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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2913, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575609

RESUMO

Carbaporphyrin dimers, investigated for their distinctive electronic structures and exceptional properties, have predominantly consisted of systems containing identical subunits. This study addresses the associated knowledge gap by focusing on asymmetric carbaporphyrin dimers with Janus-like characteristics. The synthesis of a Janus-type carbaporphyrin pseudo-dimer 5 is presented. It displays antiaromatic characteristics on the fused side and nonaromatic behavior on the unfused side. A newly synthesized tetraphenylene (TPE) linked bis-dibenzihomoporphyrin 8 and a previously reported dibenzo[g,p]chrysene (DBC) linked bis-dicarbacorrole 9 were prepared as controls. Comprehensive analyses, including 1H NMR spectral studies, single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, and DFT calculations, validate the mixed character of 5. A further feature of the Janus pseudo-dimer 5 is that it may be transformed into a heterometallic complex, with one side coordinating a Cu(III) center and the other stabilizing a BODIPY complex. This disparate regiochemical reactivity underscores the potential of carbaporphyrin dimers as versatile frameworks, with electronic features and site-specific coordination chemistry controlled through asymmetry. These findings position carbaporphyrin dimers as promising candidates for advances in electronic structure studies, coordination chemistry, materials science, and beyond.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(25): 3401-3404, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440812

RESUMO

Three naphthorosarins, antiaromatic expanded porphyrins bearing different meso substituents (NRos 1-3), designed to self-assemble into columnar liquid crystalline (LC) structures, were synthesized and characterized using polarized optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), as well as supporting computational calculations. The substituents were found to play a crucial role in modulating the LC behaviour.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(6): 4078-4086, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300153

RESUMO

Electronic waste recycling is a recognized global challenge that requires new strategies to bind and release critical materials selectively, such as cobalt present in lithium-ion batteries. To address this challenge, hierarchical 3D-printed porous polymer scaffolds bearing supramolecular receptors were prepared using vat photopolymerization and their cobalt binding profiles were examined as a function of matrix polarity. By combining high-resolution digital light processing (DLP) with polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS), functional acrylic copolymer networks with micrometer-level precision of geometry and nanometer-level pores were generated. Covalent integration of a methacrylate-functionalized bisdicyclohexyl acetamide (BDCA-MA) receptor enabled binding and release of cobalt(II) chloride (CoCl2) via a solvent polarity switch mechanism involving a change in solvent from ethanol to water. The present structures proved reusable as shown by sustained high binding efficiency over five bind and release cycles. This platform represents a "green" and energy conscious method for future electronic waste recycling.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(9): e2314620121, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381784

RESUMO

Photon-controlled pyroptosis activation (PhotoPyro) is a promising technique for cancer immunotherapy due to its noninvasive nature, precise control, and ease of operation. Here, we report that biomolecular photoredox catalysis in cells might be an important mechanism underlying PhotoPyro. Our findings reveal that the photocatalyst lutetium texaphyrin (MLu) facilitates rapid and direct photoredox oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and various amino acids, thereby triggering pyroptosis through the caspase 3/GSDME pathway. This mechanism is distinct from the well-established role of MLu as a photodynamic therapy sensitizer in cells. Two analogs of MLu, bearing different coordinated central metal cations, were also explored as controls. The first control, gadolinium texaphyrin (MGd), is a weak photocatalyst but generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) efficiently. The second control, manganese texaphyrin (MMn), is ineffective as both a photocatalyst and a ROS generator. Neither MGd nor MMn was found to trigger pyroptosis under the conditions where MLu was active. Even in the presence of a ROS scavenger, treating MDA-MB-231 cells with MLu at concentrations as low as 50 nM still allows for pyroptosis photo-activation. The present findings highlight how biomolecular photoredox catalysis could contribute to pyroptosis activation by mechanisms largely independent of ROS.


