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1.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102880, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688015

RESUMO

While higher anxiety during antenatal period cause several maternal and foetal health related complications, lower anxiety levels are found to be associated with lesser "precautionary behaviours" and consequently greater risk of infection, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to assess rates and determinants of generalized anxiety at the time of the pandemic as well as anxiety that was specific to the context of being pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic. (COVID-19-antenatal anxiety) in Indian women. This hospital-based, cross-sectional study using face-to-face interviews was conducted at antenatal clinics of five medical college hospitals in India. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD -7) and a customized scale to assess antenatal COVID-19 anxiety along with other tools that assessed social support and COVID-19-risk perception were administered to 620 pregnant women. We found that the percentage of women with moderate or severe anxiety based on GAD -7 was 11.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that higher COVID-19-risk perception, greater antenatal COVID-19 anxiety and lower perceived support significantly predicted moderate and severe generalized anxiety. Greater number of weeks of gestation, lower education, semiurban habitat and lower perceived social support were significant predictors of antenatal COVID-19 anxiety. We conclude that the rates of anxiety in pregnant women though not very high, still warrant attention and specific interventions.

3.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(Suppl 1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies have a negative impact on the health and economy of a nation, which can be prevented by effective family planning (FP) services. Postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUCD) is a safe and effective FP method which allows women to obtain long-acting contraception before discharge from the point of delivery. We observed poor coverage of deliveries with PPIUCD at our facility. This was the trigger to initiate a quality improvement (QI) initiative to increase the PPIUCD coverage from current rate of 4.5%-10% in 3-month period. METHOD: A fishbone analysis of the problem was done and the following causes were identified: lack of focused counselling for FP, lack of sensitisation and training of resident doctors and inconsistent supply of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A QI team was constituted with representatives from faculty members, residents, interns, nursing officers and FP counsellors. The point of care quality improvement methodology was used. INTERVENTIONS: Daily counselling of antenatal women was started by the counsellors and interns in antenatal wards. A WhatsApp group of residents was made initially to sensitise them; and later for parking of problems and trouble shooting. The residents were provided hands-on training at skills lab. Uninterrupted supply of IUCDs was ensured by provision of buffer stock of IUCDs with respective store keepers. RESULT: The PPIUCD insertion rates improved from 4.5% to 19.2% at 3 months and have been sustained to a current 30%-35% after 1 ½ years of initiation of the project tiding through the turbulence during the COVID-19 pandemic using QI techniques. CONCLUSION: Sensitisation and training of residents as well as creation of awareness among antenatal women through targeted counselling helped improve PPIUCD coverage at the facility. QI initiatives have the potential to facilitate effective implementation of the FP programmes by strategic utilisation of the resources.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Período Pós-Parto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , COVID-19 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez
6.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14171, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936882

RESUMO

Background Peripartum hysterectomy (PRH) is the surgical removal of the uterus performed in obstetrical complications such as uncontrolled postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), unrepairable uterine rupture, and sepsis. Its incidence has increased in recent years. The objective of this study was to review all the cases of PRH in a tertiary care teaching hospital over three years (January 2017-December 2019) to determine its incidence and analyse clinico-demographic characteristics in these women. Method All women undergoing PRH from January 2017 to December 2019 were included in the study. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records, of patients who underwent a PRH at the time of delivery, or within 24 hours, or performed any time before discharge from the same hospitalization and obstetric event. The total number of deliveries including caesarean and vaginal deliveries were recorded. Main outcome measures were the incidence of PRH, indication for hysterectomy, management option used, maternal outcomes (PPH, bladder injury and maternal death) and fetal outcomes (stillbirth). Results There were a total of 3904,4 deliveries; 27,337 vaginal and 11,697 caesarean sections in three years. A total of 50 patients underwent a PRH. The incidence of PRH in our study was 1.3 per 1,000 deliveries and 3.5/1,000 caesareans, respectively. PRH was found to be more common following cesarean sections than vaginal deliveries (odds ratio 22.86 [95% CI: 8.16 to 63.98]). Morbid adherent placenta (MAP) (n=30, 62%) was the most common indications of PRH. Seven (15%) women had PRH due to uterine rupture. Twenty-seven women of the 30 women (90%) with the MAP had a previous caesarean delivery. The case fatality rate per hysterectomy was 4%. Stillbirth rate (SBR: n=8,16%) among women having PRH was seven-fold higher than overall SBR in our country. Conclusion There has been a rise in MAP as an indication of PRH in our study for a decade in comparison to uterine atony. Caesarean delivery is a significant risk factor for PRH. Previous caesarean section and major placenta previa were common occurring obstetric risk factors present in the MAP in our cohort. Our maternal mortality in PRH was low and the stillbirth rate was high when compared with national data.

