores depending on the chronological development and aging of the hyphae or the effect of antifungal treatment. The same applies to conidial heads, with the most intense D-FF-OCT signal coming from vesicles, revealing a changing dynamic within a few hours only, as well as complete extinction following subsequent drying of the Sabouraud dextrose agar. Discussion: These results provide additional data on the ability of D-FF-OCT to monitor some of the main life cycle processes, dynamics, and intracellular trafficking of vacuoles in A. fumigatus, with or without the effect of pharmacological stress. Such complementary metabolic information could help both clinicians and microbiologists in either mechanistic studies toward experimental mycology or the development of a potential D-FF-OCT-guided diagnosis of superficial fungal infections.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ágar/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Glucose
11.
J Clin Med ; 12(14)2023 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37510786

RESUMO

Since December 2019, many drugs have been evaluated or advocated as potential treatments of SARS-CoV-2 induced disease (COVID-19), including many repositioned drugs and some others specifically developed for these diseases. They can be roughly classified into three categories according to their main mechanism of action (passive immunization, direct antivirals, and anti-inflammatory treatments), and their use depends on the stage of the disease. Despite often promising preclinical data, most of the treatments evaluated failed to show a significant clinical benefit. In addition, a few others have seen their effectiveness affected by the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and sub-variants. Herein, the aim of this article is to take stock of the data available as of the 14th of July 2022, concerning the specific healing options evaluated for patients suffering from COVID-19. We focus particularly on healing treatments of COVID-19 and do not deal with preventive treatments such as vaccine. Associated therapies such as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis are not detailed since they are covered in a specific chapter of this issue. Passive immunization, especially through monoclonal antibodies, showed a positive impact on the clinical evolution, whether in outpatients or inpatients without oxygen supply. However, their effectiveness strongly depends on the type of SARS-CoV-2 variant, and often decreases or even vanishes with the most recent variants. Among direct antiviral treatments, ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir appears to currently be the cornerstone in the management of early infections, but its use may be limited by drug interactions. Remdesivir remains as an alternative in this situation, even though it is potentially less convenient. Anti-inflammatory treatments have often been shown to be the most effective in inpatients with oxygen supply. Dexamethasone is now a cornerstone of management of these patients. Added tocilizumab seems beneficial in the case of hyper inflammation. JAK inhibitors and anakinra have also gained an interest in some studies. As a conclusion of this narrative review, the best treatment strategy has yet to be defined and is likely to evolve in the future, not only because many other drugs are still under development and evaluation, but also because of the viral epidemics and epidemiology evolution.

12.
BMJ Open ; 13(7): e073032, 2023 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37491088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The leading cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults is Streptococcus pneumoniae. This infection is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity related, among other factors, to the excessive host response to the pneumococcal lysis. Experimental in vitro and in vivo data show that the combination of corticosteroids/third-generation cephalosporins and the non-lytic antibiotic, daptomycin, has synergistic effects with (1) a rapid cerebrospinal fluid sterilisation, (2) less brain damages and (3) less loss of cognitive performances. Despite these encouraging results, daptomycin has never been evaluated in adult patients with pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The AddaMAP trial is a phase II, open-label, Simon's two-stage, multicentre trial that has been designed to assess the efficacy and safety of adding daptomycin (10 mg/kg/d for 8 days) to the recommended treatment (corticosteroids+third generation cephalosporin) in adults with confirmed pneumococcal meningitis. The main endpoint is the disability-free survival (defined as modified Rankin Scale mRS≤2) at day 30. Secondary outcomes are overall mortality, disability at D30 and D90 (mRS, Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scales, mini-mental score), hearing loss (Hearing Handicap Inventory Test at D30 and D90, routine audiometric test and Hearing-it test at D30), and quality of life (12-item Short Form Survey and WHO QOL BREF). Seventy-two analysable patients are required. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the IDF 1 of the ethics committee on 16 January 2018, and authorisation was obtained from the Agence Nationale de Securité des Médicaments et des Produits de Santé on 22 September 2017. The results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03480191.