Assuntos
Metaloporfirinas , Piroptose , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(9): 6225-6230, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386658

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) accumulate in water resources and pose serious environmental and health threats due to their nonbiodegradable nature and long environmental persistence times. Strategies for the efficient removal of PFAS from contaminated water are needed to address this concern. Here, we report a fluorinated nonporous adaptive crystalline cage (F-Cage 2) that exploits electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and F-F interactions to achieve the efficient removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from aqueous source phases. F-Cage 2 exhibits a high second-order kobs value of approximately 441,000 g mg-1 h-1 for PFOA and a maximum PFOA adsorption capacity of 45 mg g-1. F-Cage 2 can decrease PFOA concentrations from 1500 to 6 ng L-1 through three rounds of flow-through purification, conducted at a flow rate of 40 mL h-1. Elimination of PFOA from PFOA-loaded F-Cage 2 is readily achieved by rinsing with a mixture of MeOH and saturated NaCl. Heating at 80 °C under vacuum then makes F-Cage 2 ready for reuse, as demonstrated across five successive uptake and release cycles. This work thus highlights the potential utility of suitably designed nonporous adaptive crystals as platforms for PFAS remediation.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(7): 4620-4631, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330912

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal. New diagnostic and treatment modalities are desperately needed. We report here that an expanded porphyrin, cyclo[8]pyrrole (CP), with a high extinction coefficient (89.16 L/g·cm) within the second near-infrared window (NIR-II), may be formulated with an αvß3-specific targeting peptide, cyclic-Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD), to form cRGD-CP nanoparticles (cRGD-CPNPs) with promising NIR-II photothermal (PT) therapeutic and photoacoustic (PA) imaging properties. Studies with a ring-array PA tomography system, coupled with analysis of control nanoparticles lacking a targeting element (CPNPs), revealed that cRGD conjugation promoted the delivery of the NPs through abnormal vessels around the tumor to the solid tumor core. This proved true in both subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic tumor mice models, as confirmed by immunofluorescent studies. In combination with NIR-II laser photoirradiation, the cRGD-CPNPs provided near-baseline tumor growth inhibition through PTT both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the combination of the present cRGD-CPNPs and photoirradiation was found to inhibit intra-abdominal metastases in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model. The cRGD-CPNPs also displayed good biosafety profiles, as inferred from PA tomography, blood analyses, and H&E staining. They thus appear promising for use in combined PA imaging and PT therapeutic treatment of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Animais , Camundongos , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Nanopartículas/química , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fototerapia
7.
Chem Rev ; 124(5): 2699-2804, 2024 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422393

RESUMO

The ability to gain spatiotemporal information, and in some cases achieve spatiotemporal control, in the context of drug delivery makes theranostic fluorescent probes an attractive and intensely investigated research topic. This interest is reflected in the steep rise in publications on the topic that have appeared over the past decade. Theranostic fluorescent probes, in their various incarnations, generally comprise a fluorophore linked to a masked drug, in which the drug is released as the result of certain stimuli, with both intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli being reported. This release is then signaled by the emergence of a fluorescent signal. Importantly, the use of appropriate fluorophores has enabled not only this emerging fluorescence as a spatiotemporal marker for drug delivery but also has provided modalities useful in photodynamic, photothermal, and sonodynamic therapeutic applications. In this review we highlight recent work on theranostic fluorescent probes with a particular focus on probes that are activated in tumor microenvironments. We also summarize efforts to develop probes for other applications, such as neurodegenerative diseases and antibacterials. This review celebrates the diversity of designs reported to date, from discrete small-molecule systems to nanomaterials. Our aim is to provide insights into the potential clinical impact of this still-emerging research direction.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Medicina de Precisão , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fluorescência , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(6): 3585-3590, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316138

RESUMO

We report here an expanded porphyrinoid, cyclo[2]pyridine[8]pyrrole, 1, that can exist at three closed-shell oxidation levels. Macrocycle 1 was synthesized via the oxidative coupling of two open chain precursors and fully characterized by means of NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, MS, and X-ray crystallography. Reduction of the fully oxidized form (1, blue) with NaBH4 produced either the half-oxidized (2, teal) or fully reduced forms (3, pale yellow), depending on the amount of reducing agent used and the presence or absence of air. Reduced products 2 or 3 can be oxidized to 1 by various oxidants (quinones, FeCl3, and AgPF6). Macrocycle 1 also undergoes proton-coupled reductions with I-, Br-, Cl-, SO32-, or S2O32- in the presence of an acid. Certain thiol-containing compounds likewise reduce 1 to 2 or 3. This conversion is accompanied by a readily discernible color change, making cyclo[2]pyridine[8]pyrrole 1 able to differentiate biothiols, such as cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH).

