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1.
Science ; 384(6694): 458-465, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662818

RESUMO

Based on an extensive model intercomparison, we assessed trends in biodiversity and ecosystem services from historical reconstructions and future scenarios of land-use and climate change. During the 20th century, biodiversity declined globally by 2 to 11%, as estimated by a range of indicators. Provisioning ecosystem services increased several fold, and regulating services decreased moderately. Going forward, policies toward sustainability have the potential to slow biodiversity loss resulting from land-use change and the demand for provisioning services while reducing or reversing declines in regulating services. However, negative impacts on biodiversity due to climate change appear poised to increase, particularly in the higher-emissions scenarios. Our assessment identifies remaining modeling uncertainties but also robustly shows that renewed policy efforts are needed to meet the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Extinção Biológica
2.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 39(2): 109-115, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981565

RESUMO

Indigenous and traditional practices based on ethnoecological knowledge are fundamental to biodiversity stewardship and sustainable use. Knowledge partnerships between Indigenous Peoples, traditional local communities, and ecologists can produce richer and fairer understandings of nature. We identify key topical areas where such collaborations can positively transform science, policy, and practice.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Conhecimento , Biodiversidade
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1997): 20230464, 2023 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37072041

RESUMO

To safeguard nature, we must understand the drivers of biodiversity loss. Time-delayed biodiversity responses to environmental changes (ecological lags) are often absent from models of biodiversity change, despite their well-documented existence. We quantify how lagged responses to climate and land-use change have influenced mammal and bird populations around the world, while incorporating effects of direct exploitation and conservation interventions. Ecological lag duration varies between drivers, vertebrate classes and body size groupings-e.g. lags linked to climate-change impacts are 13 years for small birds, rising to 40 years for larger species. Past warming and land conversion generally combine to predict population declines; however, such conditions are associated with population increases for small mammals. Positive effects of management (>+4% annually for large mammals) and protected areas (>+6% annually for large birds) on population trends contrast with the negative impact of exploitation (<-7% annually for birds), highlighting the need to promote sustainable use. Model projections suggest a future with winners (e.g. large birds) and losers (e.g. medium-sized birds), with current/recent environmental change substantially influencing abundance trends to 2050. Without urgent action, including effective conservation interventions and promoting sustainable use, ambitious targets to stop declines by 2030 may already be slipping out of reach.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Vertebrados , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
4.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2090, 2023 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37045818

RESUMO

While the regional distribution of non-native species is increasingly well documented for some taxa, global analyses of non-native species in local assemblages are still missing. Here, we use a worldwide collection of assemblages from five taxa - ants, birds, mammals, spiders and vascular plants - to assess whether the incidence, frequency and proportions of naturalised non-native species depend on type and intensity of land use. In plants, assemblages of primary vegetation are least invaded. In the other taxa, primary vegetation is among the least invaded land-use types, but one or several other types have equally low levels of occurrence, frequency and proportions of non-native species. High land use intensity is associated with higher non-native incidence and frequency in primary vegetation, while intensity effects are inconsistent for other land-use types. These findings highlight the potential dual role of unused primary vegetation in preserving native biodiversity and in conferring resistance against biological invasions.


Assuntos
Formigas , Ecossistema , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Incidência , Biodiversidade , Mamíferos
5.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 135, 2022 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Land-use is a major driver of changes in biodiversity worldwide, but studies have overwhelmingly focused on above-ground taxa: the effects on soil biodiversity are less well known, despite the importance of soil organisms in ecosystem functioning. We modelled data from a global biodiversity database to compare how the abundance of soil-dwelling and above-ground organisms responded to land use and soil properties. RESULTS: We found that land use affects overall abundance differently in soil and above-ground assemblages. The abundance of soil organisms was markedly lower in cropland and plantation habitats than in primary vegetation and pasture. Soil properties influenced the abundance of soil biota in ways that differed among land uses, suggesting they shape both abundance and its response to land use. CONCLUSIONS: Our results caution against assuming models or indicators derived from above-ground data can apply to soil assemblages and highlight the potential value of incorporating soil properties into biodiversity models.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Biodiversidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Biota
6.
Sci Adv ; 8(45): eabm9982, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351024

RESUMO

Effective policies to halt biodiversity loss require knowing which anthropogenic drivers are the most important direct causes. Whereas previous knowledge has been limited in scope and rigor, here we statistically synthesize empirical comparisons of recent driver impacts found through a wide-ranging review. We show that land/sea use change has been the dominant direct driver of recent biodiversity loss worldwide. Direct exploitation of natural resources ranks second and pollution third; climate change and invasive alien species have been significantly less important than the top two drivers. The oceans, where direct exploitation and climate change dominate, have a different driver hierarchy from land and fresh water. It also varies among types of biodiversity indicators. For example, climate change is a more important driver of community composition change than of changes in species populations. Stopping global biodiversity loss requires policies and actions to tackle all the major drivers and their interactions, not some of them in isolation.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20249, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642362