7.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 24: 79-89, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies on One Carbon Metabolism (OCM), Interleukins-10 &-17 (IL-10/-17) & ßhCG in pre-eclampsia and its delivery outcome (preterm birth) reveal contradictory results, attributed to clinical heterogeneity (early/late onset pre-eclampsia) or preterm/term birth. Disturbed OCM also influences IL-10 &-17 during pregnancy. We sought to investigate the synergism between OCM and IL-10/-17 mediated immune-regulation through ßhCG in Early onset pre-eclampsia (EO-PE) patients, delivering preterm, among North Indian women. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study with a total of 399 pregnant women (EO-PE delivering preterm = 199; Normotensives delivering at term = 200). Maternal genotypes & biochemical estimations along with fetal genotypes on subset (n = 72) pertaining to OCM and IL-10/-17 regulation were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of 1) maternal plasma levels with EO-PE 2) maternal and fetal genotypes with EO-PE. 3) Effect of Hyper-homocysteinemia (surrogate of disturbed OCM) on differential immune regulation (IL10,-17, ßhCG) in EO-PE and mode of delivery. RESULTS: Hyper-homocysteinemia posed an increased risk of three folds for EO-PE. Both, folate and B12 deficiencies were associated with elevated homocysteine in EO-PE. Further, MTHFR 677TT homozygotes was present only in EO-PE indicating its detrimental role. However, maternal IL17-197AA genotype showed decreased risk for EO-PE. Furthermore, elevated maternal plasma IL-17 along with elevated IL-10 & ßhCG were observed in EO-PE. Taken together, altered homocysteine metabolism was associated with high IL10 in EO-PE; and was more pronounced in spontaneous vaginal deliveries as compared to induced/caesarean section deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: We report homocysteine mediated IL-10 &17 dysregulation and its influence on mode of delivery in EO-PE, possibly through initiation of cervical ripening. Further, these could serve potential biomarkers of EO-PE & its delivery outcome among vulnerable populations with similar nutritional & genetic predispositions.

8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 259: 7-11, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions around the world. In pregnancy the dangers to the mother and fetus are still being explored. SARS-CoV2 can potentially compromise maternal and neonatal outcomes and this may be dependent on the pregnancy stage during which the infection occurs. OBJECTIVE: The present study was done to find the histopathological alterations in the placenta of SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies with either no symptoms or mild coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 related symptoms and its association with neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective analytical study. Twenty seven asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy delivered between 1st July 2020 and 15th September 2020, were included as cases. An equal number of SARS-CoV-2 negative singleton pregnancies matched for maternal and gestational age during the same period were included as controls. After delivery the histopathological examination of the placenta of these women was done and the findings recorded on a predesigned proforma based on the Amsterdam consensus criteria for evidence of maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion changes. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics were comparable between the cases and controls. The following features of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) were significantly higher in the placentae of COVID-19 positive pregnancies: retroplacental hematomas (RPH), accelerated villous maturation (AVM), distal villous hyperplasia (DVH), atherosis, fibrinoid necrosis, mural hypertrophy of membrane arterioles (MHMA), vessel ectasia and persistence of intramural endovascular trophoblast (PIEVT). Fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM) significantly associated with the positive pregnancies were chorioangiosis, thrombosis of the fetal chorionic plate (TFCP), intramural fibrin deposition (IMFD) and vascular ectasia. Additionally, perivillous fibrin deposition was also significantly higher in the placentae of cases. The percentage of spontaneously delivered women was comparable in the two groups. The sex and weight of the newborn and the number of live births were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women, with otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies, show evidence of placental injury at a microscopic level. Similar findings have been demonstrated in other studies too. This placental injury apparently does not lead to poor pregnancy outcomes. The extent of this injury in symptomatic cases of COVID-19 pregnancies and its consequences on the outcomes need to be analysed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Portador Sadio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças Placentárias/etiologia , Doenças Placentárias/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The placental pathological changes in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) starts early in pregnancy, the deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) can identify these changes before its clinical manifestation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the placental quantitative ultrasound image texture of women with HDP to those with the normal outcome. METHODS: The cases were enrolled in the first trimester of pregnancy, good quality images of the placenta were taken serially in the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were followed till delivery, those with normal outcomes were controls, and those with HDP were cases. The images were processed and classified using validated deep learning tools. RESULTS: Total of 429 cases were fully followed till delivery, 58 of them had HDP (13.5%). In the first trimester, there was a significant difference in the placental length (p = .033), uterine artery PI (p = .019), biomarkers PAPP-A (p = .001) PlGF (p = .013) and placental image texture (p = .001) between the cases and controls. In the second trimester the uterine artery PI, serum PAPP-A (p = .010) and PlGF (p = .005) levels were significantly low among women who developed hypertension later on pregnancy. The image texture disparity between the two groups was highly significant (p < .001). The model "resnext 101_32x8d" had Cohen kappa score of 0.413 (moderate) and the accuracy score of 0.710 (good). In the first trimester the best sensitivity and specificity was observed for abnormal placental image texture (70.6% and 76.6%, respectively) followed by PlGF (64% and 50%, respectively), in the second trimester the abnormal image texture had the highest sensitivity and specificity (60.4% and 73.3%, respectively) followed by uterine artery PI (58.6% and 54.7%, respectively). Similarly in the third trimester, uterine artery PI had sensitivity and specificity of 60.3% and specificity of 50.7%, whereas the abnormal image texture had sensitivity and specificity of 83.5%. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound placental analysis using artificial intelligence (UPAAI) is a promising technique, would open avenues for more research in this field.