Assuntos
Daptomicina , Meningite Pneumocócica , Adulto , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Daptomicina/uso terapêutico , Meningite Pneumocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Meningite Pneumocócica/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite Pneumocócica/complicações , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1042704, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37250656

RESUMO

Introduction: Whether a delayed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the emergency department (ED) is associated with worse outcome is uncertain. We sought factors associated with a delayed diagnosis of CAP in the ED and those associated with in-hospital mortality. Methods: Retrospective study including all inpatients admitted to an ED (Dijon University Hospital, France) from 1 January to 31 December 2019, and hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP. Patients diagnosed with CAP in the ED (n = 361, early diagnosis) were compared with those diagnosed later, in the hospital ward, after the ED visit (n = 74, delayed diagnosis). Demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data were collected upon admission to the ED, as well as administered therapies and outcomes including in-hospital mortality. Results: 435 inpatients were included: 361 (83%) with an early and 74 (17%) with a delayed diagnosis. The latter less frequently required oxygen (54 vs. 77%; p < 0.001) and were less likely to have a quick-SOFA score ≥ 2 (20 vs. 32%; p = 0.056). Absence of chronic neurocognitive disorders, of dyspnea, and of radiological signs of pneumonia were independently associated with a delayed diagnosis. Patients with a delayed diagnosis less frequently received antibiotics in the ED (34 vs. 75%; p < 0.001). However, a delayed diagnosis was not associated with in-hospital mortality after adjusting on initial severity. Conclusion: Delayed diagnosis of pneumonia was associated with a less severe clinical presentation, lack of obvious signs of pneumonia on chest X-ray, and delayed antibiotics initiation, but was not associated with worse outcome.

14.
AIDS ; 37(8): 1297-1306, 2023 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37070541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether hepatitis C virus (HCV)-cured people with HIV (PWH) without cirrhosis reached the same mortality risk as HCV-uninfected PWH. We aimed to compare mortality in PWH cured of HCV by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to mortality in individuals with HIV monoinfection. DESIGN: Nationwide hospital cohort. METHODS: HIV-controlled participants without cirrhosis and HCV-cured by DAAs started between September 2013 and September 2020, were matched on age (±5 years), sex, HIV transmission group, AIDS status, and body mass index (BMI) (±1 kg/m 2 ) to up to 10 participants with a virally suppressed HIV monoinfection followed at the time of HCV cure ±6 months. Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates were used to compare mortality in both groups after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: The analysis included 3961 HCV-cured PWH (G1) and 33 872 HCV-uninfected PWH (G2). Median follow-up was 3.7 years in G1 [interquartile range (IQR): 2.0-4.6], and 3.3 years (IQR: 1.7-4.4) in G2. Median age was 52.0 years (IQR: 47.0-56.0), and 29 116 (77.0%) were men. There were 150 deaths in G1 [adjusted incidence rate (aIR): 12.2/1000 person-years] and 509 (aIR: 6.3/1000 person-years) in G2, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-2.7]. The risk remained elevated 12 months post HCV cure (IRR: 2.4 [95% CI, 1.6-3.5]). Non-AIDS/non-liver-related malignancy was the most common cause of death in G1 (28 deaths). CONCLUSIONS: Despite HCV cure and HIV viral suppression, after controlling on factors related to mortality, DAA-cured PWH without cirrhosis remain at higher risk of all-cause mortality than people with HIV monoinfection. A better understanding of the determinants of mortality is needed in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0281544, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36952472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community Acute Bacterial Meningitis (CABM) is a rare infectious disease leading to important impairments. Our aim was to describe CABM survivors' quality of life (QOL) 12 months post-CABM and to assess its associations with CABM sequelae. METHODS: Patients included in the CABM COMBAT cohort were evaluated one year after the CABM episode. Data were collected by questionnaire, via phone calls with the patients. The WHOQOL-BREF was used to measure CABM survivors' QOL. Hierarchical multivariate linear regressions were performed. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 284 patients. At 12 months, 53.9% (153/284) reported at least incident headache/worsening headache intensity at 12 months post-CABM, and/or incident hearing impairment, and/or unfavourable disability outcome (GOS). Unfavourable disability outcome was associated with lower physical health QOL (B = -30.35, p<0.001), lower mental health QOL (B = -15.31, p<0.001), lower environmental QOL (B = -11.08, p<0.001) and lower social relationships QOL (B = -9.62, p<0.001). Incident headache/worsening headache since meningitis onset was associated with lower psychological health (B = -5.62, p = 0.010). Incident hearing impairment was associated with lower physical QOL (B = -5.34, p = 0.030). Hierarchical regressions showed that CABM impairments significantly increase explanatory power of multivariate models (for physical health R2 change = 0.42, p<0.001, for psychological health R2 change = 0.23, p<0.001, for social relationships R2 change = 0.06, p<0.001 and for environment domain R2 change was 0.15, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: 12 month-CABM burden is heavy. Early detection and management of CABM impairments should be performed in clinical practice as early as possible to optimize patients' psychological and psychosocial functioning. CLINICALTRIAL. GOV IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: NCT01730690.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Cefaleia , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 42(4): 441-452, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36806057