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(8): 1020-1022, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170623

RESUMO

The reaction between Th(IV) dipyriamethyrin dichloride and sodium cyclopentadienyl (Cp) results in the formation of a cyclopentadienyl capped thorium dipyriamethyrin complex, which to our knowledge represents the first expanded porphyrin f-element Cp complex.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(12): e202317775, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286749

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for easy-to-visualize drug carriers that can deliver therapeutic cargoes deep into solid tumors. Herein, we report the preparation of ultrasmall luminescent imine-based lanthanide nanocages, Eu60 and Tb60 (collectively Ln60 ), designed to encapsulate anticancer chemotherapeutics for tumor therapy. The as-prepared nanocages possess large cavities suitable for the encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX), yielding DOX@Ln60 nanocages with diameters around 5 nm. DOX@Ln60 are efficiently internalized by breast cancer cells, allowing the cells to be visualized via the intrinsic luminescent property of Ln(III). Once internalized, the acidic intracellular microenvironment promotes imine bond cleavage and the release of the loaded DOX. DOX@Ln60 inhibits DNA replication and triggers tumor cell apoptosis. In a murine triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) model, DOX@Ln60 was found to inhibit tumor growth with negligible side effects on normal tissues. It proved more effective than various controls, including DOX and Ln60 . The present nanocages thus point the way to the development of precise nanomedicines for tumor imaging and therapy.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Nanopartículas , Animais , Camundongos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Iminas , Nanopartículas/química
11.
Adv Mater ; 36(7): e2308507, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37885345

RESUMO

Solid-state polymer electrolytes (SPEs) suffer from the low ionic conductivity and poor capability of suppressing lithium (Li) dendrites, which limits their utility in the preparation of all solid-state Li-metal batteries (LMBs). It is reported here a flexible solid supramolecular electrolyte that incorporates a new anion capture agent, namely a phenylboronic acid functionalized calix[4]pyrrole (C4P), into a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix. The resulting solid-state supramolecular electrolyte demonstrates high ionic conductivity (1.9 × 10-3  S cm-1 at 60 °C) and a high Li+ transference number ( t Li + ${t}_{{\mathrm{Li}}^{\mathrm{ + }}}$  = 0.70). Furthermore, the assembled Li|C4P-PEO-LiTFSI|LiFePO4 cell allows for stable cycling over 1200 cycles at 1 C at 60 °C, as well as good rate performance. The favorable performance of the C4P-PEO-LiTFSI SPE leads to suggest it can prove useful in the creation of high energy density solid-state LMBs.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(1): 543-551, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147538

RESUMO

A nanographene-fused expanded carbaporphyrin (5) and its BF2 complex (6) were synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray structures revealed that 5 and 6 are connected by two hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) units and two dipyrromethene or BODIPY units, respectively. As prepared, 5 and 6 both show nonaromatic character with figure-of-eight carbaoctaphyrin (1.1.1.0.1.1.1.0) cores and adopt tweezers-like conformations characterized by a partially confined space between the two constituent HBC units. The distance between the HBC centers is >10 Å, while the dihedral angles between the two HBC planes are 30.5 and 35.2° for 5 and 6, respectively. The interactions between 5 and 6 and fullerene C60 were studied both in organic media and in the solid state. Proton NMR spectral titrations of 5 and 6 with C60 revealed a 1:1 binding mode for both macrocycles. In toluene-d8, the corresponding binding constants were determined to be 1141 ± 17 and 994 ± 10 M-1 for 5 and 6, respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction structural analyses confirmed the formation of 1:1 fullerene inclusion complexes in the solid state. The C60 guests in both complexes are found within triangular pockets composed of two HBC units from the tweezers-like receptor most closely associated with the bound fullerene, as well as an HBC unit from an adjacent host. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements revealed subpicosecond ultrafast charge separation between 5 (and 6) and C60 in the complexes. To the best of our knowledge, the present report provides the first example wherein a nanographene building block is incorporated into the core of a porphyrinic framework.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(1): 1109-1121, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141046