11.
Eval Health Prof ; 44(1): 98-101, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148018

RESUMO

A single undiagnosed COVID-19 positive patient admitted in the green zone has the potential to infect many Health Care Workers (HCWs) and other patients at any given time with resultant spread of infection and reduction in the available workforce. Despite the existing triaging strategy at the Obstetric unit of a tertiary hospital in New Delhi, where all COVID-19 suspects obstetric patients were tested and admitted in orange zone and non-suspects in green zone, asymptomatic COVID-19 positive patients were found admitted in the green zone. This was the trigger to undertake a quality improvement (QI) initiative to prevent the admission of asymptomatic COVID-19 positive patients in green zones. The QI project aimed at reducing the admission of COVID-19 positive patients in the green zone of the unit from 20% to 10% in 4 weeks' time starting 13/6/2020 by means of dynamic triaging. A COVID-19 action team was made and after an initial analysis of the problem multiple Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were run to test the change ideas. The main change ideas were revised testing strategies and creating gray Zones for patients awaiting COVID-19 test results. The admission of unsuspected COVID-19 positive cases in the green zone of the unit reduced from 20% to 0% during the stipulated period. There was a significant reduction in the number of HCWs, posted in the green zone, being quarantined or test positive for COVID-19 infection as well. The authors conclude that Quality Improvement methods have the potential to develop effective strategies to prevent spread of the deadly Corona virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Triagem/organização & administração , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração
12.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 13(1): e12436, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of recognition in national programs, poor referral system, and non-availability of trained human resources are the important barriers for the delivery of perinatal depression (PND) services in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). To address this there is an urgent need to develop an integrative and non-specialist-based stepped care model. As part of its research thrust on target areas of India's National Mental Health Programme (NMHP), the Indian Council of Medical Research funded a research project on the outcome of PND at four sites. In this article, we describe the development of the primary health care worker-based stepped care model and brief psychological intervention for PND. METHODS: A literature review focused on various aspects of PND was conducted to develop a model of care and intervention under NMHP. A panel of national and international experts and stakeholders reviewed the literature, opinions, perspectives, and proposal for different models and interventions, using a consensus method and WHO implementation toolkit. RESULTS: A consensus was reached to develop an ANM (Auxillary nurse midwife)-based stepped-care model consisting of the components of care, training, and referral services for PND. Furthermore, a brief psychological intervention (BIND-P) was developed, which includes the components of the low-intensity intervention (eg, exercise, sleep hygiene). CONCLUSION: The BIND-P model and intervention provide a practical approach that may facilitate effective identification, treatment, and support women with PND. We are currently evaluating this model across four study sites in India, which may help in the early detection and provision of appropriate and integrative care for PND.

13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(1): 76-82, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent lockdown on the incidence, associated causes, and modifiable factors of stillbirth. METHODS: An analytical case-control study was performed comparing stillbirths from March to September 2020 (cases) and March to September 2019 (controls) in a tertiary care center in India. Modifiable factors were observed as level-I, level-II, and level-III delays. RESULTS: A significant difference in the rate of stillbirths was found among cases (37.4/1000) and controls (29.9/1000) (P = 0.045). Abruption in normotensive women was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (P = 0.03). Modifiable factors or preventable causes were noted in 76.1% of cases and 59.6% of controls; the difference was highly significant (P < 0.001, relative risk [RR] 1.8). Level-II delays or delays in reaching the hospital for delivery due to lack of transport were observed in 12.7% of cases compared to none in controls (P < 0.006, RR 47.7). Level-III delays or delays in providing care at the facility were observed in 31.3% of cases and 11.5% of controls (P < 0.001, RR 2.7). CONCLUSION: Although there was no difference in causes of stillbirth between cases and controls, level-II and level-III delays were significantly impacted by the pandemic, leading to a higher rate of preventable stillbirths in pregnant women not infected with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 53: 102109, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474343