RESUMO

We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, management, and residual symptoms (RS) in patients with definite and possible Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). We conducted a retrospective French multicenter cohort study (2010-2020). Cases of LNB were defined as clinical manifestations attributed to LNB and a positive Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibody index (AI) ("possible" LNB) and with pleocytosis ("definite" LNB). Risk factors of RS were determined using a logistic regression model. We included 138 adult patients with a positive AI. Mean age was 59.5 years (± 14.7). The median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 1.0 [0.5-4.0] months. The most frequent manifestation was radicular pain (n = 79, 57%). Complete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte analysis was available in 131 patients, of whom 72 (55%) had pleocytosis. Patients with definite LNB had a shorter duration of symptoms (median 1.0 [0.5-2.6] vs. 3.0 [0.6-7.0] months, p < 0.01) and more radicular pain (74% vs 44%, p < 0.01) than patients with possible LNB. At the last visit (median duration of follow-up: 70 [30-175] days), 74/124 patients (59.7%) reported RS, mostly radicular pain (n = 31, 25%). In multivariate analysis, definite LNB (OR = 0.21 [0.05-0.931], p = 0.039) and duration of symptoms less than 3 months (OR = 0.04 [0.01-0.37], p = 0.005) were protective factors against RS at last follow-up. Our study highlights the challenges of LNB management, especially for patients with a positive AI without pleocytosis, questioning whether LB is still ongoing or not. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to improve outcomes and to lower potential RS.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Neuroborreliose de Lyme , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Leucocitose , Quimiocina CXCL13/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Dor
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(3): 757-768, 2023 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported weight gain in ART-naive people living with HIV (PWH) initiating an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor-based regimen. We studied the impact of early or advanced presentation and that of individual drugs in PWH initiating combined ART (cART) between 2012 and 2018. METHODS: From the French Hospital Database HIV cohort, we assessed factors associated with a weight gain  ≥10%, weight change after cART initiation or BMI increase  ≥5 kg/m2 up to 30 months. The analyses were conducted overall, and among PWH with early (primary infection or CD4 >350/mm3 and viral load  <100 000 copies/mL, without AIDS) and advanced presentation (AIDS or CD4 <200/mm3, not during primary infection). RESULTS: At 30 months, 34.5% (95% CI: 33.5-35.6) of the 12 773 PWH had a weight gain ≥10%, with 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6-22.2) among the 5794 with early presentation and 63.1% (95% CI: 60.9-65.3) among the 3106 with advanced presentation. Weight gain was 2.8 kg (95% CI: 2.0-3.7) for those with early presentation and 9.7 kg (95% CI: 8.4-11.1) for those with advanced presentation. Most weight gain occurred in the first 12 months. Underweight and obese PWH were at significantly higher risk of a BMI increase  ≥5 kg/m2 than normal-weight PWH. Results differed within classes and by outcome. Raltegravir and dolutegravir were consistently associated with greater weight gain than the other third agents. Tenofovir alafenamide was also associated with higher weight gain than tenofovir disoproxil or abacavir. CONCLUSIONS: After initiating cART, PWH with early presentation exhibited a small weight gain, whereas it was large among those with advanced presentation. The choice of ART should account for the risk of weight gain, especially for PWH who present with advanced disease and/or are obese.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Aumento de Peso , Obesidade/complicações , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
18.
HIV Med ; 24(2): 191-201, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to identify missed opportunities for the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in people with recently acquired HIV, factors associated with PrEP knowledge, and reasons for not using PrEP. DESIGN: This was a French national cross-sectional multicentre study enrolling people diagnosed with recent HIV (incomplete Western blot or negative HIV test in the previous 6 months) in 28 HIV clinical centres. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ). METHOD: We analysed missed opportunities for PrEP use via a retrospective prep cascade. Factors associated with prior knowledge of PrEP and reasons for PrEP non-use among those who knew about PrEP were described using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 224 eligible patients, 185 completed the SAQ and 168 (91%) were eligible for PrEP. Of these, 90% reported seeing at least one physician during the previous year, 26% received information about PrEP, and 5% used PrEP. Factors independently associated with a higher probability of knowing about PrEP were being a man who has sex with men, being aged 25-30 years (vs older), undergoing HIV screening at least once every semester (vs less often; odds ratio [OR] 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-8.45), and practicing chemsex (OR 3.19; 95% CI 1.12-9.10). Fear of side effects and a low perceived risk of HIV infection were the two most common reasons for not using PrEP (N = 40 [33.33%] and N = 34 [28.3%], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found two gaps in the retrospective PrEP cascade: insufficient provision of PrEP information by healthcare providers (mainly general practitioners) and low PrEP acceptability by informed, eligible patients. More diverse healthcare providers need to be involved in PrEP prescription, and at-risk people need to be sensitized to the risk of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Masculino , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(4): 543.e5-543.e9, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to compare the clinical and virological outcomes in Omicron BA.1- and BA.2-infected patients who received sotrovimab with those in patients who received nirmatrelvir for the prevention of severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this multi-centric, prospective ANRS 0003S CoCoPrev cohort study, patients at a high risk of progression of mild-to-moderate BA.1 or BA.2 COVID-19 who received sotrovimab or nirmatrelvir were included. The proportion of patients with progression to severe COVID-19, time between the start of treatment to negative PCR conversion, SARS-CoV-2 viral decay, and characterization of resistance variants were determined. A multi-variable Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the time to negative PCR conversion and a mixed-effect model for the dynamics of viral decay. RESULTS: Amongst 255 included patients, 199 (80%) received ≥3 vaccine doses, 195 (76%) received sotrovimab, and 60 (24%) received nirmatrelvir. On day 28, new COVID-19-related hospitalization occurred in 4 of 193 (2%; 95% CI, 1-5%) sotrovimab-treated patients and 0 of 55 nirmatrelvir-treated patients (p 0.24). One out of the 55 nirmatrelvir-treated patients died (2%; 95% CI, 0-10%). The median time to negative PCR conversion was 11.5 days (95% CI, 10.5-13) in the sotrovimab-treated patients vs. 4 days (95% CI, 4-9) in the nirmatrelvir-treated patients (p < 0.001). Viral decay was faster in the patients who received nirmatrelvir (p < 0.001). In the multi-variable analysis, nirmatrelvir and nasopharyngeal PCR cycle threshold values were independently associated with faster conversion to negative PCR (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.56-3.56; p < 0.0001 and hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; p 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Early administration of nirmatrelvir in high-risk patients compared with that of sotrovimab was associated with faster viral clearance. This may participate to decrease transmission and prevent viral resistance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Lactamas , Leucina , Nitrilas , Teste para COVID-19
20.
J Virus Erad ; 9(4): 100357, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38188640

RESUMO

Background: Understanding factors affecting the size and the evolution of the HIV reservoir is essential for the development of curative strategies. This study aimed to assess the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during primary infection (PHI) vs chronic infection (CHI) on the levels and dynamics of integrated HIV-1 DNA, a biomarker of viral persistence. Methods: Integrated and total HIV-1-DNA were measured in the blood of 92 patients treated during PHI (early group) and 41 during CHI (deferred group), at diagnosis, ART initiation, and 12-24 months on treatment. Results: On ART, detectable (>1.78 log10 copies/106 PBMCs) integrated HIV-1 DNA levels were significantly lower in the early vs deferred group (2.99 log10vs 3.29 log10,p = 0.005). The proportion of undetectable integrated HIV-1 DNA tended to be higher in the early group vs deferred group (61 % vs 46 %; p = 0.133). Conclusion: Treatment initiated at PHI limits the levels of integrated HIV-1 DNA in blood. However, initiating treatment at CHI does not allow reaching such low levels in most patients, probably because the stable proviruses at that stage are present in the less prone to elimination long-lived cells. Thus, early ART could provide an opportunity to preparing for functional cure and eradication strategies.

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