RESUMO

The energy dissipative features of hydrogen bonds under conditions of mechanical strain have provided an ongoing incentive to explore hydrogen bonding units for the purpose of controlling and customizing the mechanical properties of polymeric materials. However, there remains a need for hydrogen bond units that (1) possess directionality, (2) provide selectivity, (3) dissipate energy effectively, and (4) can be incorporated readily into polymeric materials to regulate their mechanical properties. Here, we report mechanically interlocked hydrogen bond units that incorporate multiple hydrogen bonds within a [2]catenane structure. The conformational flexibility and associated spatial folding characteristics of the [2]catenane units allow for molecular scale motion under external stress, while the interlocked structure serves as a pivot that maintains the directionality and selectivity of the resultant hydrogen bonding units. When incorporated into polymers, these interlocked hydrogen bond motifs serve to strengthen and toughen the resulting materials. This study not only presents a novel hydrogen bond unit for creating polymeric materials with improved mechanical properties but also underscores the unique opportunities that mechanically interlocked hydrogen bond structures may provide across a diverse range of applications.

14.
ACS Sens ; 8(10): 3855-3861, 2023 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37812688

RESUMO

The ability to monitor intracellular calcium concentrations using fluorescent probes has led to important insights into biological signaling processes at the cellular level. An important challenge is to relate such measurements to broader patterns of signaling across fields of view that are inaccessible to optical techniques. To meet this need, we synthesized molecular probes that couple calcium-binding moieties to lanthanide texaphyrins, resulting in complexes endowed with a diverse complement of magnetic and photophysical properties. We show that the probes permit intracellular calcium levels to be assessed by fluorescence, photoacoustic, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities and that they are detectable by multimodal imaging in brain tissue. This work thus establishes a route for monitoring signaling processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Porfirinas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/métodos
15.
J Med Chem ; 66(20): 14175-14187, 2023 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37823731

RESUMO

The impact of bacteria on cancer progression and treatment is becoming increasingly recognized. Cancer-associated bacteria are linked to metastases, reduced efficacy, and survival challenges. In this study, we present a sensitive hypoxia-activated prodrug, NR-NO2, which comprises an antibiotic combined with a chemotherapeutic. This prodrug demonstrates rapid and robust fluorescence enhancement and exhibits potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as tumor cells. Upon activation, NR-NO2 produces a distinct "fluorescence-on" signal, enabling real-time drug release monitoring. By leveraging elevated nitroreductase in cancer cells, NR-NO2 gives rise to heightened bacterial cytotoxicity while sparing normal cells. In A549 solid tumor-bearing mice, NR-NO2 selectively accumulated at tumor sites, displaying fluorescence signals under hypoxia superior to those of a corresponding prodrug-like control. These findings highlight the potential of NR-NO2 as a promising cancer therapy prodrug that benefits from targeted release, antibacterial impact, and imaging-based guidance.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Neoplasias , Pró-Fármacos , Camundongos , Animais , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/uso terapêutico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
16.
Chemistry ; 29(72): e202303058, 2023 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851869

RESUMO

Chirality is a fundamental characteristic of nature. Expanded porphyrinoids and their analogues offer an attractive platform for delving into the intricacies of chirality. Expanded porphyrinoids comprise pyrrolic macrocycles and related heterocyclic systems. As a class, expanded porphyrinoids are widely recognized for their flexible structural features, nontrivial coordination capabilities, and intriguing optical and electronic properties. With limited exceptions, their inherent conformational flexibility coupled with a low racemization barrier allows for the facile interchange between enantiomers. As a result, achieving the effective chiral resolution of individual enantiomers and the subsequent exploration of their chiroptical properties represents a significant challenge. This review summarizes strategies used to realize the chiral resolution of expanded porphyrinoids and the understanding of intrinsic chiroptical properties that has emerged from these separation efforts. It is our hope that this review will serve not only to codify our current understanding of chiral expanded porphyrinoids, but also inspire advances in the generalized area of chiral functional materials.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(42): 23257-23274, 2023 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37831944