RESUMO

Antenatal Depression (AD) is prevalent in India but remains unidentified and untreated in primary care settings. The Auxiliary Nursing Midwife (ANM), a non-specialist health care worker at antenatal care (ANC) clinic or at a primary care centre can improve the detection of women with AD. In this study, we aimed to estimate the inter-rater reliability of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and PHQ-2, administered by ANMs, with mental health professionals, that is, Clinical Psychologists(CP). The prospective, blind, observational study was conducted in an antenatal clinic of tertiary care rural hospital of India. PHQ-2 and PHQ-9(Marathi) valid and translated versions were administered to consecutive antenatal women (n = 108) aged 18-45 years by two raters (CP, ANM) independently. Raters and data analyst were blinded to each other's scores. Kappa Coefficient, weighted kappa, Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess Inter-rater reliability. The mean age of the study participants was 25.91 ± 4.39 years. Inter-rater reliability for PHQ-2 (Screen -Positive or Negative for depression) and PHQ-9 (Severity of depression) was (k = 0.675) and (kw = 0.732) respectively, which suggested the 'substantial' agreement between ANMs and CP. Among raters, the ICC (95 % confidence interval) was 0.90 (0.85, 0.93) for the PHQ-9 score and for the PHQ-2 was 0.873 (0.819-0.911), which was suggestive of excellent and good reliability respectively. The 'substantial' agreement and 'good to excellent' inter-rater reliability among ANM and CP suggest that these two scales can be used to screen and assess the severity of AD by either qualified or minimally trained, community health workers.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Enfermeiras Obstétricas , Adulto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Hum Biol ; 32(5): e23388, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of folate and vitamin B12 levels on pregnancy progression and outcomes. METHODS: The present study is a prospective follow up study of 100 pregnant women. Biochemical investigations (plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels) were performed on all pregnant women in first, second, and third trimesters. Nonparametric tests were used to compare the differences in median levels and odds ratio analysis for the assessment of the risk between the selected biomarkers and adverse pregnancy progression and outcomes. RESULTS: The pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit were found to be predominantly folate replete (97%) and vitamin B12 deficient (60%). Hyperhomocysteinemia in first and second trimesters was found to pose more than 3-fold increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes (P = .006 and .0002, respectively). Low birth weight (LBW) was found to be the most common adverse pregnancy outcome (52%), and was significantly associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in the first and second trimesters (82%, P < .0001; 71.4%, P = .04, respectively). CONCLUSION: The vitamin B12 deficiency is more common among Indian pregnant women as compared to folate deficiency. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for pregnancy complications. Vitamin B12 deficiency in first and second trimesters is associated with LBW babies.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Resultado da Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 47: 101822, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lack of access to perinatal mental health (PMH) services is a significant public health problem in India. Barriers to accessing PMH services include the stigma, non-availability of services, poor knowledge, negative perception, attitude among perinatal women (PWs) and service providers. The present study attempted to examine the knowledge gap regarding perinatal depression (PD) among service providers [Nursing providers (NPs), Medical Practitioners (MPs)] and service utilizers (PWs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary care teaching hospitals of India, one in a major metro and the other in a rural area. PWs, MPs and NPs were assessed for knowledge about PD using a semi-structured proforma and Perinatal Depression Monitor. RESULTS: Among the 270 PWs, 8.51% were knowledgeable (PWA) and 91.49% were ignorant (PWB) about depression. PWB group were low educated (n = 140, 56.68%), and unemployed (n = 207, 83.80%) with lower family income [(≤₹10,356 per month), n = 170, 68.28%)]. There was knowledge discrepancy among NPs, MPs and PWA group in terms of a) PD is a normal part of pregnancy (agree- NPs = 71.52%, MPs = 10.00%, PWA-17.39%), b)biological causes of PD (agree- NPs = 45.23%, MPs = 70.00%, PWA = 26.03%) and c)antidepressant medications for PD (useful- NPs = 23.80%, MPs = 70.00%, PWA = 21.73%). Majority of the respondents agreed that all women should be screened for depression during pregnancy (NPs = 34.78%, MPs = 80.95%, PWA = 95.00%) and postpartum periods (NPs = 34.78%, MPs = 76.19%, PWA = 90.00%). CONCLUSIONS: Low PD literacy among the PWs, misconception about aetiology and management among the NPs could be major barrier for delivery and utilisation of PD services. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve PD literacy among PWs and NPs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transtorno Depressivo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Médicos , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez
18.
Gene ; 704: 68-73, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986448

