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1.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(12): 3726-3747, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525153

RESUMO

Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Although a number of new treatment options have been developed in recent years, there remains a need for improved chemotherapies. The primary challenges facing new cancer drugs include: (1) improving patient quality of life, (2) overcoming drug resistance and (3) lowering reoccurrence rates. Major drawbacks of current chemotherapeutics arise from poor selectivity towards cancer cells, dose limiting toxicities, compliance-reducing side effects, and an inability to address resistance mechanisms. Chemotherapeutics that fail to achieve complete eradication of the disease can also lead to relapse and promote treatment resistance. New strategies to overcome these drawbacks include the use of transition metal chelators and ionophores to alter selectively the concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc in cancer cells. A number of metal chelators have successfully demonstrated cytotoxicity and targeted activity against drug-resistant cancer cells; several have proved effective against cancer stem cells, a significant cause of tumour reoccurrence. However, problems with formulation and targeting have been noted. Recent efforts have thus focused on the design of pro-chelators, inactive versions of chelators that are designed to be activated in the tumour. This is an appealing strategy that may potentially increase efficacy towards cancer-resistant malignant cells. This Tutorial Review summarizes recent progress involving transition metal chelators, pro-chelators, and ionophores as potential cancer chemotherapeutics. We will focus on the reported agents that are able to coordinate iron, copper, and zinc.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520019

RESUMO

A post-synthetic strategy is reported that allows for functionalisation of Au(i)-bis NHCs via carbonate formation. The scope of this methodology was explored using both aromatic and aliphatic alcohols. As a demonstration of potential utility, the fluorescent Au(i)-bis NHC conjugate 5 was prepared; it was found to have enhanced stability when formulated with bovine serum albumin, localise within the mitochondria of A549 cells and do so without compromising the high cytotoxicity seen for the parent Au(i)-bis NHC system.

3.
Chem Rev ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426970

RESUMO

Covalent polymers connected by non-covalent interactions constitute a fascinating set of materials known as supramolecular polymer networks (SPNs). A key feature of SPNs is that the underlying covalent polymers endow the resulting self-assembled materials with features, such as structural and mechanical integrity, good processability, recyclability, stimuli-responsiveness, self-healing, and shape memory, that are not recapitulated in the case of classic covalent polymer systems. The unique nature of SPNs derives from the controlled marriage of traditional covalent polymers and macrocycle-based host-guest interactions. As a consequence, supramolecular polymeric networks have played important roles in a number of diverse fields, including polymer science, supramolecular chemistry, materials science, biomedical materials, and information storage technology. In this Review, we summarize advances made in the area of functional SPNs, with a focus on original literature reports appearing in the past five years. The treatment is organized according to the key macrocycle-based host-guest interactions used to produce various SPNs. The role of the underlying polymer backbones is also discussed.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(22): 10219-10227, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390429

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is one of the hallmarks of ischemic stroke. Catalase-based (CAT) biomimetic complexes are emerging as promising therapeutic candidates that are expected to act as neuroprotectants for ischemic stroke by decreasing the damaging effects from H2O2. Unfortunately, these molecules result in the unwanted production of the harmful hydroxyl radical, HO•. Here, we report a series of salen-based tri-manganese (Mn(III)) metallocryptands (1-3) that function as catalase biomimetics. These cage-like molecules contain a unique "active site" with three Mn centers in close proximity, an arrangement designed to facilitate metal cooperativity for the effective dismutation of H2O2 with minimal HO• production. In fact, significantly greater oxygen production is seen for 1-3 as compared to the monomeric Mn(Salen) complex, 1c. The most promising system, 1, was studied in further detail and found to confer a greater therapeutic benefit both in vitro and in vivo than the monomeric control system, 1c, as evident from inter alia studies involving a rat model of ischemic stroke damage and supporting histological analyses. We thus believe that metallocryptand 1 and its analogues represent a new and seemingly promising strategy for treating oxidative stress related disorders.

5.
Nat Chem ; 12(6): 579, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409723

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

6.
Org Lett ; 22(11): 4451-4455, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406240

RESUMO

We report what to our knowledge is the smallest bis-calix[4]pyrrole (2). It proved capable of trapping fluoride anions exclusively relative to other anions (Cl-, Br-, SCN-, NO3-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, SO42-, and HP2O73-; tetrabutylammonium salts), as confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy (CDCl3), X-ray diffraction analysis, DFT calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations. The F- selectivity is ascribed to the small size of the cavity in 2.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(26): 11497-11505, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413261