RESUMO

Phototheranostics have emerged as a promising subset of cancer theranostics owing to their potential to provide precise photoinduced diagnoses and therapeutic outcomes. However, the design of phototheranostics remains challenging due to the nature of tumors and their microenvironment, including limitations to the oxygen supply, high rates of recurrence and metastasis, and the immunosuppressive state of cancer cells. Here we report a dual-functional oxygen-independent phototheranostic agent, Ni-2, rationally designed to provide a near-infrared (NIR) photoactivated thermal- and hydroxyl radical (•OH)-enhanced photoimmunotherapeutic anticancer response. Under 880 nm laser irradiation, Ni-2 exhibited high photostability and excellent photoacoustic and photothermal effects with a photothermal conversion efficacy of 58.0%, as well as novel photoredox features that allowed the catalytic conversion of H2O2 to •OH upon photooxidation of Ni(II) to Ni(III). As a multifunctional photoagent, Ni-2 was found not only to inhibit tumor growth in a CT26 tumor-bearing mouse model but also to activate an immune response via a combination of photothermal- and H2O2-induced effects. When combined with an antiprogrammed death-ligand 1 (aPD-L1), Ni-2 treatment allowed for the suppression of distant tumor growth and cancer metastasis. Collectively, the present results provide support for the proposition that Ni-2 or its analogues could emerge as useful tools for photoimmunotherapy. They also highlight the potential of appropriately designed 3d transition metal complexes as "all- in-one" phototheranostics.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Camundongos , Animais , Níquel , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Fototerapia/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Oxigênio , Imunoterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(40): 22206-22212, 2023 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37751361

RESUMO

Deferasirox is an FDA-approved iron chelator used in the treatment of iron toxicity. In this work, we report the use of several deferasirox derivatives as lanthanide chelators. Solid-state structural studies of three representative trivalent lanthanide cations, La(III), Eu(III), and Lu(III), revealed the formation of 2:2 complexes in the solid state. A 1:1 stoichiometry dominates in DMSO solution, with Ka values of 472 ± 14, 477 ± 11, and 496 ± 15 M-1 being obtained in the case of these three cations, respectively. Under the conditions of competitive precipitation in the presence of triethylamine, high selectivity (up to 80%) for lutetium(III) was observed in competition with La(III), Ce(III), and Eu(III). Theoretical calculations provided support for the observed selective crystallization.

19.
Chemistry ; 29(64): e202302410, 2023 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37639280

RESUMO

The anion binding features of diphenylpyrrole-strapped calix[4]pyrrole 1 have been investigated by means of 1 H NMR spectroscopy and ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry), as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Receptor 1 bearing an auxiliary pyrrolic NH donor and solubilizing phenyl groups on the strap was found to bind F- , Cl- , and Br- as their tetrabutylammonium salts with high affinity in DMSO-d6 . In addition, receptor 1 was found to extract the fluoride anion (as both its tetraethylammonium (TEA+ ) and tetrabutylammonium (TBA+ ) salts), as well as the chloride anion into chloroform-d from an aqueous source phase. Cation metathesis using TBAI or the use of a dual host approach involving crown ethers enabled receptor 1 to extract simple alkali metal fluoride or chloride salts from water. Quantitative binding of NaF by receptor 1 was observed in 20 % D2 O-DMSO-d6 allowing for the direct determination of the NaF concentration in an unknown sample.

20.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 4927, 2023 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37582786

RESUMO

Crystalline frameworks containing incorporated flexible macrocycle units can afford new opportunities in molecular recognition and selective separation. However, such functionalized frameworks are difficult to prepare and challenging to characterize due to the flexible nature of macrocycles, which limits the development of macrocycle-based crystalline frameworks. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a set of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing pillar[5]arene units. The pillar[5]arene units were uniformly embedded in the periodic frameworks. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed an interpenetrated network that appears to hinder the rotation of the pillar[5]arene repeating units in the frameworks, and it therefore resulted in the successful determination of the precise pillar[5]arene host structure in a MOF crystal. These MOFs can recognize paraquat and 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene in solution and selectively remove trace pyridine from toluene with relative ease. The work presented here represents a critical step towards the synthesis of macrocycle-incorporated crystalline frameworks with well-defined structures and functional utility.

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