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and understand the association of global and MTHFR gene specific methylation in preeclampsia and recurrent miscarriages in light of MTHFR C677T polymorphism. METHODS: The subjects comprised of recurrent miscarriage cases, their gestation matched controls, preeclampsia cases and matched controls. A set of women at full term were also recruited. Fasting blood sample (~5 ml) was drawn from all the participants followed by DNA extraction, global DNA methylation and MTHFR gene specific methylation. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was analysed by PCR followed by RFLP. RESULTS HIGHER: Global DNA methylation at maternal front (p = 0.04) and hypomethylation of MTHFR gene at fetal front (p = 0.001) might be a characteristic of preeclampsia. Recurrent miscarriage cases were having significantly (p = 0.002) hyper MTHFR gene specific methylation as compared to controls. Women carrying CT genotype were found to be having significantly (p = 0.001) higher global DNA methylation in PE cases and MTHFR gene specific methylation (p = 0.005) in RM cases. Intergenerational analysis revealed similar patterns of global DNA methylation and MTHFR gene specific methylation among both PE and RM cases at maternal and fetal fronts. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of global DNA methylation in Preeclampsia and MTHFR gene specific methylation in recurrent miscarriages. MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in association with global and gene specific methylation seem to play a pivotal role in PE and RM respectively.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/genética , Metilação de DNA , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homocistinúria/complicações , Homocistinúria/genética , Humanos , Índia , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/deficiência , Espasticidade Muscular/complicações , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/genética , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética
19.
J Hum Reprod Sci ; 11(2): 142-147, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158810

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to understand the association of gene-specific methylation of the promoter region of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the causation of recurrent miscarriages (RMs) both independently and also in light of MTHFR C677T polymorphism, hyperhomocysteinemia, folate, and Vitamin B12 deficiency. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based, case-control, observational study. Methods: The proposed study included a total of 85 RM cases and 121 nonpregnant controls. Biochemical (homocysteine, folate, and Vitamin B12) investigations, MTHFR polymorphism (C677T), and MTHFR allele-specific methylation were done on all the samples. Results: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction of MTHFR gene revealed that methylated allele (single dose) was found to pose a significant 3.6-fold increased risk for RM. The degree of risk of methylated allele for RM was found to be aggravated from the normal genotype CC (2.8 folds) to CT (7.5 folds) individuals. Vitamin B12 deficiency and folate repletion were found to be posing an increased risk in association with methylated allele for recurrent miscarriages as compared to the respective controls. Conclusion: Recurrent miscarriage cases were found to be hypermethylated with respect to MTHFR gene-specific methylation as compared to the controls. High prevalence of folate repletion causing imbalance between folate and Vitamin 12 levels may lead to hypermethylation among recurrent miscarriage cases. The present study highlights the significance of the epigenetic mechanisms in the causation of the recurrent miscarriages.

20.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 32(2): 198-201, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065583

RESUMO

To compare the levels of IgG and IgM anti beta-2 glycoprotein I antibodies and IgG and IgM anti prothrombin antibodies among women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses and women with at least 2 live issues. To compare the prevalence of newer anti beta-2 glycoprotein I & anti prothrombin antibodies with conventional Lupus anticoagulant & anticardiolipin antibodies. 50 women with recurrent pregnancy losses & 50 matched controls were evaluated for the presence of: Lupus anticoagulant-screened by LA sensitive aPTT& DRVV and confirmatory Staclot Assay. ELISA kits were used for detecting IgG & IgM anticardiolipin, anti beta-2 glycoprotein I & anti prothrombin antibodies. 11/50 (22 %) women in study group and none in control group had circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. 2 cases (4 %) had lupus anticoagulant. 1 case (2 %) had anticardiolipin antibody & 6 cases (12 %) were positive for anti beta-2 Glycoprotein I antibody (p value = 0.027). 3 cases (6 %) had anti prothrombin antibody. All were mutually exclusive except for one. Women with recurrent pregnancy losses should be tested for anti beta-2 Glycoprotein I antibodies & anti prothrombin antibodies in addition to conventional lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. This approach can decrease the incidence of SNAP (seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome) cases while establishing the true prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome.

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