RESUMO

Few biodiversity indicators are available that reflect the state of broad-sense biodiversity-rather than of particular taxa-at fine spatial and temporal resolution. One such indicator, the Biodiversity Intactness Index (BII), estimates how the average abundance of the native terrestrial species in a region compares with their abundances in the absence of pronounced human impacts. We produced annual maps of modelled BII at 30-arc-second resolution (roughly 1 km at the equator) across tropical and subtropical forested biomes, by combining annual data on land use, human population density and road networks, and statistical models of how these variables affect overall abundance and compositional similarity of plants, fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates. Across tropical and subtropical biomes, BII fell by an average of 1.9 percentage points between 2001 and 2012, with 81 countries seeing an average reduction and 43 an average increase; the extent of primary forest fell by 3.9% over the same period. We did not find strong relationships between changes in BII and countries' rates of economic growth over the same period; however, limitations in mapping BII in plantation forests may hinder our ability to identify these relationships. This is the first time temporal change in BII has been estimated across such a large region.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Efeitos Antropogênicos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Florestas , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Densidade Demográfica , Clima Tropical
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0227169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270641

RESUMO

Island species and habitats are particularly vulnerable to human disturbances, and anthropogenic changes are increasingly overwriting natural island biogeographic patterns. However, quantitative comparisons of how native and alien assemblages respond to human disturbances are scarce. Using data from 6,242 species of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants, from 7,718 sites on 81 islands, we model how land-use change, human population density and distance to the nearest road affect local assemblages of alien and native species on islands. We found that land-use change reduces both richness and abundance of native species, whereas the number and abundance of alien species are high in plantation forests and agricultural or urban sites. In contrast to the long-established pattern for native species (i.e., decline in species number with island isolation), more isolated islands have more alien species across most land uses than do less isolated islands. We show that alien species play a major role in the turnover of island assemblages: our models show that aliens outnumber natives among the species present at disturbed sites but absent from minimally-disturbed primary vegetation. Finally, we found a homogenization pattern for both native and alien assemblages across sites within most land uses. The declines of native species on islands in the face of human pressures, and the particular proneness to invasions of the more remote islands, highlight the need to reduce the intensity of human pressures on islands and to prevent the introduction and establishment of alien species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Ilhas , Agricultura , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas
11.
Nature ; 585(7826): 551-556, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908312

RESUMO

Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it  provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether-and how-humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042-2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34-50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats-such as climate change-must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/tendências , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
14.
Science ; 366(6471)2019 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831642

RESUMO

The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost of unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, distinctness of local ecological communities, abundance and number of wild species, and the number of local domesticated varieties. Such changes reduce vital benefits that people receive from nature and threaten the quality of life of future generations. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature's benefits are unequally distributed. The fabric of life on which we all depend-nature and its contributions to people-is unravelling rapidly. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action. Such action must begin immediately, however, and address the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature's deterioration.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Qualidade de Vida , Planeta Terra , Humanos , Crescimento Demográfico
17.
Ecol Evol ; 9(7): 3678-3680, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015957

RESUMO

A recent paper claiming evidence of global insect declines achieved huge media attention, including claims of "insectaggedon" and a "collapse of nature." Here, we argue that while many insects are declining in many places around the world, the study has important limitations that should be highlighted. We emphasise the robust evidence of large and rapid insect declines present in the literature, while also highlighting the limitations of the original study.

18.
PeerJ ; 7: e6540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863678

RESUMO

Reef structural complexity provides important refuge habitat for a range of marine organisms, and is a useful indicator of the health and resilience of reefs as a whole. Marine scientists have recently begun to use 'Structure from Motion' (SfM) photogrammetry in order to accurately and repeatably capture the 3D structure of physical objects underwater, including reefs. There has however been limited research on the comparability of this new method with existing analogue methods already used widely for measuring and monitoring 3D structure, such as 'tape and chain rugosity index (RI)' and graded visual assessments. Our findings show that analogue and SfM RI can be reliably converted over a standard 10-m reef section (SfM RI = 1.348 × chain RI-0.359, r 2 = 0.82; and Chain RI = 0.606 × SfM RI + 0.465) for RI values up to 2.0; however, SfM RI values above this number become increasingly divergent from traditional tape and chain measurements. Additionally, we found SfM RI correlates well with visual assessment grades of coral reefs over a 10 × 10 m area (SfM RI = 0.1461 × visual grade + 1.117; r 2 = 0.83). The SfM method is shown to be affordable and non-destructive whilst also allowing the data collected to be archival, less biased by the observer, and broader in its scope of applications than standard methods. This work allows researchers to easily transition from analogue to digital structural assessment techniques, facilitating continued long-term monitoring, whilst also improving the quality and additional research value of the data collected.

19.
PLoS Biol ; 16(12): e2006841, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513079

RESUMO

Human use of the land (for agriculture and settlements) has a substantial negative effect on biodiversity globally. However, not all species are adversely affected by land use, and indeed, some benefit from the creation of novel habitat. Geographically rare species may be more negatively affected by land use than widespread species, but data limitations have so far prevented global multi-clade assessments of land-use effects on narrow-ranged and widespread species. We analyse a large, global database to show consistent differences in assemblage composition. Compared with natural habitat, assemblages in disturbed habitats have more widespread species on average, especially in urban areas and the tropics. All else being equal, this result means that human land use is homogenizing assemblage composition across space. Disturbed habitats show both reduced abundances of narrow-ranged species and increased abundances of widespread species. Our results are very important for biodiversity conservation because narrow-ranged species are typically at higher risk of extinction than widespread species. Furthermore, the shift to more widespread species may also affect ecosystem functioning by reducing both the contribution of rare species and the diversity of species' responses to environmental changes among local assemblages.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Recursos Naturais
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