RESUMO

We report here a new extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF)-porphyrin scaffold, 2, that acts as a ball-and-socket receptor for C60 and C70. Supramolecular interactions between 2 and these fullerenes serve to stabilize 3D supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs) in the solid state formally comprising peapod-like linear assemblies. The SOFs prepared via self-assembly in this way act as "tunable functional materials", wherein the complementary geometry of the components and the choice of fullerene play crucial roles in defining the conductance properties. The highest electrical conductivity (σ = 1.3 × 10-8 S cm-1 at 298 K) was observed in the case of the C70-based SOF. In contrast, low conductivity was seen for the SOF based on pristine 2 (σ = 5.9 × 10-11 S cm-1 at 298 K). The conductivity seen for the C70-based SOF approaches that seen for other TTF- and fullerene-based supramolecular materials despite the fact that the present systems are metal-free and constructed entirely from neutral building blocks. Transient absorption spectroscopic measurements corroborated the formation of charge-transfer states (i.e., 2δ+/C60δ- and 2δ+/C70δ-, respectively) rather than fully charge separated states (i.e., 2•+/C60•- and 2•+/C70•-, respectively) both in solution (toluene and benzonitrile) and in the solid state at 298 K. Such findings are considered consistent with an ability to transfer charges effectively over long distances within the present SOFs, rather than, for example, the formation of energetically trapped ionic species.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330375

RESUMO

Two giant calix[n]phyrin derivatives namely calix[8]- (4) and calix[16]phyrin (5), involving two and four BF2 units, respectively, were prepared through the condensation of the bis-naphthobipyrrolylmethene-BF2 complex (3) with pentafluorobenzaldehyde. Calix[n]phyrins 4 and 5 display extremely high extinction coefficients (3.67 and 4.82×105 m-1 cm-1 , respectively) in the near-IR region, which was taken as initial evidence for strong excitonic coupling within these cyclic multi-chromophoric systems. Detailed insights into the effect of excitonic coupling dynamics on the electronic structure and photophysical properties of the macrocycles came from fluorescence, time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and transient absorption (TA) measurements. Support for these experimental findings came from theoretical studies. Theory and experiment confirmed that the coupling between the excitons depends on the specifics of the calix[n]phyrin structure, not just its size.

9.
Nat Chem ; 12(5): 468-474, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284575

RESUMO

For the past three decades, the coordination-driven self-assembly of three-dimensional structures has undergone rapid progress; however, parallel efforts to create large discrete two-dimensional architectures-as opposed to polymers-have met with limited success. The synthesis of metallo-supramolecular systems with well-defined shapes and sizes in the range of 10-100 nm remains challenging. Here we report the construction of a series of giant supramolecular hexagonal grids, with diameters on the order of 20 nm and molecular weights greater than 65 kDa, through a combination of intra- and intermolecular metal-mediated self-assembly steps. The hexagonal intermediates and the resulting self-assembled grid architectures were imaged at submolecular resolution by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Characterization (including by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy) enabled the unambiguous atomic-scale determination of fourteen hexagonal grid isomers.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(41): 5516-5519, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296797

RESUMO

A new set of PVA hydrogels were formed using the boronate ester fluorescent probe PF1 and the novel boronate fluorescent probe PT1 as the covalent crosslinkers. Treatment with aqueous H2O2 allowed triggered release of the fluorescent dye accompanied by complete dissolution of the hydrogel.

11.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(10): 2886-2915, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226991

RESUMO

Central nervous system (CNS) neurodegeneration is defined by a complex series of pathological processes that ultimately lead to death. The precise etiology of these disorders remains unknown. Recent efforts show that a mechanistic understanding of the malfunctions underpinning disease progression will prove requisite in developing new treatments and cures. Transition metals and lanthanide ions display unique characteristics (i.e., magnetism, radioactivity, and luminescence), often with biological relevance, allowing for direct application in CNS focused imaging modalities. These techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and luminescent-based imaging (LumI). In this Tutorial Review, we have aimed to highlight the various metal-based imaging techniques developed in the effort to understand the pathophysiological processes associated with neurodegeneration. Each section has been divided so as to include an introduction to the particular imaging technique in question. This is then followed by a summary of key demonstrations that have enabled visualization of a specific neuropathological biomarker. These strategies have either exploited the high binding affinity of a receptor for its corresponding biomarker or a specific molecular transformation caused by a target species, all of which produce a concomitant change in diagnostic signal. Advantages and disadvantages of each method with perspectives on the utility of molecular imaging agents for understanding the complexities of neurodegenerative disease are discussed.

12.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(8): 2303-2315, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181453

RESUMO

Classic prodrug strategies rely on covalent modification of active drugs to provide systems with superior pharmacokinetic properties than the parent drug and facilitate administration. Supramolecular chemistry is providing a new approach to developing prodrug-like systems, wherein the characteristics of a drug are modified in a beneficial manner by creating host-guest complexes that then permit the stimulus-induced release of the active species in a controlled manner. These complexes are termed "supramolecular prodrugs". In this review, we outline the concept of supramolecular drugs via host-guest chemistry and detail progress made in the area. This summary is designed to highlight the many advantages of supramolecular prodrugs, including ease-of-preparation, molecular-level protection, sensitive response to bio-stimuli, traceless release, and adaptability to different drugs. Limitations of the approach and opportunities for future growth are also detailed.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(14): 6761-6768, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172565

RESUMO

Diagnostics and therapeutics are generally separate entities in medicine. Theranostics, agents that provide for both modalities, are being developed. However, they often require complex syntheses so as to incorporate within one molecular structure both diagnostic and therapeutic elements. Moreover, their use is often complicated by the disparate dosage requirements for diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we report that closely related porphyrinoid regioisomers produced from the same 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction give rise to products that as their corresponding ytterbium(III) complexes may be split and used for the separate biological functions that are required for theranostics. Specifically, the cis isomer is luminescent and suitable for NIR imaging, while the trans isomer produces singlet oxygen with a good quantum yield and is thus attractive for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments provide support for the complementary biological functions of the two regioisomers. The present study reveals how ostensibly related regioisomers may be used to switch between diagnosis and therapy. More broadly, it serves to highlight a new approach to creating paired sets of molecules that may be used in combination as effective theranostics.

14.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210058

RESUMO

The reaction between dipyriamethyrin and copper(II) acetate [Cu(OAc)2] afforded what is, to our knowledge, the first transition metal-dipyriamethyrin complex. Molecular and electronic characterization of this binuclear Cu(II) complex via EPR, UV-vis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed marked differences between the present constructs and previously reported binuclear copper(II) hexaphyrin species. UV-vis titration analyses provided evidence for a homotropic positive allosteric effect, wherein the binuclear species is formed without significant intermediacy of a monomeric complex.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(16): 7443-7455, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216311

RESUMO

Substituent effects play critical roles in both modulating reaction chemistry and supramolecular self-assembly processes. Using substituted terephthalate dianions (p-phthalic acid dianions; PTADAs), the effect of varying the type, number, and position of the substituents was explored in terms of their ability to regulate the inherent anion complexation features of a tetracationic macrocycle, cyclo[2](2,6-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)pyridine)[2](1,4-dimethylenebenzene) (referred to as the Texas-sized molecular box; 14+), in the form of its tetrakis-PF6- salt in DMSO. Several of the tested substituents, including 2-OH, 2,5-di(OH), 2,5-di(NH2), 2,5-di(Me), 2,5-di(Cl), 2,5-di(Br), and 2,5-di(I), were found to promote pseudorotaxane formation in contrast to what was seen for the parent PTADA system. Other derivatives of PTADA, including those with 2,3-di(OH), 2,6-di(OH), 2,5-di(OMe), 2,3,5,6-tetra(Cl), and 2,3,5,6-tetra(F) substituents, led only to so-called outside binding, where the anion interacts with 14+ on the outside of the macrocyclic cavity. The differing binding modes produced by the choice of PTADA derivative were found to regulate further supramolecular self-assembly when the reaction components included additional metal cations (M). Depending on the specific choice of PTADA derivatives and metal cations (M = Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Gd3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Sm3+, Tb3+), constructs involving one-dimensional polyrotaxanes, outside-type rotaxanated supramolecular organic frameworks (RSOFs), or two-dimensional metal-organic rotaxane frameworks (MORFs) could be stabilized. The presence and nature of the substituent were found to dictate which specific higher order self-assembled structure was obtained using a given cation. In the specific case of the 2,5-di(OH), 2,5-di(Cl), and 2,5-di(Br) PTADA derivatives and Eu3+, so-called MORFs with distinct fluorescence emission properties could be produced. The present work serves to illustrate how small changes in guest substitution patterns may be used to control structure well beyond the first interaction sphere.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 7021-7029, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179677

RESUMO

Described here is the development of gadolinium(III) texaphyrin-platinum(IV) conjugates capable of overcoming platinum resistance by 1) localizing to solid tumors, 2) promoting enhanced cancer cell uptake, and 3) reactivating p53 in platinum-resistant models. Side by side comparative studies of these Pt(IV) conjugates to clinically approved platinum(II) agents and previously reported platinum(II)-texaphyrin conjugates demonstrate that the present Pt(IV) conjugates are more stable against hydrolysis and nucleophilic attack. Moreover, they display high potent antiproliferative activity in vitro against human and mouse cell cancer lines. Relative to the current platinum clinical standard of care (SOC), a lead Gd(III) texaphyrin-Pt(IV) prodrug conjugate emerging from this development effort was found to be more efficacious in subcutaneous (s.c.) mouse models involving both cell-derived xenografts and platinum-resistant patient-derived xenografts. Comparative pathology studies in mice treated with equimolar doses of the lead Gd texaphyrin-Pt(IV) conjugate or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agent oxaliplatin revealed that the conjugate was better tolerated. Specifically, the lead could be dosed at more than three times (i.e., 70 mg/kg per dose) the tolerable dose of oxaliplatin (i.e., 4 to 6 mg/kg per dose depending on the animal model) with little to no observable adverse effects. A combination of tumor localization, redox cycling, and reversible protein binding is invoked to explain the relatively increased tolerability and enhanced anticancer activity seen in vivo. On the basis of the present studies, we conclude that metallotexaphyrin-Pt conjugates may have substantial clinical potential as antitumor agents.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 77, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911631

RESUMO

Host-guest complex solid state molecular motion is a critical but underexplored phenomenon. In principle, it can be used to control molecular machines that function in the solid state. Here we describe a solid state system that operates on the basis of complexation between an all-hydrocarbon macrocycle, D4d-CDMB-8, and perylene. Molecular motion in this solid state machine is induced by exposure to organic solvents or grinding and gives rise to different co-crystalline, mixed crystalline, or amorphous forms. Distinct time-dependent emissive responses are seen for different organic solvents as their respective vapours or when the solid forms are subject to grinding. This temporal feature allows the present D4d-CDMB-8⊃perylene-based system to be used as a time-dependent, colour-based 4th dimension response element in pattern-based information codes. This work highlights how dynamic control over solid-state host-guest molecular motion may be used to induce a tuneable temporal response and provide materials with information storage capability.

18.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(3): 865-907, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957756

RESUMO

Supramolecular chemistry is a central topic in modern chemistry. It touches on many traditional disciplines, such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, materials chemistry, environmental chemistry, and biological chemistry. Supramolecular hosts, inter alia macrocyclic hosts, play critical roles in supramolecular chemistry. Calix[4]pyrroles, non-aromatic tetrapyrrolic macrocycles defined by sp3 hybridized meso bridges, have proved to be versatile receptors for neutral species, anions, and cations, as well as ion pairs. Compared to the parent system, octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole and its derivatives bearing simple appended functionalities, strapped calix[4]pyrroles typically display enhanced binding affinities and selectivities. In this review, we summarize advances in the design and synthesis of strapped calix[4]pyrroles, as well as their broad utility in molecular recognition, supramolecular extraction, separation technology, ion transport, and as agents capable of inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Future challenges within this sub-field are also discussed.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Calixarenos/metabolismo , Porfirinas/química , Porfirinas/metabolismo , Ânions/química , Apoptose , Cátions/química , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Cristalização , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(4): 1987-1994, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895551

RESUMO

We report here a fully organic, self-assembled dimeric receptor, constructed from acyclic naphthyridyl-polypyrrolic building blocks. The cagelike dimer is stable in the solid state, in solution, and in gas phase, as inferred from X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses. This system acts as a receptor for oxalic acid, maleic acid, and malonic acid in the solid state and in THF solution. In contrast, acetic acid, propionic acid, adipic acid, and succinic acid, with pKa values > ca. 2.8, were not bound effectively within the cagelike cavity. It is speculated that oxalic acid, maleic acid, and malonic acid serve to protonate the naphthyridine moieties of the host, which then favors binding of the corresponding carboxylate anions via hydrogen-bonding to the pyrrolic NH protons. The present naphthyridine-polypyrrole dimer is stable under acidic conditions, including in the presence of 100 equiv trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA), H2SO4, and HCl. However, disassembly may be achieved by exposure to tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF). Washing with water then regenerates the cage. This process of assembly and disassembly could be repeated >20 times with little evidence of degradation. The reversible nature of the present system, coupled with its dicarboxylic acid recognition features, leads us to suggest it could have a role to play in effecting the controlled "capture" and "release" of biologically relevant dicarboxylic acids.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 59(1): 32-47, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247875

RESUMO

Porphyrin and related pyrrole-containing macrocycles, collectively porphyrinoids, are versatile ligands that allow access to a multitude of coordination modes. Judicious modification of the porphyrin core as well as the pendant substituents has extended the coordination chemistry of porphyrinoids to include systems that are able to stabilize f-block element complexes with possible utility. This review focuses on our group's efforts to prepare expanded porphyrin and porphyrinogen ligands that can serve as tools to study and apply f-element metal coordination chemistry: it covers the background of the topic, selected syntheses, and application of these species in the chemical and medical sciences.

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